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The Role of Slow Potassium Current in Nerve Conduction Block Induced by High-Frequency Biphasic Electrical Current

Hailong Liu, J.R. Roppolo, W.C. de Groat, C. Tai
2009 IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering  
This simulation study reveals that in mammalian myelinated axons the slow potassium current probably plays a critical role in the nerve conduction block induced by high-frequency biphasic electrical current  ...  The role of slow potassium current in nerve conduction block induced by high-frequency biphasic electrical current was analyzed using a lumped circuit model of a myelinated axon based on Schwarz-Reid-Bostock  ...  DISCUSSION This simulation study employing a mammalian myelinated axonal model based on SRB equations investigated the nerve conduction block induced by high-frequency biphasic electrical current.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tbme.2008.2006013 pmid:19224727 pmcid:PMC2822242 fatcat:iy22whkrr5hqrge54a34uvkdzi

Mechanism of conduction block in amphibian myelinated axon induced by biphasic electrical current at ultra-high frequency

Changfeng Tai, Dong Guo, Jicheng Wang, James R. Roppolo, William C. de Groat
2011 Journal of Computational Neuroscience  
The mechanism of axonal conduction block induced by ultra-high frequency (≥20 kHz) biphasic electrical current was investigated using a lumped circuit model of the amphibian myelinated axon based on Frankenhaeuser-Huxley  ...  The ultra-high frequency stimulation produces constant activation of both sodium and potassium channels at the axonal node under the block electrode causing the axonal conduction block.  ...  Fig.2 shows that the FH model can simulate the conduction block in myelinated axons induced by ultra-high frequency (80 kHz) biphasic electrical current.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10827-011-0329-9 pmid:21523417 pmcid:PMC3190584 fatcat:bapk3xpkqfanredgqoikg5v2oe

Simulation analysis of conduction block in unmyelinated axons induced by high-frequency biphasic electrical currents

Changfeng Tai, William C de Groat, James R Roppolo
2005 IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering  
Nerve conduction block induced by high-frequency biphasic electrical currents is analyzed using a lumped circuit model of the unmyelinated axon based on Hodgkin-Huxley equations.  ...  This simulation study further increases our understanding of axonal conduction block induced by high-frequency biphasic currents, and can guide future animal experiments as well as optimize stimulation  ...  In summary, this study indicates that the unmyelinated axons can be blocked by high frequency biphasic electrical currents in a similar way as myelinated axons.  ... 
pmid:16041996 pmcid:PMC2820275 fatcat:x3qhy7luybbopnlvyx7gwv7czi

Effects of frequency-dependent membrane capacitance on neural excitability

Bryan Howell, Leonel E Medina, Warren M Grill
2015 Journal of Neural Engineering  
axon, the McIntyre-Richardson-Grill (MRG) of a mammalian myelinated axon, and a model of a cortical neuron from prefrontal cortex.  ...  We observed no effect using rectangular pulse stimulation, and a reduction for frequencies of 10 kHz and above using sinusoidal signals only for the MRG model. c(f) had minimal impact on the recovery cycle  ...  Kirschstein F31 NS079105 Individual Predoctoral Fellowship, by Grant R01 NS040894 from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke of the National Institutes of Health, and by a Fulbright-CONICYT  ... 
doi:10.1088/1741-2560/12/5/056015 pmid:26348707 pmcid:PMC4582421 fatcat:uzfwjdlxefdpzd6ywka4lun4pq

Influence of frequency and temperature on the mechanisms of nerve conduction block induced by high-frequency biphasic electrical current

Jicheng Wang, Bing Shen, James R. Roppolo, William C. de Groat, Changfeng Tai
2007 Journal of Computational Neuroscience  
The influences of stimulation frequency and temperature on mechanisms of nerve conduction block induced by high-frequency biphasic electrical current were investigated using a lumped circuit model of the  ...  Understanding the interaction between the minimal blocking frequency and temperature could promote a better understanding of the mechanisms of high frequency induced axonal conduction block and the clinical  ...  Discussion This simulation study employing a myelinated axonal model based on SE equations investigated the nerve conduction block induced by high-frequency biphasic electrical current.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10827-007-0050-x pmid:17682929 pmcid:PMC2823070 fatcat:szzghm5nd5cnnarz2zqxepuyly

Effect of Bipolar Cuff Electrode Design on Block Thresholds in High-Frequency Electrical Neural Conduction Block

D.M. Ackermann, E.L. Foldes, N. Bhadra, K.L. Kilgore
2009 IEEE transactions on neural systems and rehabilitation engineering  
required to achieve conduction block in both computer simulations and mammalian whole nerve experiments.  ...  The local delivery of high-frequency alternating currents (HFAC) has been shown to be a fast acting and quickly reversible method of blocking neural conduction and may provide a treatment alternative for  ...  Acknowledgments This work was supported by the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering under Grant R01-EB-002091.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tnsre.2009.2034069 pmid:19840914 pmcid:PMC3464462 fatcat:ob4fz7vy6zcjhcnguequolt33y

Modeling the response of small myelinated axons in a compound nerve to kilohertz frequency signals

N A Pelot, C E Behrend, W M Grill
2017 Journal of Neural Engineering  
Electrical signals in the kilohertz frequency (KHF) range can produce different responses, including conduction block.  ...  circuit equivalent (cable) model axons (1, 2, and 5.7 μm in diameter).  ...  Simulations with Model Axons Using NEURON v7.3 [38] , we modeled 100 mm-long small myelinated axons (1, 2, 5.7 μm myelin diameter) based upon the MRG model of mammalian peripheral nerve fibres at 37°C  ... 
doi:10.1088/1741-2552/aa6a5f pmid:28361793 pmcid:PMC5677574 fatcat:qfvwcrtj4japhoeskx4biczp3e

Biophysics of Temporal Interference Stimulation

Ehsan Mirzakhalili, Beatrice Barra, Marco Capogrosso, Scott F. Lempka
2020 Cell Systems  
Unfortunately, this mechanism is also responsible for high-frequency conduction block in off-target tissues, thus challenging clinical applications of TI.  ...  Temporal interference (TI) is a non-invasive neurostimulation technique that utilizes high-frequency external electric fields to stimulate deep neuronal structures without affecting superficial, off-target  ...  We would also like to thank the reviewers for helping to significantly improve the quality of this manuscript.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.cels.2020.10.004 pmid:33157010 fatcat:xel6g73n7bcltjs7egeg5b7thy

Computational Analysis of Kilohertz Frequency Spinal Cord Stimulation for Chronic Pain Management

Scott F. Lempka, Cameron C. McIntyre, Kevin L. Kilgore, Andre G. Machado
2015 Anesthesiology  
However, this axon model has shown a high degree of accuracy in reproducing the in vivo axonal response to kilohertz frequency electrical stimulation in the peripheral nervous system. 46 Finally, this  ...  Fiber Size Extracellular electrical stimulation can excite myelinated axons by generating action potentials at the nodes of Ranvier.  ... 
doi:10.1097/aln.0000000000000649 pmid:25822589 fatcat:ikikilsy2bgh5dqdvxrno7c6uq

Nerve excitation using an amplitude-modulated signal with kilohertz-frequency carrier and non-zero offset

Leonel E. Medina, Warren M. Grill
2016 Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation  
Incorporating kilohertz-frequency signals in transcutaneous electrical stimulation has been proposed as a means to overcome the impedance of the skin, thereby reaching deeper nerves.  ...  Results of simulations in a computational model of nerve fiber stimulation using the same stimulation waveforms closely matched our experimental measurements.  ...  Ethics approval and consent to participate All animal care and experimental procedures were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees of Duke University, protocol numbers A279-14-12  ... 
doi:10.1186/s12984-016-0171-4 pmid:27405355 pmcid:PMC4941028 fatcat:ms4u3cobv5cpvpmakraywhr2gi

Mechanistic modeling suggests that low-intensity focused ultrasound can selectively recruit myelinated or unmyelinated nerve fibers [article]

Theo Lemaire, Elena Vicari, Esra Neufeld, Niels Kuster, Silvestro Micera
2020 bioRxiv   pre-print
Our findings show that LIFUS offers distinct parametric sub-spaces to selectively recruit myelinated or unmyelinated axons and modulate their spiking activity over physiologically relevant regimes and  ...  coupling, consistently explains recent empirical findings and suggests that LIFUS can preferentially target nociceptive and sensory fibers to enable peripheral therapeutic applications not addressable by electric  ...  The funders had no role in study design, data collection and 833 analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. 834  ... 
doi:10.1101/2020.11.19.390070 fatcat:wbu4apuzfnawhlc3sm7cgof3ay

An Evaluation of the Conductivity Profile in the Somatosensory Barrel Cortex of Wistar Rats

Takakuni Goto, Rieko Hatanaka, Takeshi Ogawa, Akira Sumiyoshi, Jorge Riera, Ryuta Kawashima
2010 Journal of Neurophysiology  
These results were in agreement with the layer-dependent orientations of myelinated axons, but hardly related to densities of cells.  ...  Finally, we demonstrated through simulations that ignoring the real conductivity profile in the somatosensory barrel cortex of rats caused considerable errors in the CSD reconstruction, with pronounced  ...  The optimization block consists of four steps performed for each rat: 1) from the 2 s data (i.e., the sinusoidal electric currents I i and the responding voltage differences V i ), we selected a 60-ms  ... 
doi:10.1152/jn.00122.2010 pmid:20810682 fatcat:xyxnfbjq5fdeloqpkf7hppci2e

Possible existence of optical communication channels in the brain [article]

Sourabh Kumar, Kristine Boone, Jack Tuszynski, Paul E Barclay, Christoph Simon
2016 bioRxiv   pre-print
Here we show, based on detailed theoretical modeling, that myelinated axons could serve as photonic waveguides, taking into account realistic optical imperfections.  ...  We discuss the implications of our results, including the question whether photons could mediate long-range quantum entanglement in the brain.  ...  Healey, the University of Calgary IT support team, and the Westgrid support team for assistance with running FDTD on a computer cluster.  ... 
doi:10.1101/062745 fatcat:vrgpfp7xjvfchhkaugracsdydy

Analytical theory for extracellular electrical stimulation of nerve with focal electrodes. II. Passive myelinated axon

J.T. Rubinstein
1991 Biophysical Journal  
Electrical parameters of the model are chosen where possible, from mammalian peripheral nerve and anatomic parameters from cat auditory nerve.  ...  The cable model of a passive, myelinated fiber is derived using the theory of electromagnetic propagation in periodic structures.  ...  This work is supported by National Institutes of Health grant DC00361 and training grant DC00020.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0006-3495(91)82084-7 pmid:1932546 pmcid:PMC1260098 fatcat:z3bz6zwcx5dypiguxuwqnsbsnu

Simulation of impedance changes with a FEM model of a myelinated nerve fibre [article]

Ilya Tarotin, Kirill Aristovich, David Holder
2019 arXiv   pre-print
Electrical parameters of the model were changed so that nodal and internodal membrane potential as well as propagation velocity agreed with experimental values. dZ was simulated during activity under various  ...  Conclusion and significance: The novel fully bi-directionally coupled FEM model of a myelinated fibre was able to optimize EIT for myelinated fibres and explain the biophysical basis of the measured signals  ...  This research was supported by GSK/Verily (Galvani Bioelectronics)-UCL collaboration grant "Imaging and selective stimulation of autonomic nerve traffic using Electrical Impedance Tomography and a non-penetrating  ... 
arXiv:1903.04948v1 fatcat:3ifg7jtjjrbuhk4b5pipc4p7vu
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