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Similarity of Objects and the Meaning of Words [article]

Rudi Cilibrasi and Paul Vitanyi (CWI and University of Amsterdam)
2006 arXiv   pre-print
We consider similarity distances for two types of objects: literal objects that as such contain all of their meaning, like genomes or books, and names for objects.  ...  In both cases experiments on a massive scale give evidence of the viability of the approaches. between pairs of literal objects. For the second type we consider similarity  ...  For simplicity we take it that all meaning of the object is represented by the literal object itself.  ... 
arXiv:cs/0602065v1 fatcat:2zzebz4vfrgwni6qrkyht7ncjq

Similarity of Objects and the Meaning of Words [chapter]

Rudi Cilibrasi, Paul Vitanyi
2006 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We consider similarity distances for two types of objects: literal objects that as such contain all of their meaning, like genomes or books, and names for objects.  ...  For the first type we consider a family of computable distance measures corresponding to parameters expressing similarity according to particular features between pairs of literal objects.  ...  For simplicity we take it that all meaning of the object is represented by the literal object itself.  ... 
doi:10.1007/11750321_2 fatcat:75cwjcu2brbbvminyxffcaekiq

Is this a Child, a Girl or a Car? Exploring the Contribution of Distributional Similarity to Learning Referential Word Meanings

Sina Zarrieß, David Schlangen
2017 Proceedings of the 15th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Volume 2, Short Papers  
We investigate the opposite direction, as it were, trying to improve visual word predictors that identify objects in images, by exploiting distributional similarity information during training.  ...  There has recently been a lot of work trying to use images of referents of words for improving vector space meaning representations derived from text.  ...  Acknowledgments We acknowledge support by the Cluster of Excellence "Cognitive Interaction Technology" (CITEC; EXC 277) at Bielefeld University, which is funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG).  ... 
doi:10.18653/v1/e17-2014 dblp:conf/eacl/SchlangenZ17 fatcat:crpp3362wzgs7lptqdqjqrtlxq

Page 35 of None Vol. 57, Issue 1 [page]

1959 None  
Results showed no significant differences in the amount of meaningfulness of words and objects. In Exp.  ...  III, the intralist stimulus similarity of the lists was measured by having 36 Ss rate their concepts of the words and objects on the semantic differential.  ... 

Impact of semantic similarity in novel associations: Direct and indirect routes to action

Scott N. Macdonald, Eric D. Richards, Geneviève Desmarais
2015 Attention, Perception & Psychophysics  
To investigate the role of semantics when object-action associations are novel, we had participants learn to use and name novel objects and rehearse the object, action, and name associations over one week  ...  Actions produced in response to familiar objects are predominantly mediated by the visual structure of objects, and less so by their semantic associations.  ...  Author note This research was supported by a Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada Discovery Grant (PIN-246231-07), awarded to the second author, as well as by a Marjorie-Young Bell  ... 
doi:10.3758/s13414-015-1041-z pmid:26704564 fatcat:74lzxozfjvgnlaqglyjk5ocu2u

Obtaining referential word meanings from visual and distributional information: Experiments on object naming

Sina Zarrieß, David Schlangen
2017 Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers)  
We present a model that learns individual predictors for object names that link visual and distributional aspects of word meaning during training.  ...  In a standard object naming task, we find that different ways of combining lexical and visual information achieve very similar performance, though experiments on model combination suggest that they capture  ...  We thank the anonymous reviewers for their very valuable, very detailed and highly interesting comments.  ... 
doi:10.18653/v1/p17-1023 dblp:conf/acl/ZarriessS17 fatcat:kjji6eznnrg7jp52gx5edofsla

On the use and meaning of prepositions

Herbert H. Clark
1968 Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior  
This study explored the relationship between the use and meaning of 33 prepositions.  ...  Free associations were most often the substitutes of a preposition and next most often nominals differing from, but having common properties with, its objects in sentences.  ...  The present percentages again reflect the relative importance to the meaning of a preposition, of other prepositions, its objects, and the words modified (which fall into the other-association category  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0022-5371(68)80027-1 fatcat:oanyywdzknfwnkvq2mfuuzuxeu

Association, abstraction, and the conceptual organization of recall: Implications for clinical tests

A. E. Willner, W. E. Reitz
1966 Journal of Abnormal Psychology  
A series of 4 experiments investigated this hypothesis for both the WAIS Similarities and BRL Object Sorting Tests.  ...  Recent discoveries about associative meaning were hypothesized to have important implications for the problem of assessment of abstraction by clinical tests.  ...  The term associative neighborhood refers to a cluster of words and ideas organized by similarity in associative meaning.  ... 
doi:10.1037/h0023814 fatcat:koxe5vppvne2rekdanusdlpzae

Measuring sentence similarity from different aspects

Lin Li, Xia Hu, Bi-Yun Hu, Jun Wang, Yi-Ming Zhou
2009 2009 International Conference on Machine Learning and Cybernetics  
Experiments show that the proposed method makes the sentence similarity comparison more exactly and give out a more reasonable result, which is similar to the people's comprehension to the meanings of  ...  Based on the information people get from a sentence, Objects-Specified Similarity, Objects-Property Similarity, Objects-Behavior Similarity and Overall Similarity are defined to determine sentence similarities  ...  Acknowledgements The work is supported by the National Basic Research Program of China under Grant No.2007CB310803.  ... 
doi:10.1109/icmlc.2009.5212182 fatcat:63cohikz2vd2blqk7uooswtvia

The Ontogeny of Lexical Networks

Erica H. Wojcik, Jenny R. Saffran
2013 Psychological Science  
Toddlers listened significantly longer to word pairs referring to similar objects, which suggests that their representations of the novel words included knowledge about the similarity of the referents.  ...  Participants then listened to repetitions of word pairs (in the absence of visual referents) that referred to objects that were either similar or dissimilar to each other.  ...  Acknowledgments We thank the families who participated in the experiments as well as the members of the Infant Learning Lab, specifically Casey Lew-Williams, Brianna McMillan, and Hillary Stein.  ... 
doi:10.1177/0956797613478198 pmid:23938274 pmcid:PMC3865601 fatcat:iypjmpfo6vfptbzbfhr7b34q5y

A cross-situational algorithm for learning a lexicon using Neural modeling fields

Jose F. Fontanari, Vadim Tikhanoff, Angelo Cangelosi, Leonid I. Perlovsky
2009 2009 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks  
Cross-situational learning is based on the idea that a learner can determine the meaning of a word by finding something in common across all observed uses of that word.  ...  The first is termed object-word representation because it takes as inputs all possible objectword pairs and weighs them by their frequencies of occurrence in the stochastic guessing game.  ...  If we recall that we are not making any distinction between the concepts of object and meaning (we have skipped the object-meaning mapping by identifying meaning and object so the usual meaning-word mapping  ... 
doi:10.1109/ijcnn.2009.5178788 dblp:conf/ijcnn/FontanariTCP09 fatcat:7osnhmgcqvhs3ge6gp2onmoqpa

Flexible word meaning in embodied agents

Peter Wellens, Martin Loetzsch, Luc Steels
2008 Connection science  
Learning the meanings of words requires coping with referential uncertainty -a learner hearing a novel word cannot be sure which aspects or properties of the referred object or event comprise the meaning  ...  Meanings of words can shift between being very specific (names) and general (e.g. "small").  ...  This research was carried out at the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel and the Sony Computer Science Laboratory in Paris and Tokyo with additional support from FWOAL328  ... 
doi:10.1080/09540090802091966 fatcat:3yqxyxstfvetvjjrnaikgbrwbq

Extending Latent Semantic Analysis to manage its Syntactic Blindness

Raja Muhammad Suleman, Ioannis Korkontzelos
2020 Expert systems with applications  
If the list and the sentence contain similar words, comparing them using LSA would lead to a high similarity score.  ...  pairs that contain similar words but have significantly different meaning.  ...  Acknowledgement This research work is part of the TYPHON Project, which has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme under grant agreement No. 780251.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.eswa.2020.114130 fatcat:dtkgblko2zai7klogo4ago7yti

Sentence clustering in text document using fuzzy clustering algorithm

S Sruthi, L Shalini
2014 2014 International Conference on Control, Instrumentation, Communication and Computational Technologies (ICCICCT)  
of better sentence similarity measures, which may in turn be based on improved word sense disambiguation, etc.  ...  Relevant document can be efficiently retrieved and accessed by means of document clustering.  ...  In plain words, objects in the same cluster should be as similar as possible, whereas objects in one cluster should be as dissimilar as possible from objects in the other clusters.  ... 
doi:10.1109/iccicct.2014.6993192 fatcat:spgmj3n7xrcevlh7dknfdutufy

Relations among word meanings in early lexical development

Sandra R. Waxman, Ann Senghas
1992 Developmental Psychology  
For dissimilar objects, children interpreted the words as mutually exclusive. For more similar objects, children's performance was consistent with a hierarchical interpretation of meaning.  ...  Although we never specified the relations among words, children's interpretation of the relations was mediated by the similarity of the objects.  ...  For example, we compared the mean similarity rating for hook-clip with the mean similarity rating for each of the following pairs: hookflute, hook-tong, clip-flute, and clip-tong.  ... 
doi:10.1037/0012-1649.28.5.862 fatcat:u42gcgnhmfg6dageyzguiq3ihy
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