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Specifying and Verbalising Answer Set Programs in Controlled Natural Language

ROLF SCHWITTER
2018 Theory and Practice of Logic Programming  
AbstractWe show how a bi-directional grammar can be used to specify and verbalise answer set programs in controlled natural language.  ...  We start from a program specification in controlled natural language and translate this specification automatically into an executable answer set program.  ...  In Section 4, we present a specification written in controlled natural language, discuss the resulting answer set program and its verbalisation.  ... 
doi:10.1017/s1471068418000327 fatcat:zslnzudwevgy7je3j3gvszyzpy

Lossless Semantic Round-Tripping in PENG ASP

Rolf Schwitter
2020 Proceedings of the Twenty-Ninth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence  
Specifications written in PENG ASP are incrementally translated into executable answer set programs and vice versa.  ...  That means the system allows for lossless semantic round-tripping between a human-readable specification and an answer set program.  ...  The PENG ASP system focuses on writing specifications in CNL that can be translated into executable answer set programs (ASP) and vice versa [Schwitter, 2018] .  ... 
doi:10.24963/ijcai.2020/773 dblp:conf/ijcai/Schwitter20 fatcat:dtnq6wujpzgftb3ub2mgox4vcm

Attempto Controlled English for Knowledge Representation [chapter]

Norbert E. Fuchs, Kaarel Kaljurand, Tobias Kuhn
2008 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Attempto Controlled English (ACE) is a controlled natural language, i.e. a precisely defined subset of English that can automatically and unambiguously be translated into first-order logic.  ...  Other tools include the Attempto Reasoner RACE, the AceRules system, the ACE View plug-in for the Protégé ontology editor, AceWiki, and the OWL verbaliser.  ...  Other Controlled Natural Languages Traditionally, controlled natural languages fall into two major types: those that improve readability for human readers, and those that enable reliable automatic semantic  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-85658-0_3 fatcat:ku4ph55icrf5jikv4tzkurj52y

Automating generation of textual class definitions from OWL to English

Robert Stevens, James Malone, Sandra Williams, Richard Power, Allan Third
2011 Journal of Biomedical Semantics  
The goal of natural language generation (NLG) from ontologies is to take the logical description of entities and generate fluent natural language.  ...  Text definitions for entities within bio-ontologies are a cornerstone of the effort to gain a consensus in understanding and usage of those ontologies.  ...  RP and SW designed and implemented the NLG system. AT implemented the NLG tools website. JM and RS created the study. All authors had input on the form of the language generated.  ... 
doi:10.1186/2041-1480-2-s2-s5 pmid:21624160 pmcid:PMC3102894 fatcat:bsv4pn2ezjemhlae7qisfahuvm

An NLG pipeline for a legal expert system: a work in progress [article]

Inari Listenmaa, Jason Morris, Alfred Ang, Maryam Hanafiah, Regina Cheong
2021 arXiv   pre-print
The second step is to render the answers of the reasoner in natural language.  ...  We present the NLG component for L4, a prototype domain-specific language (DSL) for drafting laws and contracts.  ...  In the longer term, we plan to support more types of queries, with hypotheticals and goal-seeking, such as What Would Make This True and What Else Is True, and new types of questions and answers require  ... 
arXiv:2107.02421v1 fatcat:kacsdxveszft7gwsctl6vieyku

Introduction to the 34-th international conference on logic programming special issue

ALESSANDRO DAL PALÙ, PAUL TARAU
2018 Theory and Practice of Logic Programming  
This special issue of Theory and Practice of Logic Programming (TPLP) contains the regular papers accepted for presentation at the 34-th International Conference on Logic Programming (ICLP 2018), held  ...  in Oxford, United Kingdom, from July 14th to July 17th, 2018.  ...  designed the web pages; Paul Fodor and Neda Saeedloei, who jointly chaired the Doctoral Program of ICLP; and  ... 
doi:10.1017/s1471068418000352 fatcat:npib57qunzgzvhp4grx2fsavae

The Computer Program as a Functional Whole [chapter]

C. Maria Keet
2020 Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications  
To answer this question, it must first be established whether a computer program should be considered as an integral whole, a collection, or a mere set of distinct files, and why.  ...  The argumentation and answer contributes to the ontology of software artefacts, may assist industry in litigation cases, and demonstrates that the notion of unifying relation is operationalisable.  ...  Computer programs as wholes, collections, or set? Having answered Q2 and Q3-genuineFP, SCgraphPath, and linked-we now can turn to Q1: is it a whole, a mere collection, or just a set?  ... 
doi:10.3233/faia200673 fatcat:yujvkjoeibfa5dqxu2mx5rv75q

EMIL: Extracting Meaning from Inconsistent Language

Hannes Strass, Adam Wyner, Martin Diller
2019 International Journal of Approximate Reasoning  
on controlled natural languages.  ...  Towards a Controlled Natural Language for Argumentation.  ...  The resulting text does not have any answer set under the standard stable semantics for logic programs. 37 Interpreting the text under the courteous semantics does produce a unique answer set, but this  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.ijar.2019.04.010 fatcat:4dhnsbsvnrauddygf2peidgmxq

Why a computer program is a functional whole [article]

C. Maria Keet
2020 arXiv   pre-print
To answer this question, it must first be established whether a program should be considered as an integral whole, a collection, or a mere set of distinct files, and why.  ...  The argumentation and answer contributes to the ontology of software artefacts, may assist industry in litigation cases, and demonstrates that the notion of unifying relation is operationalisable.  ...  Acknowledgements I would like to thank the advocate and lawyer on the litigation case for the conversations on this topic, which assisted with devising examples and descriptions to try to explain the theory  ... 
arXiv:2008.07273v1 fatcat:bdlhdhwli5dqjkbftj6jzjkqqu

A Web-Based Tool for Analysing Normative Documents in English [article]

John J. Camilleri and Mohammad Reza Haghshenas and Gerardo Schneider
2017 arXiv   pre-print
and methods for answering queries asked of a given model.  ...  This requires the combination of a number of different elements, including information extraction from natural language, formal languages for model representation, and an interface for property specification  ...  From here, the model can be verbalised in a controlled natural language and viewed in a compact formal notation. 6.  ... 
arXiv:1707.03997v1 fatcat:kjhkdt35gjexbn5c3r5fxg522m

Big data management skills: accurate measurement

Elspeth McKay, Marlina Binti Mohamad
2018 Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning  
This methodology offers an effective tool for understanding individual of differences in digital skill development.  ...  Some say that big data is transforming business and society. This can mean wide-reaching disruption for commerce, health and world governance.  ...  Publisher's Note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.  ... 
doi:10.1186/s41039-018-0071-2 pmid:30595736 pmcid:PMC6294210 fatcat:c2nqk6xbwba3bcksk7i5dxtpoi

Predicting the Understandability of OWL Inferences [chapter]

Tu Anh T. Nguyen, Richard Power, Paul Piwek, Sandra Williams
2013 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
In this paper, we describe a method for predicting the understandability level of inferences with OWL.  ...  This model has been applied in our research on generating accessible explanations for an entailment of OWL ontologies, to determine the most understandable inference among alternatives, from which the  ...  We thank our colleagues and the anonymous viewers.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-38288-8_8 fatcat:jzrgwj7d3bbm7c5ploxczbsz6i

Orientation and metacognition in virtual space

Thora Tenbrink, Lucie H. Salwiczek
2016 Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance  
We address the verbalisability of spatial concepts relevant in this regard, along with the conscious strategies reported by participants.  ...  Surprisingly, the linguistic data we collected relate to reference system verbalisations known from the earlier literature only to a limited extent, but instead reveal complex cognitive mechanisms and  ...  We thank our student assistants, particularly Tonia Sperling, for the many hours of data collection, transcription, and annotation that went into this study.  ... 
doi:10.1037/xhp0000178 pmid:26594879 fatcat:kyycb6idujcw7gounhnoevirby

A Systematic Review of Automatic Question Generation for Educational Purposes

Ghader Kurdi, Jared Leo, Bijan Parsia, Uli Sattler, Salam Al-Emari
2019 International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education  
Similar to what was found previously, there is little focus in the current literature on generating questions of controlled difficulty, enriching question forms and structures, automating template construction  ...  The aims of this review are to: provide an overview of the AQG community and its activities, summarise the current trends and advances in AQG, highlight the changes that the area has undergone in the recent  ...  Verbalisation Employing natural language generation and processing techniques in order to present questions in natural and correct forms and to eliminate errors that invalidate questions, such as syntactic  ... 
doi:10.1007/s40593-019-00186-y fatcat:76pklz67u5ecjco6vfwqwqfdte

Ontology Guided Semantic Self Learning Framework

Darshika N. Koggalahewa, Asoka S. Karunananda
2015 International Journal of Knowledge Engineering-IACSIT  
The research solved the problem of lack of understanding and capturing the knowledge from Natural Language sources and represents the captured knowledge in an automated and efficient manner.  ...  Knowledge extraction process is performed by modeling ontology from the natural language text. The system uses its acquired knowledge to perform teaching and explaining activities to its end users.  ...  The efforts made on the domain are still in the status of processing controlled natural language instead of complete natural language.  ... 
doi:10.7763/ijke.2015.v1.5 fatcat:urnd23am4bggligwixp7yuj7lu
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