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How Specific Is Specific?

W. C. Boyd
1974 Science  
Is Specific?  ...  I should now be inclined to suggest that the word "virtually" probably applies to all the cases of "specificity" we know, and that complete specificity, like perfect virtue, is seldom if ever elicountered  ... 
doi:10.1126/science.186.4166.846 pmid:4469687 fatcat:cnkze2inzng75kfrevtjle4ovi

A Specification Translation from Behavioral Specifications to Rewrite Specifications

M. NAKAMURA, W. KONG, K. OGATA, K. FUTATSUGI
2008 IEICE transactions on information and systems  
There are two ways to describe a state machine as an algebraic specification: a behavioral specification and a rewrite specificaon.  ...  In this study, we propose a translation system from behavioral specifations to rewrite specifications to obtain a verification system which has the strong points of verification techniques for both specifications  ...  In this paper we focus on two kinds of algebraic specifications: behavioral specifications and rewrite specifications.  ... 
doi:10.1093/ietisy/e91-d.5.1492 fatcat:jyvpvzd5uzarjgz3zwztb54sya

Contextualizing Specificity: Specific and Non-Specific Effects of Treatment

Amir Raz, Robert Michels
2007 American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis  
Modern medicine thrives on the ideal of specific diseases, and specificity has revolutionized thinking in clinical practice (e.g., psychiatry) as well as biomedical research (e.g., neuroscience).  ...  Different notions of specificity exist (e.g., clinical, biological, and behavioral). Behavioral specificity takes on new meaning in light of recent neuroimaging and genetic findings.  ...  Conclusion We submit that, at least for certain individuals, behavioral specificity can be as compelling as pharmacological specificity.  ... 
doi:10.1080/00029157.2007.10401614 pmid:18030929 fatcat:syqzxypnzfenzhrywave7tfhcu

Specification of a Specification Language

J. Ludewig
1981 IFAC Proceedings Volumes  
ESPRESO is a recently developed specification systC0 for process control soft ... are . It consirits of a specification language and !  ...  I soft .... re system ... bich serves as a tool to check , manage, and evaluate specifications.  ...  a specification is entered.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s1474-6670(17)63436-0 fatcat:nczt5vvcdnhj3fyiqlrosdurl4

Specification of a specification language

J Ludewig
1981 Annual Review in Automatic Programming  
ESPRESO is a recently developed specification systC0 for process control soft ... are . It consirits of a specification language and !  ...  I soft .... re system ... bich serves as a tool to check , manage, and evaluate specifications.  ...  a specification is entered.  ... 
doi:10.1016/0066-4138(81)90010-0 fatcat:5ncq7gbburhxriklnsbtikpxfa

SPECIFICS

MichaelW. Fisher
1863 The Lancet  
SPECIFICS. To the Editor of THE LANCET. SIR,—The subject of specifics was mooted in an annotation in THE LANCET of the 21st inst. Will you allow me to say a word relative to quinine ?  ...  Whether or not there is such a thing as a specific for any disease whatsoever, is, I think, exceedingly doubtful, but most certainly quinine has no claim to be considered as a specific for the ague.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(02)65685-5 fatcat:r4vkfxn23zesdnnmsgsagjkbf4

Specifications

F.S. Sells
1912 Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers  
SPECIFICATIONS. 203 experience is valuable, and will help the manufacturer, when expressed in detailed specifications.  ...  Where extension work is concerned specifications are often misleading.  ... 
doi:10.1049/jiee-1.1912.0047 fatcat:ylup74zxtzfrndgbuiaaycdan4

Deriving protocol specifications from service specifications

G von Bochmann, R Gotzhein
1986 Computer communication review  
Since the protocol is seen as the logical implementation of the service, one can ask the question whether it is possible to formally derive the specification of a protocol providing a given service.  ...  The idea of deriving protocol specifications from service specifications arose in discussions with H. lchikawa and M. ltoh during a visit of G. v. Bochmann at the NTT Mosashino ECL in Tokyo.  ...  For a given service specification (see section 2), this algorithm produces the specifications of all protocol entities.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1013812.18190 fatcat:z3ifkogybzdt7ksavaflecq7du

Tissue-specific and species-specific esterases

J. Paul, P. Fottrell
1961 Biochemical Journal  
According to Augustinsson (1958) esterases can be distinguished on the basis of substrate specificities and inhibition by specific substances.  ...  Tissue-Specific and Species-Specific Esterases Although electrophoresis has been used extensively to study the protein components of biological fluids, few attempts have been made to investigate soluble  ... 
doi:10.1042/bj0780418 pmid:13733434 pmcid:PMC1205284 fatcat:a6ixrvmlqjd55hotamh6gp55mm

Acupuncture: Specific and Non-Specific Effects

H.G. Endres
2008 Forschende Komplementärmedizin  
The idea of separating out specific from non-specific effects is also reflected in intention to treat (ITT) analyses.  ...  Perhaps it is not even crucial to conclusively answer the question whether acupuncture helps patients through specific or non-specific effects for even non-specific effects can trigger substantial physiological  ... 
doi:10.1159/000113416 pmid:18334809 fatcat:gcmqtiukpneqlaymrgqd4flgg4

What is Specific About 'Specific Restitution'?

Colleen P. Murphy
2009 Social Science Research Network  
This question leads to a larger one-what is specific about other "specific" terminology in the law such as "specific intent," "specific bequest," and "specific performance"?  ...  a form of specific restitution or specific relief.  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.1329099 fatcat:j6iw635wcba4jlxnzf2icyioyq

Allergen Specificity in Specific IgE Cutoff

Ann-Marie Malby Schoos, Simone Møbius Hansen, Frederikke Rosenvinge Skov, Jakob Stokholm, Klaus Bønnelykke, Hans Bisgaard, Bo Lund Chawes
2020 JAMA pediatrics  
12-month) assessment of anabolic-androgenic steroids use, inability to distinguish between prescription or nonprescription anabolicandrogenic steroid use, and inability to analyze associations between specific  ...  Allergen Specificity in Specific IgE Cutoff The specific IgE (sIgE) cutoff of 0.35 kU A /L used to confirm allergic sensitization originates from the detection limit of the first assays available.  ...  Median Values of Specific IgE and the 25% and 75% Percentiles Among All Children With Measurable Levels and Among Children With AR to the Same Allergen Abbreviations: AR, allergic rhinitis; HDM, house  ... 
doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.0944 pmid:32421160 pmcid:PMC7235915 fatcat:mdmgrwoyrrdxlhwdqp3obnkkny

RNA Binding: Getting Specific about Specificity

Adrian R. Ferré-D'Amaré
2016 Cell Chemical Biology  
What do we mean when we say that a protein binds RNA (or DNA) sequence-specifically?  ...  Sequence-specific nucleic acid binding proteins do not recognize one sequence out of all possibilities; rather, they bind with a range of affinities to many.  ...  Specific and non-specific binding are not different modes of protein-RNA interaction, but part of a the same energy landscape relating affinity to sequence.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.chembiol.2016.10.001 pmid:27768867 pmcid:PMC5187952 fatcat:prodxiy7cbfdldx5z5wneuirhi

Deriving protocol specifications from service specifications

G von Bochmann, R Gotzhein
1986 Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM conference on Communications architectures & protocols - SIGCOMM '86  
Since the protocol is seen as the logical implementation of the service, one can ask the question whether it is possible to formally derive the specification of a protocol providing a given service.  ...  The idea of deriving protocol specifications from service specifications arose in discussions with H. lchikawa and M. ltoh during a visit of G. v. Bochmann at the NTT Mosashino ECL in Tokyo.  ...  For a given service specification (see section 2), this algorithm produces the specifications of all protocol entities.  ... 
doi:10.1145/18172.18190 dblp:conf/sigcomm/BochmannG86 fatcat:sh2dweiwjbhwvl2xg6x7yhwfga

A species-specific frequency filter through specific inhibition, not specific excitation

Stumpner A.
2002 Journal of Comparative Physiology A. Sensory, neural, and behavioral physiology  
The species-specific tuning of the neuron is not brought about by specific excitation, but by specific inhibition.  ...  Many bushcrickets produce specific song spectra for acoustic communication. Song detection and/ or recognition may make use of such specificity.  ...  Species specificity through specific inhibition Bushcricket ears have a series of sensory cells tuned to different frequencies (e.g.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s00359-002-0299-5 pmid:11976893 fatcat:awpg3hlyhbdcxcapo4mhui63pa
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