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Skip lists: A probabilistic alternative to balanced trees [chapter]

William Pugh
1989 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Skip lists are a data structure that can be used in place of balanced trees.  ...  Skip lists use probabilistic balancing rather than strictly enforced balancing and as a result the algorithms for insertion and deletion in skip lists are much simpler and significantly faster than equivalent  ...  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Thanks to the referees for their helpful comments.  ... 
doi:10.1007/3-540-51542-9_36 fatcat:j67e7gk3p5d5hleocgumeefqzy

Skip lists: a probabilistic alternative to balanced trees

William Pugh
1990 Communications of the ACM  
Skip lists are a probabilistic alternative to balanced trees. Skip lists are balanced by consulting a random number generator.  ...  Skip lists are data structures thla t use probabilistic balancing rather than strictly enforced balancing.  ...  I want to thank the referees for their helpful comments.  ... 
doi:10.1145/78973.78977 fatcat:a4urt2ico5butjjd4ladlvrlli

Biased Skip Lists

Amitabha Bagchi, Adam L. Buchsbaum, Michael T. Goodrich
2005 Algorithmica  
We design a variation of skip lists that performs well for generally biased access sequences.  ...  We present deterministic and randomized variations, which are nearly identical; the deterministic one simply ensures the balance condition that the randomized one achieves probabilistically.  ...  Pugh presents skip lists as a randomized structure that is easily implemented and shows that they are empirically faster than fast balanced search trees, such as AVL-trees.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s00453-004-1138-6 fatcat:dlpg24hye5cbhlkhxvb5zx44oq

Biased Skip Lists [chapter]

Amitabha Bagchi, Adam L. Buchsbaum, Michael T. Goodrich
2002 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We design a variation of skip lists that performs well for generally biased access sequences.  ...  We present deterministic and randomized variations, which are nearly identical; the deterministic one simply ensures the balance condition that the randomized one achieves probabilistically.  ...  Pugh presents skip lists as a randomized structure that is easily implemented and shows that they are empirically faster than fast balanced search trees, such as AVL-trees.  ... 
doi:10.1007/3-540-36136-7_1 fatcat:uomitb252vbzznktj2rb44bdqu

Skip List Based Authenticated Data Structure in DAS Paradigm

Jieping Wang, Xiaoyong Du
2009 2009 Eighth International Conference on Grid and Cooperative Computing  
Considering service provider usually owns large memory and powerful processors, in this paper we propose a dynamic main memory ADS based on skip list, which could provide efficient authentication for range  ...  In Database-as-a-Service (DAS) computing paradigm, data owners delegate database management tasks to service provider.  ...  As a probabilistic alternative to balanced tree, Skip list is easy to implement and efficient in data updates.  ... 
doi:10.1109/gcc.2009.33 dblp:conf/gcc/WangD09 fatcat:mdz3ahtdwbgv5erdkptzr65gaq

No Hot Spot Non-blocking Skip List

Tyler Crain, Vincent Gramoli, Michel Raynal
2013 2013 IEEE 33rd International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems  
This paper presents a new non-blocking skip list algorithm.  ...  The key idea lies in decoupling a modification to the structure into two stages: an eager abstract modification that returns quickly and whose update affects only the bottom of the structure, and a lazy  ...  INTRODUCTION Skip lists are increasingly popular alternatives to B-trees in main-memory databases like memsql as their elements are traversed in order and without the need of latches.  ... 
doi:10.1109/icdcs.2013.42 dblp:conf/icdcs/CrainGR13 fatcat:xca2ml7cinegxe7ku6tqnaouge

Analysis of an optimized search algorithm for skip lists

Peter Kirschenhofer, Conrado Martínez, Helmut Prodinger
1995 Theoretical Computer Science  
It was suggested in to avoid redundant key comparisons in the skip list search algorithm by marking those elements whose key has already been compared against the search key.  ...  We present here a precise analysis of the total search cost (expectation and variance), where the cost of the search is measured in terms of the number of key-to-key comparisons.  ...  Introduction Skip lists have recently been introduced as a type of list-based data structure that may substitute search trees [lo] .  ... 
doi:10.1016/0304-3975(94)00296-u fatcat:6mc2mj6dk5cdjpv2uypu7nkzum

PI : a Parallel in-memory skip list based Index [article]

Zhongle Xie, Qingchao Cai, H.V. Jagadish, Beng Chin Ooi, Weng-Fai Wong
2016 arXiv   pre-print
In this paper, we present PI, a Parallel in-memory skip list based Index that lends itself naturally to the parallel and concurrent environment, particularly with non-uniform memory access.  ...  We conducted extensive experiments, and the results show that PI can be up to three times as fast as the Masstree, a state-of-the-art B-tree based index.  ...  Skip lists [32] are considered to be an alternative to B +trees.  ... 
arXiv:1601.00159v1 fatcat:qe56jjavszhr3am65dbvkedqgq

A design of a parallel dictionary using skip lists

Joaquim Gabarró, Conrado Martínez, Xavier Messeguer
1996 Theoretical Computer Science  
Although the asymptotic performance of the parallel skip list algorithms is not better compared to that of other parallel dictionaries, they are a practical alternative.  ...  We present a topdown design of a parallel PRAM dictionary using skip lists.  ...  Skip lists were introduced by Pugh in 1990 [25] as an alternative to balanced trees.  ... 
doi:10.1016/0304-3975(94)00288-6 fatcat:p4emzhc7i5fczh5qds5lolljoa

The binomial transform and the analysis of skip lists

Patricio V. Poblete, J. Ian Munro, Thomas Papadakis
2006 Theoretical Computer Science  
We use these methods to perform a detailed analysis of skip lists, a probabilistic data structure introduced by Pugh as an alternative to balanced trees.  ...  To any sequence of real numbers a n n 0 , we can associate another sequence â s s 0 , which Knuth calls its binomial transform.  ...  We are grateful to the anonymous referees for their suggestions, that greatly improved the paper.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.tcs.2005.10.041 fatcat:bgdfjtpedzayjllnbtj4wu7kt4

Deterministic Cluster-based Skip List Protocol for Dynamic Distributed Systems

Ahmed A., T. A., Khaled A.
2017 International Journal of Computer Applications  
In this paper, to overcome these drawbacks, a new skip List structure and query processing methods are proposed.  ...  In addition, most of existing algorithms that use this structure have been developed based on a special structure of skip list and they did not be applicable for another structure of the skip list.  ...  Skip List (SL) is a probabilistic alternative to balanced trees proposed by William Pugh. SL can be used instead of balanced trees [15] .  ... 
doi:10.5120/ijca2017915552 fatcat:b6zdmkubove2val32dpry745fq

A skip-list approach for efficiently processing forecasting queries

Tingjian Ge, Stan Zdonik
2008 Proceedings of the VLDB Endowment  
Further, we use an I/O conscious skip list data structure to provide samples of the original data set.  ...  We propose to use statistical tests of hypotheses to choose a proper subset of data points to use for a given prediction query interval.  ...  BACKGROUND 2.1 Skip Lists A skip list [24] is a randomized counterpart of a balanced tree structure, such as the B+ tree.  ... 
doi:10.14778/1453856.1453962 fatcat:6isb3z3bfjgx3gs4dciy7a2o5a

Skip List Data Structure Based New Searching Algorithm and Its Applications: Priority Search

Mustafa Aksu, Ali Karci
2016 International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications  
If a datum has greater hit search number, then it was upgraded in the skip list data structure to the upper level.  ...  Skip list data structure consists of linked lists formed in layers, which were linked in a pyramidal way.  ...  Message-Passing Skip List [23] and Skip lift: A probabilistic alternative to red-black trees [24] .  ... 
doi:10.14569/ijacsa.2016.070220 fatcat:37hh3bdbwzb2fcsw256uczi5ye

Jiffy: A Lock-free Skip List with Batch Updates and Snapshots [article]

Tadeusz Kobus, Maciej Kokociński, Paweł T. Wojciechowski
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Jiffy is built as a multiversioned lock-free skip list and relies on CPU's Time Stamp Counter register to generate version numbers at minimal cost.  ...  Structure modifications to the index, which result in changing the size of revisions, happen through (lock-free) skip list node split and merge operations that are carefully coordinated with the update  ...  Now we discuss tree-based ordered index data structures. Snap-Tree by Bronson et al. [12] is a lock-based relaxed balance AVL tree.  ... 
arXiv:2102.01044v1 fatcat:cmb6odjaufeqbgdg46yxqgunsi

Skip Graphs [article]

James Aspnes, Gauri Shah
2003 arXiv   pre-print
Skip graphs are a novel distributed data structure, based on skip lists, that provide the full functionality of a balanced tree in a distributed system where resources are stored in separate nodes that  ...  Unlike skip lists or other tree data structures, skip graphs are highly resilient, tolerating a large fraction of failed nodes without losing connectivity.  ...  Skip graphs A skip list, introduced by Pugh [Pug90] , is a randomized balanced tree data structure organized as a tower of increasingly sparse linked lists.  ... 
arXiv:cs/0306043v1 fatcat:vgjbwy5bgjhcrmvngobquyfwam
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