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Individual heterogeneity and capture-recapture models: what, why and how? [article]

Olivier Gimenez, Emmanuelle Cam, Jean-Michel Gaillard
2017 bioRxiv   pre-print
Third, we explain how to model individual heterogeneity in capture-recapture models and provide the code to fit these models (https://github.com/oliviergimenez/indhet_in_CRmodels).  ...  First, we define what individual heterogeneity means and clarify the terminology used in the literature.  ...  What 'heterogeneity' covers in CR models inherently depends on 6 model specification.  ... 
doi:10.1101/120683 fatcat:3nzqfya6j5byng24jy6z3yj5s4

Software safety: why, what, and how

Nancy G. Leveson
1986 ACM Computing Surveys  
This survey attempts to explain why there is a problem, what the problem is, and what is known about how to solve it.  ...  Software safety issues become important when computers are used to control real-time, safety-critical processes.  ...  CONCLUSIONS This paper has attempted to survey software safety in terms of why, what, and how.  ... 
doi:10.1145/7474.7528 fatcat:es7kotem4nhphi6zma2zgwrwve

Individual heterogeneity and capture-recapture models: what, why and how?

Olivier Gimenez, Emmanuelle Cam, Jean-Michel Gaillard
2017 Oikos  
In a 7 third section, we explain how to model individual heterogeneity in CR models.  ...  and finite-12 mixture models.  ...  What 'heterogeneity' covers in CR models inherently depends on 6 model specification.  ... 
doi:10.1111/oik.04532 fatcat:tbxuwdrgj5deve7cidgjqxhazq

Design Science: Why, What and How

Panos Y. Papalambros
2015 Design Science  
design and topics of research, the newly established design community shared a common goal that was mainly related to the complexity of design and the need to understand design and to support the design process  ...  But what do we know about how good design is created?  ...  Design Process' (Pahl, G., Beitz, W., models.  ... 
doi:10.1017/dsj.2015.1 fatcat:eyat6vzngndozfhcjbaliab3p4

MPEG-4: Why, what, how and when?

Fernando Pereira
2000 Signal processing. Image communication  
This paper intends to give an overview on the MPEG-4 motivations, objectives, achievements, process and workplan, providing a stimulating starting point for more detailed reading.  ...  Since MPEG-4 adopted an objectbased audiovisual representation model with hyperlinking and interaction capabilities and supports both natural and synthetic content, it is expected that this standard will  ...  In MPEG-1 the (video) working model was called Simulation Model (SM), in MPEG-2 the (video) working model was called Test Model (TM), and in MPEG-4 the various working models were called Verification Models  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0923-5965(99)00049-1 fatcat:6xqqlcdwcrhxjevm7roubrupty

Synthetic Data – what, why and how? [article]

James Jordon, Lukasz Szpruch, Florimond Houssiau, Mirko Bottarelli, Giovanni Cherubin, Carsten Maple, Samuel N. Cohen, Adrian Weller
2022 arXiv   pre-print
Once a final group/model has been determined, it can be taken to the real data for testing, tuning or even a complete re-training. Software testing.  ...  Why use Synthetic Data? Synthetic data is being used as a solution to a variety of problems in many domains.  ... 
arXiv:2205.03257v1 fatcat:2sdjqyfdivb4hnxn3jr2j5e6q4

Calculator-Available Assessments: The Why, What, and How

David E. Meel
1997 Educational Assessment  
This paper reviews existing mathematical models of diabetes and indicates how "Gourmet" compares to available simulators.  ...  The processes that must be taken into account are as follows: dynamical blood sugar profile related to digestion of carbohydrates of different types, sugar contribution by the liver, fat/proteins long-and  ...  blood sugar dependencies; however, it is unclear how that can be translated into practice, i.e., what specific treatment action should be taken.  ... 
doi:10.1207/s15326977ea0403_1 fatcat:bdpo2msf6nh6rcoh7i5xim5csy

Software process modeling for an educational software engineering simulation game

Emily Oh Navarro, André van der Hoek
2005 Software Process: Improvement and Practice  
SimSE is an educational software engineering simulation game that uses a unique software process modeling approach.  ...  This paper describes the different constructs in a SimSE process model, introduces the associated model builder tool, describes how we built an initial model of a waterfall process, and discusses the underlying  ...  Section 3 summarizes a waterfall process simulation model that we built using our approach, including some of its goals and how they were implemented.  ... 
doi:10.1002/spip.232 fatcat:hglr5vmo25actnmvz5tarrgu5u

Building Electronic Educational Environments: Why, What and How? [chapter]

Tom J. Weert, Bauke Wal
2000 Building University Electronic Educational Environments  
New computer-based media contribute to this added value by providing dynamic simulation environments or virtual worlds.  ...  Added value in new forms of education lies in more interactivity and feedback loops, in reorientation of the "process" of learning and in the use of meta-structures.  ...  The role of new media in education: what I see is what I simulate The focus in value-added education is on the learning process, on interactivity and feedback loops.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-0-387-35502-3_15 fatcat:rt6mfpuq2ncqjdgbwj5aglf2ca

Computational modelling for decision-making: where, why, what, who and how

Muffy Calder, Claire Craig, Dave Culley, Richard de Cani, Christl A. Donnelly, Rowan Douglas, Bruce Edmonds, Jonathon Gascoigne, Nigel Gilbert, Caroline Hargrove, Derwen Hinds, David C. Lane (+7 others)
2018 Royal Society Open Science  
They could form the basis for an initial discussion between model commissioners and model developers, to clarify their understanding of what will be involved, and during model building and use.  ...  the creation and use of a model.  ...  In such cases, model commissioners need to stay very close to the modelling process, getting involved in an iterative process of deciding what should be included and how it is represented.  ... 
doi:10.1098/rsos.172096 pmid:30110442 pmcid:PMC6030334 fatcat:gim574n22ra3xg22opbdjwia5a

Molecular Evolution & Phylogeny: What, When, Why & How? [chapter]

Pandurang Kolekar, Mohan Kale, Urmila Kulkarni-Kale
2011 Computational Biology and Applied Bioinformatics  
4 Before getting into the actual process of molecular phylogeny analysis (MPA), it will be helpful to get familiar with the concepts and terminologies frequently used in MPA.  ...  , When, Why & How?  ...  Molecular Evolution & Phylogeny: What, When, Why & How?, Computational Biology and Applied Bioinformatics, Prof.  ... 
doi:10.5772/20225 fatcat:eaoz56ug6rhj3dxkof56r7wvge

Software Process Simulation Modeling: An Extended Systematic Review [chapter]

He Zhang, Barbara Kitchenham, Dietmar Pfahl
2010 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Software Process Simulation Modeling (SPSM) research has increased in the past two decades, especially since the first ProSim Workshop held in 1998.  ...  Our research aims to systematically assess how SPSM has evolved during the past 10 years in particular whether the purposes for SPSM, the simulation paradigms, tools, research topics, and the model scopes  ...  This work was also supported, in part, by Science Foundation Ireland grant 03/CE2/I303 1 to Lero -the Irish Software Engineering Research Centre (www. lero.ie).  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-14347-2_27 fatcat:psag4ajsenagffx7a5q7l4yr2q

Socio-hydrological modelling: a review asking "why, what and how?"

P. Blair, W. Buytaert
2016 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences  
; using these different approaches has implications for model development, applicability and the insight that they are capable of giving, and so the decision regarding how to model the system requires  ...  There is an essential choice that socio-hydrological modellers face in deciding between representing individual system processes or viewing the system from a more abstracted level and modelling it as such  ...  The authors would also like to extend great thanks to Giuliano Di Baldassarre and two other anonymous referees for reviewing this paper and making valuable suggestions on how to improve it.  ... 
doi:10.5194/hess-20-443-2016 fatcat:spukhn4uljg5hoq6m7chbefyie

The What, the Why and the How of Media Preservation

Hans Dieter Huber
2019 Zenodo  
The general considerations concern questions of how we should deal with our digital cultural heritage. What should be preserved for posterity? Why should the things selected be preserved?  ...  What strategies, practices or models have evolved over the last decade in media preservation? Special questions arise with concrete problems. They are always media- and case-specific.  ...  Why should the things that are selected for posterity be preserved? And what strategies, practices or models have evolved over the last decade in media preservation? What is a digital object?  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.4161714 fatcat:nvbh6yszqjb4nh52dz6y7bogqe

Towards 3D Internet: Why, What, and How?

Tansu Alpcan, Christian Bauckhage, Evangelos Kotsovinos
2007 2007 International Conference on Cyberworlds (CW'07)  
We provide an overview of the concept 3D Internet and discuss why it is a goal worth pursuing, what it does entail, and how one can realize it.  ...  Our objective in this paper is to define the 3D Internet concept and discuss why it is a goal worth pursuing, what it does entail, and how one can realize it.  ...  Emergence of new software and tools in addition to the ones mentioned should naturally be expected. 3D Internet: How?  ... 
doi:10.1109/cw.2007.62 dblp:conf/cw/AlpcanBK07 fatcat:rasjklrxurdsjaep4snmlgnedi
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