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Specifying weak sets

J.M. Wing, D.C. Steere
Proceedings of 15th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems  
We c hose to specify formally the behavior of weak sets because we w anted to understand the varying degrees of inconsistency clients might be willing to tolerate and to understand the tradeo between providing  ...  strong consistency guarantees and implementing weak sets e ciently.  ...  erences in the semantics of weak sets.  ... 
doi:10.1109/icdcs.1995.500046 dblp:conf/icdcs/WingS95 fatcat:vbbkwebq45ezhfmbncddfy5rmy

Extending E-R for modelling XML keys

Martin Necasky, Jaroslav Pokorny
2007 2007 2nd International Conference on Digital Information Management  
A weak entity type has assigned a set of one or more entity types called determinants.  ...  A relative weak key K is an expression (context(K), target(K), attr(K)) key where target(K) is a non-empty set of entity types E 1 , . . . , E n , called target set of K, such that n i=1 attr(E i ) = ∅  ... 
doi:10.1109/icdim.2007.4444229 dblp:conf/icdim/NecaskyP07 fatcat:mrlvs4gbm5bbzknt252hgpwece

A Study on the Secure Coding Rules for Developing Secure Smart Contract on Ethereum Environments

Junho Jeong, Yunsik Son, Yangsun Lee
2019 International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology  
In this study, we assessed the potential security weaknesses of running smart contracts on Ethereum.  ...  The recent discovery of security weaknesses in Ethereum smart contracts questions the reliability of smart contracts.  ...  If the access specifier is set to default or used incorrectly, unexpected external access may be achieved.  ... 
doi:10.33832/ijast.2019.133.05 fatcat:6tuig6shrrazfai7iqu2fw3aei

Strong and weak contract formalism for third-party component reuse

Irfan Sljivo, Barbara Gallina, Jan Carlson, Hans Hansson
2013 2013 IEEE International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering Workshops (ISSREW)  
To show the usage and the expressiveness of our extended formalism, we specify strong and weak safety contracts related to a wheel braking system.  ...  In this paper we present our extension of the contract formalism for specifying strong and weak assumption/guarantee contracts for out-of-context reusable components.  ...  We specify strong and weak contracts for components that are developed or moved to out-of-context setting, where very little or no information is known about the contexts of the component.  ... 
doi:10.1109/issrew.2013.6688921 dblp:conf/issre/SljivoGCH13 fatcat:fdjs6awzzbfd5jdk6z3ww53hxq

Timed Weak Simulation Verification and Its Application to Stepwise Refinement of Real-Time Software [chapter]

Satoshi Yamane
2005 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
In this paper, we propose timed weak simulation relation verification and apply it to a refinement design method of real-time software.  ...  In this paper, we approximately specify timing constraints by c min ≦x≦c max using timed automata, where we set c min using timing constraints of edges, and set c max using worst-case response time.  ...  Therefore a set of state pairs Sim, which represent region weak simulation relation, is a subset of a set of states of product automaton (parallel composition of timed automata) Ω G1 ∥ G2 .  ... 
doi:10.1007/11596356_40 fatcat:efwh4g33zbeq7ctr26kyhlynmu

Lightweight formal models of software weaknesses

Robin Gandhi, Harvey Siy, Yan Wu
2013 2013 1st FME Workshop on Formal Methods in Software Engineering (FormaliSE)  
Natural language descriptions of software weaknesses used for formalization are based on the community developed Common Weakness Enumerations (CWE).  ...  In this paper, we present a methodology to develop precise and accurate descriptions of common software weaknesses through lightweight formal modeling using Alloy.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENT This research is partially funded by DoD/AFOSR, NSF FA9550-07-1-0499, "High Assurance Software" and NIST 70NANB12H013, "Developing Precise and Accurate Descriptions of Common Software Weaknesses  ... 
doi:10.1109/formalise.2013.6612277 dblp:conf/icse/GandhiSW13 fatcat:m7pisvrckfempjchhou5qhvjoe

Inferential sets, order effects, and the judgment of persons

Adrian K. Lund, Steven A. Lewis, Victor A. Harris
1974 Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society  
One hundred and forty-four male undergraduates, exposed to a stimulus person varying on the dimensions of personality strength (strong vs weak) and norm clarity (specified vs unspecified), made sequential  ...  Results reveal that different set orderings led to different judgments; additionally, Ss judged the strong SP as more responsible, more likable, and more appropriate in behavior than the weak SP.  ...  One hundred and forty-four male undergraduates, exposed to a stimulus person varying on the dimensions of personality strength (strong vs weak) and norm clarity (specified vs unspecified), made sequential  ... 
doi:10.3758/bf03333376 fatcat:bp4ybdq5t5gxnd2bnygqg753j4

Page 698 of Educational and Psychological Measurement Vol. 71, Issue 4 [page]

2011 Educational and Psychological Measurement  
weak group factors (bottom portion).  ...  The condition involving a weak general factor combined with weak group factors (bottom portion of Table 3) is far more likely to cause problems for the SL when trying to recover the true target.  ... 

Relating Hierarchy of Temporal Properties to Model Checking [chapter]

Ivana Černá, Radek Pelánek
2003 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
A property T specifiable by automata is a guarantee (persistence) property if and only if it is specifiable by a terminal (weak) automaton.  ...  can construct a terminal (weak) automaton accepting the property defined by¨.Proof. States of the automaton are sets of subformulas of the formula¨.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-45138-9_26 fatcat:zllmtn2c7rekzgtde7xj5z4l2m

Treatment Challenges for Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy in the Setting of Acute Retroviral Syndrome: Case Report and Review of the Literature

David A Lindholm
2013 Journal of AIDS and Clinical Research  
Citation: Lindholm DA, Calvano TP, Minidis NM, Bayuk TJ, Yun HC, et al. (2013) Treatment Challenges for Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy in the Setting of Acute Retroviral Syndrome: Case Report  ...  No Yes (regimen not specified) Good recovery with mild residual weakness Not specified AIDP 240 No Yes Yes (regimen not specified) Weakness and reflexes recovered; dysesthesias present  ...  AZT Died 18 days after symptom onset due to cardiac arrest Not specified AIDP 190 No Yes Yes (regimen not specified) Good recovery with mild residual weakness Not specified AIDP 55 Yes  ... 
doi:10.4172/2155-6113.1000262 fatcat:s2jlj7zsmne6xgmxao7pmfnzvu

Page 662 of Automation and Remote Control Vol. 54, Issue 4 [page]

1993 Automation and Remote Control  
The assumption is that criterial estimates are specified on the set of alternatives and that alternatives are chosen from the set of representable alternatives for which the criterion is maximum on the  ...  given set.  ... 

Determination of features of cyber-attack goals based on analysis of data in open security data sources

E V Doynikova, A V Fedorchenko, R O Kryukov
2020 IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering  
Special attention is given to the schema that underlies the attack patterns database and specifies its objects and relations between them.  ...  The paper analyzes security databases including attack patterns database, vulnerability database and weaknesses database.  ...  The catalog, views and categories are specified, in their turn, using the set of elements and attributes.  ... 
doi:10.1088/1757-899x/734/1/012160 fatcat:yr6e34gjingctnmvotelndu7k4

Page 291 of Political Studies Vol. 58, Issue 2 [page]

2010 Political Studies  
According to that template, when constructing a model we specify a set of actors, a set of available strategies and the conditions under which strategy combinations will generate equilibrium outcomes.”  ...  They specify the context within which potential challengers, weak and strong, reach a decision regarding whether or not to mount a campaign.  ... 

Formal Methods in Requirements Phase of SDLC

S. K.Pandey, Mona Batra
2013 International Journal of Computer Applications  
The paper presents a brief discussion on various formal methods particularly Z-method, B-method, VDM, OBJ, Larch and Communicating Sequential Process etc. along with their strengths and weaknesses followed  ...  Three different approaches are possible:  Re-interpretation of the language by giving a set of guidelines that allow us to specify the system in an object-oriented fashion.  ...  This method is basically used for specifying, refining and implementing software [13] . A tool set is available supporting specification, design, proof and code generation [4] .  ... 
doi:10.5120/12020-8017 fatcat:jnock2ajcbcgddqwo5nksnijty

Qualitative Spatial and Temporal Reasoning with Answer Set Programming

Jason Jingshi Li
2012 2012 IEEE 24th International Conference on Tools with Artificial Intelligence  
In this paper, we introduce tools that produce three novel encodings which translate problems in qualitative spatial and temporal reasoning into logic programs for answer set programming solvers.  ...  We then specify all the possible constraints arise from weak composition.  ...  So we specify all the base relations outside the weak composition as integrity constraints.  ... 
doi:10.1109/ictai.2012.87 dblp:conf/ictai/Li12 fatcat:inxyxw47gnhszaq4ycg3risziq
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