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A new way about using statistical analysis of worst-case execution times

Yue Lu, Thomas Nolte, Iain Bate, Liliana Cucu-Grosjean
2011 ACM SIGBED Review  
Our proposed statistical WCET analysis method consists of a novel sampling mechanism tackling with some problems that hindered the application of using EVT in the context, and a statistical inference about  ...  In this paper, we revisit the problem of using Extreme Value Theory (EVT) in the Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET) analysis of the programs running on a single processor.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENT This work was partially supported by the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF) and the Swedish Research Council (VR).  ... 
doi:10.1145/2038617.2038619 fatcat:44eomyx5xvg3jimg2rdp3plhva

Schedulability of Herschel-Planck Revisited Using Statistical Model Checking [chapter]

Alexandre David, Kim Guldstrand Larsen, Axel Legay, Marius Mikučionis
2012 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Schedulability analysis is a main concern for several embedded applications due to their safety-critical nature.  ...  of non-deterministic computation times of tasks given by intervals [BCET,WCET].  ...  schedulability for BCET WCET ≤ 71%.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-34032-1_28 fatcat:aiiwzpcfpze4xprxvkhzyeuc5m

EDF Schedulability Analysis on Mixed-Criticality Systems with Permitted Failure Probability

Zhishan Guo, Luca Santinelli, Kecheng Yang
2015 2015 IEEE 21st International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications  
, which results in multiple WCET estimations for each individual task (piece of code).  ...  Much prior research on mixed-criticality scheduling (see [6] for a review) has focused upon the phenomenon that different tools for determining WCET bounds may be more or less conservative than one another  ...  Statistical response-time analysis, e.g., [21] , can be further done to real-time embedded systems based upon those probabilistic schedulability analysis.  ... 
doi:10.1109/rtcsa.2015.8 dblp:conf/rtcsa/GuoSY15 fatcat:kilppnooxfcz3jp7tmvbeioa7e

A trace-based statistical worst-case execution time analysis of component-based real-time embedded systems

Yue Lu, Thomas Nolte, Iain Bate, Liliana Cucu-Grosjean
2011 ETFA2011  
This paper describes the tool support for a framework for performing statistical WCET analysis of realtime embedded systems by using bootstrapping sampling and Extreme Value Theory (EVT).  ...  given by the referenced WCET analysis methods.  ...  WCET estimates and pertaining statistical constraints (i.e., certain predictable probabilities) in response time analysis and schedulability test which consider a system of tasks.  ... 
doi:10.1109/etfa.2011.6059190 dblp:conf/etfa/LuNBC11 fatcat:5aewc6n2mrcpvfru4tlaeslxsq

Beyond the Traditional Analyses and Resource Management in Real-Time Systems [chapter]

Federico Reghenzani
2022 SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology  
In the last decade, researchers proposed the use of probabilistic measurement-based methods to estimate the WCET instead of traditional static methods.  ...  AbstractThe difficulties in estimating the Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET) of applications make the use of modern computing architectures limited in real-time systems.  ...  assuming all the memory accesses as miss makes the WCET extremely pessimistic (and the presence of cache substantially useless for the scheduling analysis standpoint).  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-030-85918-3_6 fatcat:fzgxrcnbd5a57hbe2kmzpjcr4m

Estimating Probabilistic Safe WCET Ranges of Real-Time Systems at Design Stages [article]

Jaekwon Lee, Seung Yeob Shin, Shiva Nejati, Lionel C. Briand, Yago Isasi Parache
2022 arXiv   pre-print
Our approach combines a search algorithm for generating worst-case scheduling scenarios with polynomial logistic regression for inferring probabilistic safe WCET ranges.  ...  Given a set of real-time tasks with such ranges, we provide an automated technique to determine for what WCET values the system is likely to meet its deadlines, and hence operate safely with a probabilistic  ...  The experiments presented in this paper were carried out using the HPC facilities of the University of Luxembourg [68] see hpc.uni.lu.  ... 
arXiv:2007.10490v5 fatcat:rsrkgtrtdbc4hjdkcnxw67tm6m

Estimating Probabilistic Safe WCET Ranges of Real-Time Systems at Design Stages

Jaekwon Lee, Seung Yeob Shin, Shiva Nejati, Lionel C. Briand, Yago Isasi Parache
2022 ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology  
Our approach combines a search algorithm for generating worst-case scheduling scenarios with polynomial logistic regression for inferring probabilistic safe WCET ranges.  ...  Given a set of real-time tasks with such ranges, we provide an automated technique to determine for what WCET values the system is likely to meet its deadlines, and hence operate safely with a probabilistic  ...  The experiments presented in this paper were carried out using the HPC facilities of the University of Luxembourg [68] ś see hpc.uni.lu.  ... 
doi:10.1145/3546941 fatcat:cv3shyfjdnhgljf46puikfu2uq

Schedulability of Herschel revisited using statistical model checking

Alexandre David, Kim G. Larsen, Axel Legay, Marius Mikučionis
2014 International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer (STTT)  
Schedulability analysis is a main concern for several embedded applications due to their safety-critical nature.  ...  of nondeterministic computation times of tasks given by intervals [BCET,WCET].  ...  of Herschel concluded using symbolic and statistical model checking. shows the statistical analysis for obtaining performance measurements and disproving schedulability.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10009-014-0331-4 fatcat:hjvcngluq5eedghgkieijhex3q

On the Comparison of Deterministic and Probabilistic WCET Estimation Techniques

Jaume Abella, Damien Hardy, Isabelle Puaut, Eduardo Quinones, Francisco J. Cazorla
2014 2014 26th Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems  
of a real-time system -WCET estimates derived per task (Unit of Scheduling) -Task WCET estimate given as an input to schedulability analysis • Classification of existing WCET estimation techniques  ...  Timing Analysis (PTA) • Different WCETs with associated probabilities • Approach: introduce randomization in the time behavior of HW and SW and apply probabilistic and statistical techniques •  ... 
doi:10.1109/ecrts.2014.16 dblp:conf/ecrts/AbellaHPQC14 fatcat:f6sl55hniva67ktzap34ih35d4

Measurement-based real-time analysis of robotic software architectures

Nicolas Gobillot, Fabrice Guet, David Doose, Christophe Grand, Charles Lesire, Luca Santinelli
2016 2016 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS)  
, we rely on component-based models using the MAUVE language [11] , and on a schedulability analysis that takes such models into account [12] . • We estimate WCET of tasks from actual measurements, then  ...  We illustrate this process on the architecture developed for the autonomous navigation of a partially known area by a mobile robot. • We use a more detailed model of the task behavior; for that purpose  ...  While the WCET of the codels is used for schedulability analysis, the WCET estimate reliability is used to characterize the applicability of the MBPTA. a) WCET estimates: A pWCET estimate is inferred from  ... 
doi:10.1109/iros.2016.7759509 dblp:conf/iros/GobillotGDGLS16 fatcat:q56cio57evdx5oils42tlwyvrq

Approximation of Worst-Case Execution Time for Preemptive Multitasking Systems [chapter]

Matteo Corti, Roberto Brega, Thomas Gross
2001 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
The control system of many complex mechatronic products requires for each task the Worst Case Execution Time (WCET), which is needed for the scheduler's admission tests and subsequently limits a task's  ...  To obtain a realistic estimate of a task's execution time, we use static analysis of the source code combined with information about the task's runtime behavior.  ...  Acknowledgments We would like to thank Richard Hüppi for supplying the sources of LaserPointer controller software, and Marcel Honegger for supplying the sources of the Hexaglide and Robojet software.  ... 
doi:10.1007/3-540-45245-1_12 fatcat:7trdgp6ue5bqnbvhk6trsv23pi

Time-based intrusion detection in cyber-physical systems

Christopher Zimmer, Balasubramanya Bhat, Frank Mueller, Sibin Mohan
2010 Proceedings of the 1st ACM/IEEE International Conference on Cyber-Physical Systems - ICCPS '10  
For real-time CPS systems, timing bounds on code sections are readily available as they are already determined prior to the schedulability analysis.  ...  We demonstrate how to provide micro-timings for multiple granularity levels of application code.  ...  Our work relies on WCET bounds for such paths but for security reasons and not for schedulability.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1795194.1795210 dblp:conf/iccps/ZimmerBMM10 fatcat:nltnsjpiyvdqlgigucq6exutlq

PhD Thesis: Beyond the Traditional Analyses and Resource Management in Real-Time Systems

Federico Reghenzani, William Fornaciari
2021 Zenodo  
Measurement-based approaches are very appealing for the industrial world, because they enable to obtain a statistical estimation of the worst-case execution time by directly observing the execution time  ...  Unfortunately, the current status of probabilistic real-time is far to be acceptable for certification purposes of safety-critical systems.  ...  It is still a very hot topic for research, from the WCET analyses to the scheduling of tasks.  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.5994532 fatcat:lojywt5janemfpp6lyqsphax44

A Two-Step Hybrid Approach for Verifying Real-Time Robotic Systems

Mohammed Foughali
2020 2020 IEEE 26th International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications (RTCSA)  
WCRT for RTA analysis.  ...  Likewise, the applicability of schedulability analysis to robotic systems is limited.  ... 
doi:10.1109/rtcsa50079.2020.9203687 dblp:conf/rtcsa/Foughali20 fatcat:gk5b3ram7bacvfidesdkdgkuum

Multicore Real-Time Scheduling to Reduce Inter-Thread Cache Interferences

Yiqiang Ding, Wei Zhang
2013 Journal of Computing Science and Engineering  
Therefore, there is a circular dependence between real-time task scheduling, the worst-case inter-thread cache interferences, and WCET in multicore processors, which is not the case for single-core processors  ...  The worst-case execution time (WCET) of each real-time task in multicore processors with shared caches can be significantly affected by inter-thread cache interferences.  ...  WCET analysis and multicore real-time scheduling.  ... 
doi:10.5626/jcse.2013.7.1.67 fatcat:e2z3br64v5fkpnuda4woeyaz2u
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