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Statically Aggregate Verifiable Random Functions and Application to E-Lottery

Bei Liang, Gustavo Banegas, Aikaterini Mitrokotsa
2020 Cryptography  
In this paper, we explore the aggregation augmentation on verifiable random function (VRFs), introduced by Micali, Rabin and Vadhan (FOCS'99), as well as its application to e-lottery schemes.  ...  We introduce the notion of static aggregate verifiable random functions (Agg-VRFs), which perform aggregation for VRFs in a static setting.  ...  We introduce the notion of static aggregate verifiable random functions (static Agg-VRFs).  ... 
doi:10.3390/cryptography4040037 fatcat:kuvuku4jevb2vhkwloc4e2yiw4

An Information Theoretically Secure E-Lottery Scheme Based on Symmetric Bivariate Polynomials

Zhe Xia, Yining Liu, Ching-Fang Hsu, Chin-Chen Chang
2019 Symmetry  
E-lottery schemes have attracted much interest from both industry and academia recently, because they are not only useful to raise funds for charity institutions, but also can be used as the major building  ...  Our proposed scheme is designed using symmetric bivariate polynomials, and it satisfies the required security properties, such as correctness, unpredictability, verifiability, and robustness.  ...  In the literature, several e-lottery schemes also have been introduced without using the delay function. In [11] , the winning number is generated by aggregating the drawing centers' random values.  ... 
doi:10.3390/sym11010088 fatcat:uldvfltenremjblphc4pweuqxy

Comparative Riskiness of Random Vector Outcomes

Sudhir A. Shah
2011 Social Science Research Network  
Consider lotteries µ and λ with vector outcomes. Let 1 be the relation that declares µ to be riskier than λ if every risk averse decisionmaker prefers λ to µ.  ...  We illustrate this with applications to the theories of auctions, utility regulation, public goods, portfolio selection, multi-party moral hazard and teams.  ...  Local convexity of X implies m µ = m λ ( Applications In applications with random vector outcomes, one might attempt to finesse the problem of modeling comparative vector riskiness by aggregating vector  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.1920618 fatcat:4uj52cet5bgwnltqlotowshlyq

Lattices and Lotteries

Elena Antoniadou, Leonard J Mirman, Richard Ruble
2014 Mathematics of Operations Research  
This paper develops techniques for comparative statics in the consumer problem under uncertainty that involve order-based rather than topological assumptions on utility functions and choice sets.  ...  We discuss two extensions to take uncertainty into account, one based on stochastic dominance and the other on lottery pricing.  ...  In this case, Veinott's Theorem is applicable and monotone comparative statics follows.  ... 
doi:10.1287/moor.2013.0617 fatcat:faxserexevbsdafnopu5cdk5ey

Lattices and Lotteries

Elena Antoniadou, Leonard J. Mirman, Richard R Ruble
2011 Social Science Research Network  
This paper develops techniques for comparative statics in the consumer problem under uncertainty that involve order-based rather than topological assumptions on utility functions and choice sets.  ...  We discuss two extensions to take uncertainty into account, one based on stochastic dominance and the other on lottery pricing.  ...  In this case, Veinott's Theorem is applicable and monotone comparative statics follows.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.1360658 fatcat:njopsseu4naqxdmamiws4iz4wa

Substitution, Risk Aversion, and the Temporal Behavior of Consumption and Asset Returns: A Theoretical Framework

Larry G. Epstein, Stanley E. Zin
1989 Econometrica  
This is achieved by extending the formulation of the space of temporal lotteries in Kreps and Porteus (1978) to an infinite horizon framework.  ...  In proving (i), it is necessary to define a suitable domain for utility functions.  ...  It seems natural, in that case, to compute a certainty equivalent for random future utility and then to combine the certainty equivalent utility level with co via an aggregator.  ... 
doi:10.2307/1913778 fatcat:mnz6zommnnarlovvrztl5ifzlq

How risky is a random process?

Sudhir A. Shah
2017 Journal of Mathematical Economics  
The riskiness of random processes is compared by (a) employing a decision-theoretic equivalence between processes and lotteries on pathspaces to identify the riskiness of the former with that of the latter  ...  , and (b) using the theory of comparative riskiness of lotteries over vector spaces to compare the riskiness of lotteries on a given path-space.  ...  When faced with a problem involving processes, it is tempting to try to finesse it by pathwise aggregating the sample paths, thereby deriving an aggregate random variable from each process.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.jmateco.2017.06.005 fatcat:ckrbfryd4zaath7lvxij7itngi

Mithril: Stake-based Threshold Multisignatures [article]

Pyrros Chaidos, Aggelos Kiayias
2021 IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive  
This is achieved by having for each message a pseudorandomly sampled subset of participants eligible to issue an individual signature; this ensures the scalability of signing, aggregation and verification  ...  number of parties-and we are interested in scalability, i.e., the complexity of critical operations depends only logarithmically in the number of participants (who are assumed to be numerous).  ...  A verifiable random function (VRF) [40, 20] allows one to evaluate a random function f on a specific point x and prove the correctness of that evaluation, without allowing others to evaluate the same  ... 
dblp:journals/iacr/ChaidosK21 fatcat:t774dzuyuvdujgx3eqbz56kowa

Lotteries, Sunspots, and Incentive Constraints

Timothy J. Kehoe, David K. Levine, Edward C. Prescott
2002 Journal of Economic Theory  
We should first note that in many applications utility and the incentive constraints Notice that in this formulation, lotteries are priced according to the aggregate resources they use.  ...  As this is a finite dimensional pure exchange economy, this follows from verifying standard properties of utility functions and consumption sets.  ... 
doi:10.1006/jeth.2001.2792 fatcat:5bhszs74trcsvaforpgjx7a2b4

Unifying Ensemble Methods for Q-learning via Social Choice Theory [article]

Rishav Chourasia, Adish Singla
2019 arXiv   pre-print
Ensemble methods have been widely applied in Reinforcement Learning (RL) in order to enhance stability, increase convergence speed, and improve exploration.  ...  We map the problem of designing an action aggregation mechanism in an ensemble method to a voting problem which, under different voting rules, yield popular ensemble-based RL algorithms like Majority Voting  ...  π Boot t (s t ) ≡ M f lottery (E, 1).  ... 
arXiv:1902.10646v2 fatcat:7qb6yrhflvcwrk5rookauuveha

The Dynamic Efficiency in Resource Allocation: Evidence from Vehicle License Lotteries in Beijing

Youming Liu, Shanjun Li, Caixia Shen
2020 Social Science Research Network  
The welfare loss due to temporal heterogeneity and resulting changes in participation decisions accounts for over half of the total welfare loss from the lottery policy.  ...  The efficiency of resource allocation is often analyzed in static frameworks with a focus on the cross-sectional heterogeneity in the willingness to pay among users.  ...  Eligible applicants must sign into a government website, and fill out the application form online. A screening process then verifies the applicants' qualifications.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.3547563 fatcat:rivi2osil5fyvkkr3smbvj3p2a

Intertemporal substitution and recursive smooth ambiguity preferences

Takashi Hayashi, Jianjun Miao
2011 Theoretical Economics  
We are grateful to three anonymous referees and a co-editor (Gadi Barlevy) for helpful comments and suggestions.  ...  We characterize risk attitude and ambiguity attitude within these two approaches. We then discuss our model's application in asset pricing.  ...  This confounding makes comparative static analysis hard to interpret. Our second axiomatization using the two-stage randomization approach extends Seo's (2009) static model to a dynamic setting.  ... 
doi:10.3982/te843 fatcat:p33amgcilve7ln4wymss42ch5y

Sand in the Wheels: A Dynamic Global-Game Approach

Laurent Mathevet, Jakub Steiner
2012 Social Science Research Network  
The analysis is driven by a robust invariance result: the volume of aggregate investment (measured in a pivotal contingency) is invariant to a large family of frictions. * We have benefited from comments  ...  We examine how small frictions, including those similar to the Tobin tax, affect the equilibrium.  ...  Reduction to the Static Game This application formalizes our discussion of the currency attacks from Section 4. The outcome depends only on the terminal aggregate investment; d z = b z .  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.2046943 fatcat:j6papifujbdsfhyp74rryegvgy

A Supply and Demand Framework for Two-Sided Matching Markets

Eduardo M. Azevedo, Jacob D. Leshno
2013 Social Science Research Network  
As another application, we characterize the asymptotics of school choice mechanisms. seminar participants at Harvard, Chicago, Penn State, Kellogg, USC, Toulouse, UCLA, Columbia and Wharton.  ...  We show that stable matchings correspond to solutions of supply and demand equations, with the selectivity of each college playing a role similar to prices.  ...  Analogously to the assignment problem, as the number of agents grows, the aggregate randomness generated by the lottery disappears.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.2260567 fatcat:52netihcmjgzlestusyishhagm

Rigging the Lottery: Making All Tickets Winners [article]

Utku Evci, Trevor Gale, Jacob Menick, Pablo Samuel Castro, Erich Elsen
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Many applications require sparse neural networks due to space or inference time restrictions.  ...  Finally, we provide some insights into why allowing the topology to change during the optimization can overcome local minima encountered when the topology remains static.  ...  Mocanu for helping us clarify related work timeline; Varun Sundar and Rajat Vadiraj Dwaraknath for choosing our work for the ML Reproducibility Challenge 2020.  ... 
arXiv:1911.11134v3 fatcat:prlnzbrhq5brjcdsxwh6guyq34
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