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SoK: Computer-Aided Cryptography [article]

Manuel Barbosa, Gilles Barthe, Karthikeyan Bhargavan, Bruno Blanchet, Cas Cremers, Kevin Liao, Bryan Parno
2019 IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive  
We present a cross-cutting systematization of the computer-aided cryptography literature, focusing on three main areas: (i) design-level security (both symbolic security and computational security), (ii  ...  ) functional correctness and efficiency, and (iii) implementation-level security (with a focus on digital side-channel resistance).  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We thank the anonymous reviewers for their useful suggestions; Jason Gross, Boris Köpf  ... 
dblp:journals/iacr/BarbosaBBBCLP19 fatcat:ky7xph7q3vfpxd2q2cfpybhw5e

SoK: Computer-Aided Cryptography

Manuel Barbosa, Gilles Barthe, Karthik Bhargavan, Bruno Blanchet, Cas Cremers, Kevin Liao, Bryan Parno
2021 2021 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP)  
We present a cross-cutting systematization of the computer-aided cryptography literature, focusing on three main areas: (i) design-level security (both symbolic security and computational security), (ii  ...  ) functional correctness and efficiency, and (iii) implementation-level security (with a focus on digital side-channel resistance).  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We thank the anonymous reviewers for their useful suggestions; Jason Gross, Boris Köpf  ... 
doi:10.1109/sp40001.2021.00008 fatcat:hvor2dotoracledftqympf5ai4

SoK: Plausibly Deniable Storage

Chen Chen, Xiao Liang, Bogdan Carbunar, Radu Sion
2022 Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies  
It aims to: (1) identify key PD properties, requirements and approaches; (2) present a direly-needed unified framework for evaluating security and performance; (3) explore the challenges arising from the  ...  Unfortunately, these efforts have often operated under less well-defined assumptions and adversarial models.  ...  Acknowledgements We thank the shepherd, Diogo Barradas, and the anonymous reviewers for their feedback.  ... 
doi:10.2478/popets-2022-0039 fatcat:hxe7y7g5xjbzlbuhmkt5qufmhu

SoK: Decentralized Finance (DeFi) [article]

Sam M. Werner, Daniel Perez, Lewis Gudgeon, Ariah Klages-Mundt, Dominik Harz, William J. Knottenbelt
2022 arXiv   pre-print
We provide a distinction between technical security, which has a healthy literature, and economic security, which is largely unexplored, connecting the latter with new models and thereby synthesizing insights  ...  In this Systematization of Knowledge (SoK) we delineate the DeFi ecosystem along the following axes: its primitives, its operational protocol types and its security.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We thank the anonymous reviewers for their feedback and suggestions.  ... 
arXiv:2101.08778v6 fatcat:cjagnw6ipngrhjwej6t2fols6i

SoK: Tokenization on Blockchain [article]

Gang Wang, Mark Nixon
2021 IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive  
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic study for tokenization on blockchain.  ...  For example, when considering fungibility, some assets are divisible and identical, commonly referred to as fungible assets.  ...  Object Class Key Features Tangibility Tangible Intangible Physical existence Virtual existence or service Fungibility Fungible Non-fungible Exchangeability Uniqueness having some classifications based  ... 
dblp:journals/iacr/WangN21b fatcat:pwmcq6tlanarzftb6zj7rw2cha

SoK: Blockchain Decentralization [article]

Luyao Zhang, Xinshi Ma, Yulin Liu
2022 arXiv   pre-print
We explore a systematization of knowledge (SoK) on blockchain decentralization by comprehensively analyzing existing studies in various aspects.  ...  A comparative study across DeFi applications shows that exchange and lending are more decentralized than payment and derivatives across DeFi applications.  ...  Decentralization plays a key role in balancing the economic incentives that secure a blockchain from majority attacks.  ... 
arXiv:2205.04256v2 fatcat:iot4dbvmonbbho5e3rzwpeqtwa

SoK: Blockchain Governance [article]

Aggelos Kiayias, Philip Lazos
2022 arXiv   pre-print
Blockchain systems come with a promise of decentralization that often stumbles on a roadblock when key decisions about modifying the software codebase need to be made.  ...  Our work lays out a foundation for assessing blockchain governance processes.  ...  Exchanges, venture capital investors and token-based suffrage.  ... 
arXiv:2201.07188v3 fatcat:rgvle7fyjfg6pom4i2fee7woxa

SoK: Decentralized Finance (DeFi) Attacks [article]

Liyi Zhou, Xihan Xiong, Jens Ernstberger, Stefanos Chaliasos, Zhipeng Wang, Ye Wang, Kaihua Qin, Roger Wattenhofer, Dawn Song, Arthur Gervais
2022 arXiv   pre-print
How can we learn from past attacks to strengthen DeFi security?  ...  Within just four years, the blockchain-based Decentralized Finance (DeFi) ecosystem has accumulated a peak total value locked (TVL) of more than 253 billion USD.  ...  DISCUSSION DeFi Incidents -Another Cat and Mouse Game: Analog to traditional information security, DeFi incidents can be perceived as a cat-and-mouse game, in which defenders attempt to minimize the security  ... 
arXiv:2208.13035v2 fatcat:4erkyfzsvffe7oq7vxw3wwgemi

SoK: Communication Across Distributed Ledgers [article]

Alexei Zamyatin, Mustafa Al-Bassam, Dionysis Zindros, Eleftherios Kokoris-Kogias, Pedro Moreno-Sanchez, Aggelos Kiayias, William J. Knottenbelt
2019 IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive  
We conclude by discussing open challenges for CCC research and the implications of interoperability on the security and privacy of blockchains.  ...  Today, cross-chain communication (CCC) plays a fundamental role in cryptocurrency exchanges, scalability efforts via sharding, extension of existing systems through sidechains, and bootstrapping of new  ...  This research was funded by Bridge 1 858561 SESC; Bridge 1 864738 PR4DLT (all FFG); the Christian Doppler Laboratory for Security and Quality Improvement in the Production System Lifecycle (CDL-SQI); the  ... 
dblp:journals/iacr/ZamyatinAZKMKK19 fatcat:sz5jpi67wvgrbeger74mg6mv4a

SoK of Used Cryptography in Blockchain [article]

Mayank Raikwar, Danilo Gligoroski, Katina Kralevska
2019 arXiv   pre-print
The underlying fundaments of blockchain are cryptography and cryptographic concepts that provide reliable and secure decentralized solutions.  ...  To the best of our knowledge, there is no Systematization of Knowledge (SoK) that gives a complete picture of the existing cryptographic concepts which have been deployed or have the potential to be deployed  ...  We can trace the origins of the ideas to use cryptography for secure and private transactions for paying access to databases, paying for services such as online games, transferring money over the Internet  ... 
arXiv:1906.08609v3 fatcat:l62esrum3bhmfcdxzpx3h3he4e

SoK: A Systematic Study of Anonymity in Cryptocurrencies

Nasser Alsalami, Bingsheng Zhang
2019 2019 IEEE Conference on Dependable and Secure Computing (DSC)  
Finally, we asses the current techniques, and present a forecast for the technological trends in this field.  ...  Although there are numerous works in the literature surveying technical challenges and security issues in blockchains, very few works focused on the anonymity guarantees provided in cryptocurrencies.  ...  [71] devised a set of security games called "The Sun-Tzu Survival Problem" to model untraceability in CryptoNote-based cryptocurrencies, and explained that the sampling strategy of decoy mixins can  ... 
doi:10.1109/dsc47296.2019.8937681 dblp:conf/desec/AlsalamiZ19a fatcat:rypdgfdb3fchlhzb3zumahmwje

SoK: Unraveling Bitcoin Smart Contracts [chapter]

Nicola Atzei, Massimo Bartoletti, Tiziana Cimoli, Stefano Lande, Roberto Zunino
2018 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Albeit the primary usage of Bitcoin is to exchange currency, its blockchain and consensus mechanism can also be exploited to securely execute some forms of smart contracts.  ...  Our treatment is based on a new formal specification language for smart contracts, which also helps us to highlight some subtleties in existing informal descriptions, making a step towards automatic verification  ...  Stefano Lande gratefully acknowledges Sardinia Regional Government for the financial support of his PhD scholarship (P.O.R. Sardegna F.S.E.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-89722-6_9 fatcat:rpfcu7rlgzhbthkyqnmcwdrbpe

SoK: Making Sense of Censorship Resistance Systems

Sheharbano Khattak, Tariq Elahi, Laurent Simon, Colleen M. Swanson, Steven J. Murdoch, Ian Goldberg
2016 Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies  
model.  ...  to join the censorship resistance system; and conversation, where actual exchange of information takes place.  ...  This model expands the concepts of fingerprinting and direct censorship from the abstract model of censorship described in Section 2.3, grouping censorship activities by where these take place (user, publisher  ... 
doi:10.1515/popets-2016-0028 dblp:journals/popets/KhattakESSMG16 fatcat:qy2wv24bqbgnbgqao7whndrihq

SoK: Blockchain Technology and Its Potential Use Cases [article]

Scott Ruoti, Ben Kaiser, Arkady Yerukhimovich, Jeremy Clark, Robert Cunningham
2019 arXiv   pre-print
In this paper we answer four common questions regarding Blockchain technology: (1) what exactly is Blockchain technology, (2) what capabilities does it provide, and (3) what are good applications for Blockchain  ...  The audience for this paper is broad as it aims to help researchers in a variety of areas come to a better understanding of Blockchain technology and identify whether it may be of use in their own research  ...  Key-based (as opposed to ACL-based) ownership of data has another advantage: it allows for pseudonymous ownership and use of data.  ... 
arXiv:1909.12454v1 fatcat:e3ymssgbhrb2vmkavrltnd3hpq

SoK: Lending Pools in Decentralized Finance [article]

Massimo Bartoletti, James Hsin-yu Chiang, Alberto Lluch-Lafuente
2020 arXiv   pre-print
We systematize the existing knowledge about lending pools, leveraging a new formal model of interactions with users, which reflects the archetypal features of mainstream implementations.  ...  Reasoning about lending pools is made even harder by the lack of executable models of their behaviour: to precisely understand how users interact with lending pools, eventually one has to inspect their  ...  As a matter of fact, it is often used as a key parameter of interest rate models in implementations [11, 22] and literature [47] .  ... 
arXiv:2012.13230v1 fatcat:4b7sazn5b5egxmvb63c4ifh6ku
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