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Pupillary dynamics link spontaneous and task-evoked activations recorded directly from human insula

Aaron Kucyi, Josef Parvizi
2020 Journal of Neuroscience  
Within the dorsal anterior insula, a brain region implicated in salience processing and alertness, activations that are either spontaneous or task-evoked are coupled with brief dilations of the pupil.  ...  activations correlating positively with the magnitude of pupil dilation during a continuous performance task.  ...  Moreover, human resting-state fMRI studies have linked spontaneous pupil fluctuations with slow hemodynamic activity in large-scale cortical networks, including the salience network (Murphy et al., 2014  ... 
doi:10.1523/jneurosci.0435-20.2020 pmid:32631937 pmcid:PMC7406275 fatcat:xjdk4p4ctzbfhoyp2ccuf7rcju

Pupil Dilation during Reward Anticipation Is Correlated to Depressive Symptom Load in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

Max Schneider, Immanuel G. Elbau, Teachawidd Nantawisarakul, Dorothee Pöhlchen, Tanja Brückl, BeCOME Working Group, Michael Czisch, Philipp G. Saemann, Michael D. Lee, Elisabeth B. Binder, Victor I. Spoormaker
2020 Brain Sciences  
Depression is a debilitating disorder with high prevalence and socioeconomic cost, but the brain-physiological processes that are altered during depressive states are not well understood.  ...  within salience network hubs.  ...  study management, the recruitment and screening of BeCOME participants, and Ines Eidner und Anna Hetzel for their assistance with MRI scanning.  ... 
doi:10.3390/brainsci10120906 pmid:33255604 fatcat:dcnpwalvdraitar2oq7any57lm

Reduced arousal during reward anticipation in unmedicated depressed patients [article]

Maximilian Schneider, Immanuel Gregory Elbau, Taechawidd Nantawisarakul, Dorothee Poehlchen, Tanja Brueckl, Michael Czisch, Philipp G. Saemann, Michael D. Lee, Elisabeth B. Binder, Victor I. Spoormaker
2020 medRxiv   pre-print
Depression is a debilitating disorder with high prevalence and socioeconomic cost, but the central processes that are altered during depressive states remain largely elusive.  ...  Using pupillometry and concurrent fMRI in a sample of unmedicated participants diagnosed with major depression and healthy controls, we observed reduced pupil dilation during reward anticipation in depressed  ...  study management, the recruitment and screening of BeCOME participants, and Ines Eidner und Anna Hetzel for their assistance with MRI scanning.  ... 
doi:10.1101/2020.03.03.20030478 fatcat:7ctd37sk6jctplp5av5nlsz5ie

The beneficial effects of meditation: contribution of the anterior cingulate and locus coeruleus

Nancy A. Craigmyle
2013 Frontiers in Psychology  
During functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of meditation the cortical salience detecting and executive networks become active during "awareness of mind wandering," "shifting," and "sustained  ...  The anterior cingulate (AC) is activated during "awareness of mind wandering."  ...  Alpha waves spontaneously occur intermittently during an awake, relaxed, resting state, particularly with closed eyes (Goldman et al., 2002; DiFrancesco et al., 2008) , when the vmPFC and DMN are active  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00731 pmid:24137145 pmcid:PMC3797386 fatcat:ywt5l7kdvnd3jptju4jus6irea

Brain Networks Underlying Eye's Pupil Dynamics

Mauro DiNuzzo, Daniele Mascali, Marta Moraschi, Giorgia Bussu, Laura Maugeri, Fabio Mangini, Michela Fratini, Federico Giove
2019 Frontiers in Neuroscience  
Although pupil diameter is known to be associated with noradrenergic firing in the pontine Locus Coeruleus (LC), thus far the causal chain coupling spontaneous pupil dynamics to specific cortical brain  ...  Furthermore, we found BOLD-fMRI activations correlated with pupil diameter change rate within a set of brain regions known to be implicated in selective attention, salience, error-detection and decision-making  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors thank Maxim Zaitsev at the University Medical Center Freiburg for the implementation of Multi Echo EPI on Siemens platform.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fnins.2019.00965 pmid:31619948 pmcid:PMC6759985 fatcat:dq4wdcicajbxhocquehmkcmiwy

Eye pupil – a window into central autonomic regulation via emotional/cognitive processing

N Ferencová, Z Višňovcová, L Bona Olexová, I Tonhajzerová
2021 Physiological Research  
However, the changes in the pupil size can be observed at resting state even under constant lighting, these pupillary changes are mediated by global arousal level as well as by various cognitive factors  ...  Moreover, as the pupillary response is involved in emotional (task-evoked pupillary dilation as an index of emotional arousal) and cognitive (task-evoked pupillary dilation as an index of cognitive workload  ...  Acknowledgements This work was supported by the Slovak Scientific Grant Agency under grants VEGA 1/0030/22, VEGA 1/0190/20, and VEGA 1/0266/18, and UK grants UK/63/2021 and UK/80/2021.  ... 
doi:10.33549//physiolres.934749 fatcat:f5clstakkze7to7rhyoymoaloe

Eye pupil – a window into central autonomic regulation via emotional/cognitive processing

N Ferencová, Z Višňovcová, L Bona Olexová, I Tonhajzerová
2021 Physiological Research  
However, the changes in the pupil size can be observed at resting state even under constant lighting, these pupillary changes are mediated by global arousal level as well as by various cognitive factors  ...  Moreover, as the pupillary response is involved in emotional (task-evoked pupillary dilation as an index of emotional arousal) and cognitive (task-evoked pupillary dilation as an index of cognitive workload  ...  Acknowledgements This work was supported by the Slovak Scientific Grant Agency under grants VEGA 1/0030/22, VEGA 1/0190/20, and VEGA 1/0266/18, and UK grants UK/63/2021 and UK/80/2021.  ... 
doi:10.33549/physiolres.934749 fatcat:nhzic6sw5fetfmj3dqvrtnvxxy

Individual differences in resting-state pupil size: Evidence for association between working memory capacity and pupil size variability

Samira Aminihajibashi, Thomas Hagen, Maja Dyhre Foldal, Bruno Laeng, Thomas Espeseth
2019 International Journal of Psychophysiology  
We were unable to replicate the relation between average pupil size and WMC. However, the novel finding was that higher WMC was associated with higher variability in resting-state pupil size.  ...  The present results are relevant for the current debate on the role of noradrenergic activity on working memory capacity.  ...  Acknowledgments This work was funded by grant 231286/F20 (TE) from the Research Council of Norway.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2019.03.007 pmid:30894328 fatcat:k366z74tbjf3hpt43darzik5mm

Orienting and Reorienting: The Locus Coeruleus Mediates Cognition through Arousal

Susan J. Sara, Sebastien Bouret
2012 Neuron  
Central activation of neuromodulatory neurons and peripheral arousal, together, prepare the organism for a reorientation or reset of cortical networks and an adaptive behavioral response.  ...  The noradrenergic nucleus locus coeruleus is activated in parallel with the autonomic system in response to biological imperatives.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This review was written while S.J.S. was Visiting Professor at the Institute of Neurosciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2012.09.011 pmid:23040811 fatcat:enfk6simljecncocexixffqjii

Oculometric signature of switch into awareness? Pupil size predicts sudden insight whereas microsaccades problem-solving via analysis

Carola Salvi, Claudio Simoncini, Jordan Grafman, Mark Beeman
2020 NeuroImage  
Pupil dilation and microsaccades were not reliably related, but both appear to be robust markers of how people solve problems (with or without insight).  ...  Additionally, we explored eye movement dynamics during the same task to investigate if the problem-solving strategies used are linked to specific oculomotor behaviors.  ...  Acknowledgements This research was supported by a grant from the Smart Family Foundation of New York to JG.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.116933 pmid:32413459 pmcid:PMC7440842 fatcat:x6dkej5i2ja2rmw3pgqwtzsrjm

Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Modulation of Pupillary Unrest

Andy Schumann, Stephanie Kietzer, Juliane Ebel, Karl Jürgen Bär
2020 Frontiers in Neuroscience  
Furthermore, we found that spontaneous fluctuations of skin conductance are accompanied by increases of pupil size.  ...  In an independent sample, we were able to corroborate the relation of PUI with RMSSD and skin conductance.  ...  In accordance to this finding, other studies suggest that changes of pupil size are mainly regulated by the salience network that contains structures related to sympathetic control (Beissner et al., 2013  ... 
doi:10.3389/fnins.2020.00178 pmid:32218721 pmcid:PMC7078331 fatcat:pkxdwyd4hbh7xbtuwzbii35wfy

A locus coeruleus-norepinephrine account of individual differences in working memory capacity and attention control

Nash Unsworth, Matthew K. Robison
2017 Psychonomic Bulletin & Review  
Specifically, we suggest that because of dysregulation of LC-NE functioning, the fronto-parietal control network for low WMC individuals is only weakly activated, resulting in greater default-mode network  ...  In the current article we suggest that part of the WMC-attention control relation is due to variation in the functioning of the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine system (LC-NE).  ...  Author notes The authors thank Randy Engle for initially inspiring this line of research. This research was supported by Office of Naval Research grant N00014-15-1-2790.  ... 
doi:10.3758/s13423-016-1220-5 pmid:28108977 fatcat:k4lkvin3nzdqvkn2psjsthwvfu

Neuromodulation of Brain State and Behavior

David A. McCormick, Dennis B. Nestvogel, Biyu J. He
2020 Annual Review of Neuroscience  
Neural activity and behavior are both notoriously variable, with responses differing widely between repeated presentation of identical stimuli or trials.  ...  We propose that the brain has an identifiable set of states through which it wanders continuously in a nonrandom fashion, owing to the activity of both ascending modulatory and fast-acting corticocortical  ...  Spontaneous fluctuations in the SCP have the same organization as resting-state networks observed in fMRI (He et al. 2008) , and negative SCP correlates with fMRI activation in simultaneous recordings  ... 
doi:10.1146/annurev-neuro-100219-105424 pmid:32250724 fatcat:prwvmdbyibhyzfflzhbguc6y7y

Individual differences in baseline oculometrics: Examining variation in baseline pupil diameter, spontaneous eye blink rate, and fixation stability

Nash Unsworth, Matthew K. Robison, Ashley L. Miller
2019 Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience  
The results also demonstrated the importance of examining what participants are thinking about during the baseline measure.  ...  Overall, the vast majority of correlations with the baseline eye measures were weak and nonsignificant, suggesting that these associations may not be very robust.  ...  In another resting state study, Schneider et al. (2016) found that pupil dilations (but not overall pupil size) was related to activity in the frontal-parietal network and to activity in the salience  ... 
doi:10.3758/s13415-019-00709-z pmid:30888645 fatcat:bx34y23fgbb3jm5l2vs4ingikq

Beyond eye gaze: What else can eyetracking reveal about cognition and cognitive development?

Maria K. Eckstein, Belén Guerra-Carrillo, Alison T. Miller Singley, Silvia A. Bunge
2017 Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience  
Taken together, gaze, pupil dilation, and blink rate are three non-invasive and complementary measures of cognition with high temporal resolution and well-understood neural foundations.  ...  Spontaneous eyeblink rate correlates with levels of dopamine in the central nervous system, and can reveal processes underlying learning and goal-directed behavior.  ...  In addition to the task-related findings above, it has been shown that pupil dilation during resting-state fMRI or mental imagery is temporally correlated with activation of default-mode areas (medial  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.dcn.2016.11.001 pmid:27908561 pmcid:PMC6987826 fatcat:ilwqvnq6vfanbmuip7dzx477he
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