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All the children of the world should be born equal, but this is not so: even in Italy, there are striking differences already at birth. Neonatal and infant mortality are accurate indexes to assess the demographic wellbeing and quality of life of a population. The aim of the present study is to analyze the infant (IMR) and neonatal (NMR) mortality rates of Italian and foreign children and to evaluate if there is a disparity among geographical macro-areas. Methods: Data from 2006 to 2015 weredoi:10.1186/s13052-018-0594-6 fatcat:e3mhgk4a45hp7hgr2z4jc74sp4
more »... ected by the Italian Statistics Bureau (ISTAT) and extracted from two different national databases, which considered i) underlying cause of death and ii) birth registry. Mortality rates were calculated using conventional definitions. The main analyses were made comparing Italian versus foreigners as a single category as well as by country origin and contrasting Northern residents versus Southern ones. Comparisons between groups were done using relative risks. Results: Data show disparity in neonatal and infant mortality among immigrant and Italian residents. In 2015, neonatal (3.0 vs.
The goal of this study was to report the first case of antral stenosis in a cat. We have described a clinical case of a 9 months old domestic shorthaired cat referred for persistent and refractory vomiting, anorexia and loss of weight. Ultrasound (US) examination detected a mild gastric distension, mild wall thickening (5mm), severe serosal irregularities and a constriction between the fundus and body. Computed tomography (CT) was then performed: a severe gastric stenosis between the body anddoi:10.2478/acve-2019-0010 fatcat:l3yw5qzxwfff7dm5tqpof655au
more »... trum with minimum contrast transit was detected and confirmed by flexible endoscopic examination. The antral localization of the stenosis was revealed after a cranial celiotomy and Y-U plastic was necessary to correct the defect. The patient completely recovered after surgery with significant body weight gain and remained in remission throughout a 2-years follow-up. While in human medicine there is evidence of acquired antral stenosis, no information is available about the same lesion in the feline species. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of antral stenosis in cats.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by motoneuron loss. Some familial cases (fALS) are linked to mutations of superoxide dismutase type-1 (SOD1), an antioxidant enzyme whose activity is preserved in most mutant forms. Owing to the similarities in sporadic and fALS forms, mutant SOD1 animal and cellular models are a useful tool to study the disease. In transgenic mice expressing either wild-type (wt) human SOD1 or mutant G93A-SOD1, we found that wtSOD1 wasdoi:10.1093/hmg/ddm110 pmid:17504823 fatcat:ru4xojgvg5fuheiuumtwodi3le
more »... esent in cytoplasm and in nuclei of motoneurons, whereas mutant SOD1 was mainly cytoplasmic. Similar results were obtained in immortalized motoneurons (NSC34 cells) expressing either wtSOD1 or G93A-SOD1. Analyzing the proteasome activity, responsible for misfolded protein clearance, in the two subcellular compartments, we found proteasome impairment only in the cytoplasm. The effect of G93A-SOD1 exclusion from nuclei was then analyzed after oxidative stress. Cells expressing G93A-SOD1 showed a higher DNA damage compared with those expressing wtSOD1, possibly because of a loss of nuclear protection. The toxicity of mutant SOD1 might, therefore, arise from an initial misfolding (gain of function) reducing nuclear protection from the active enzyme (loss of function in the nuclei), a process that may be involved in ALS pathogenesis.
Natural surfactant preparations, commonly isolated from porcine or bovine lungs, are used to treat respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants. Besides biophysical effectiveness, several studies have documented additional immunomodulatory properties. Within the near future, synthetic surfactant preparations may be a promising alternative. CHF5633 is a new generation reconstituted synthetic surfactant preparation with defined composition, containing dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine,doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0153578 pmid:27077658 pmcid:PMC4831819 fatcat:nf3m45zsanhdnp4xf7vuwqximu
more »... -oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol and synthetic analogs of surfactant protein (SP-) B and SP-C. While its biophysical effectiveness has been demonstrated in vitro and in vivo, possible immunomodulatory abilities are currently unknown. Aim The aim of the current study was to define a potential impact of CHF5633 and its single components on pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokine responses in human CD4 + lymphocytes. Methods Purified human CD4 + T cells were activated using anti CD3/CD28 antibodies and exposed to CHF5633, its components, or to the well-known animal-derived surfactant Poractant alfa (Curosurf 1 ). Proliferative response and cell viability were assessed using flow cytometry and a methylthiazolyldiphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay. The mRNA expression of IFNγ, IL-2, IL-17A, IL-22, IL-4, and IL-10 was measured by quantitative PCR, while intracellular protein expression was assessed by means of flow cytometry. Results Neither CHF5633 nor any of its phospholipid components with or without SP-B or SP-C analogs had any influence on proliferative ability and viability of CD4 + lymphocytes under PLOS ONE | the given conditions. IFNγ, IL-2, IL-17A, IL-22, IL-4, and IL-10 mRNA as well as IFNγ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 protein levels were unaffected in both non-activated and activated CD4 + lymphocytes after exposure to CHF5633 or its constituents compared to non-exposed controls. However, in comparison to Curosurf 1 , expression levels of anti-inflammatory IL-4 and IL-10 mRNA were significantly increased in CHF5633 exposed CD4 + lymphocytes. Conclusion For the first time, the immunomodulatory capacity of CHF5633 on CD4 + lymphocytes was evaluated. CHF5633 did not show any cytotoxicity on CD4 + cells. Moreover, our in vitro data indicate that CHF5633 does not exert unintended pro-inflammatory effects on non-activated and activated CD4 + T cells. As far as anti-inflammatory cytokines are concerned, it might lack an overall reductive ability in comparison to animal-derived surfactants, potentially leaving pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokine response in balance. Impact of CHF5633 on CD4+ Cells PLOS ONE | Curosurf 1 , CHF5633 and its components DPPC and POPG, as well as 1:1 mixtures of DPPC and POPG with or without peptide analogs to SP-B (0.2%) and SP-C (1.5%) were supplied by Chiesi Farmaceutici S.p.A. (Parma, Italy). Isolation and cultivation of CD4 + T cells PBMCs were accumulated from randomized leukocyte concentrates obtained from apheresis products of anonymized healthy adult donors from the university hospital's Department of Impact of CHF5633 on CD4+ Cells PLOS ONE |
We report the case of a 65-year-old man with acute GFR decline to 37 mL/min and uncontrolled high blood pressure. He was suspected for renovascular hypertension and underwent a renal color Doppler ultrasound scan that detected a bilateral atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis. A digital selective angiography by percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting (PTRAs) was successfully performed. Blood pressure rapidly normalized, GFR increased within a few days, and proteinuria disappeareddoi:10.3390/medicina57090944 pmid:34577867 fatcat:zcmdd3tlxzarpoq6sq4tkaphbq
more »... eafter. These clinical goals were accompanied by a significant increase of circulating renal stem cells (RSC) and a slight increase of resistive index (RI) in both kidneys. This single observation suggests the need for extensive studies aimed at evaluating the predictive power of RI and RSC in detecting post-ischemic renal repair mechanisms.
The increased amount of melanin leads to skin disorders such as age spots, freckles, melasma and malignant melanoma. Tyrosinase is known to be the key enzyme in melanin production. Plants and their extracts are inexpensive and rich resources of active compounds that can be utilized to inhibit tyrosinase as well as can be used for the treatment of dermatological disorders associated with melanin hyperpigmentation. Using in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory activity assay, extracts from 13 plantdoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048589 pmid:23173036 pmcid:PMC3500240 fatcat:xmfj6i2xmbdplggkiqfu24wv7e
more »... from Brazilian Cerrado were evaluated. The results showed that Pouteria torta and Eugenia dysenterica extracts presented potent in vitro tyrosinase inhibition compared to positive control kojic acid. Ethanol extract of Eugenia dysenterica leaves showed significant (p,0.05) tyrosinase inhibitory activity exhibiting the IC 50 value of 11.88 mg/ mL, compared to kojic acid (IC 50 value of 13.14 mg/mL). Pouteria torta aqueous extract leaves also showed significant inhibitory activity with IC 50 value of 30.01 mg/mL. These results indicate that Pouteria torta and Eugenia dysenterica extracts and their isolated constituents are promising agents for skin-whitening or antimelanogenesis formulations.
African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Following a tendency of studying the potential effects of plant extracts to cancer, this study aimed to evaluate in vitro the cytotoxic activity of Plectranthus neochilus (PN) extracts and its fractions in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines and assess their tumor specificity. MTT assay was conducted with two HNSCC cell lines, FaDu (hypopharynx carcinoma) and SCC-25 (tongue carcinoma), one keratinocyte (HaCat) and one fibroblast (L929) cell line. Two PN leaf crude extracts,doi:10.5897/ajpp2015.4355 fatcat:jdqxfmrwfvazxfog4zty5tzzxy
more »... one ethanolic (E) and one hexanic (H), and their nine fractions were tested. A dose-response curve was performed with hexane PNH fraction and a tumor specificity index (TSI) was calculated. For all cell lines studied, almost all extracts and fractions resulted in cell viability lower than 50%. Hexane and methanol PNH fractions were exceptions, causing a significantly low viability in SCC-25 (17.16 and 34.53%, respectively), but higher than 50% in FaDu, HaCat and L929. The dose-response curve with hexane PNH fraction resulted in a CC 50 of 540.9 µg/mL for FaDu, 550 µg/mL for L929, 762.1 µg/mL for HaCat and 274.2 µg/mL for SCC-25. The TSI L929/FaDu was 1.01, HaCat/FaDu was 1.40, L929/SCC-25 was 2.00 and HaCat/SCC-25 was 2.77. TSIs indicate its specificity for tongue carcinoma cells, when compared to fibroblasts and keratinocytes.
Objective: The objective of our study is to evaluate the clinical outcomes and safety of radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFA) for benign thyroid nodules (BTNs) over a 1-year follow-up. Subjects and methods: This is a monocentric retrospective study. Forty-eight patients with solid, non-functioning BTNs were treated by RFA using a 17G internally cooled electrode. We categorized thyroid nodules as small (≤ 12 mL), medium (12 to 30 mL), or large (over 30 mL). BTNs volume reduction, thyroiddoi:10.1590/2359-3997000000246 pmid:28226000 fatcat:sksl6ltazngqfa5kqwsm3vv4uq
more »... n, cosmetic and compressive score changes and side effect evaluation at 6 and 12 months were evaluated. Results: BTN volume decreased significantly from baseline to 6 (mean percentage decrease of BTN volume was 66.8 ± 13.6%, p < 0.001). At 12 months, the mean percentage reduction of BTN volume compared to six months was 13.7 ± 17.1% (p < 0.001). At 6-month, symptom score had improved significantly (p < 0.001) while it does not change significantly between 6 and 12 months. In particular, symptom score improved significantly in the medium (p < 0.001) and large (p < 0.01) subgroups. Cosmetic score improved significantly between baseline and 6 months (p < 0.001) and between 6 and 12 months (p < 0.01). In all the subgroups, cosmetic score improved significantly between baseline and 6 months, while between 6 and 12 months it improved significantly only in the large group (p < 0.05). RFA was well tolerated. Only one patient experienced permanent right paramedian vocal cord palsy. Conclusions: A single RFA treatment was effective in reducing BTNs volume, in particular small and medium nodules. Cosmetic score improved in all treated BTNs while symptom score only got better in the medium and large BTNs.
Studies comparing cause-of-death patterns across countries during the COVID-19 outbreak are still lacking although such studies would contribute to the understanding of the direct and indirect effect of the virus on mortality. In this report, we compare the mortality pattern observed in Italy during the first pandemic wave (March–April 2020) with that of some European countries. We calculated cause-specific, age-standardized mortality ratios (SMR) for Spain, England, and Sweden for the twodoi:10.3390/covid1040060 fatcat:ahxswmpmt5c4rma3yi6vamj5qm
more »... oned months from 2016 to 2020, using already published data. Although Italy presented the highest crude overall mortality rate (267 per 100,000 population), age-adjusted ratios showed that all-cause and COVID-19 mortality in Italy were higher than in Sweden but lower than in the other two countries. Some causes had a similar increase in 2020 compared to previous years in all countries, i.e., endocrine diseases (especially diabetes), dementia and Alzheimer's (in general mental disorders), and hypertensive heart diseases. Conversely, respiratory diseases, in particular pneumonia and influenza, increased to a greater extent in Italy. This latter result could be, in part, related to the underreporting of COVID-19 on death certificates during the first period of the pandemic, when Italy was the first European country severely hit by the virus.
The FASEB Journal
The CAG/polyglutamine (polyGln)-related diseases include nine different members that together form the most common class of inherited neurodegenerative disorders; neurodegeneration is linked to the same type of mutation, found in unrelated genes, consisting of an abnormal expansion of a polyGln tract normally present in the wild-type proteins. Nuclear, cytoplasmic, or neuropil aggregates are detectable in CAG/polyGln-related diseases, but their role is still debated. Alteration of the androgendoi:10.1096/fj.01-1035fje pmid:12205033 fatcat:roiyamx6nbbzfcwkglh4te3xee
more »... eceptor (AR), one of these proteins, has been linked to spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy, an X-linked recessive disease characterized by motoneuronal death. By using immortalized motoneuronal cells (the neuroblastoma-spinal cord cell line NSC34), we analyzed neuropil aggregate formation and toxicity: green fluorescent protein-tagged wild-type or mutated ARs were cotransfected into NSC34 cells with a blue fluorescent protein tagged to mitochondria. Altered mitochondrial distribution was observed in neuronal processes containing aggregates; occasionally, neuropil aggregates and mitochondrial concentration corresponded to axonal swelling. Neuropil aggregates also impaired the distribution of the motor protein kinesin. These data suggest that neuropil aggregates may physically alter neurite transport and thus deprive neuronal processes of factors or components that are important for axonal and dendritic functions. The soma may then be affected, leading to neuronal dysfunctions and possibly to cell death.
Plant-derived molecules showing antineoplastic effects have recently gained increased attention as potential adjuvants to traditional therapies for various cancers. Cerrado biome in Brazil contains high floral biodiversity, but knowledge about the potential therapeutic effects of compounds derived from that flora is still limited. The present study investigated the antineoplastic activity of Erythroxylum daphnites Mart., a Brazilian native plant from Cerrado biome, in the SCC-9 oral squamousdoi:10.1080/15384101.2016.1151583 pmid:26918580 pmcid:PMC4889281 fatcat:gigoaa6zeba7zm4hhsm4mqgbtm
more »... l carcinoma cell line. Cells were treated with various concentrations of hexane extract of Erythroxylum daphnites leaves (EDH) and assessed for cytotoxicity, proliferation, and apoptosis. Thin layer chromatography was conducted to characterize the substances present in EDH. Our results showed that EDH exerted anti-proliferative effects in SCC-9 cells by stabilizing the cell cycle at G 1 phase in association with reduced intracellular levels of cyclins D and E and increased level of p21. EDH also demonstrated pro-apoptotic properties, as shown by an increased expression of caspase-3. Triterpenes were the major constituents of EDH. Our findings demonstrated a cytotoxic effect of EDH against SCC-9 cells in vitro mediated by the restraint of cellular proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Taken together, these findings support EDH constituents as potential therapeutic adjuvants for oral cancer.
Poractant alfa and Calsurf are two natural surfactants widely used in China for the treatment of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, which are extracted from porcine and calf lungs, respectively. The purpose of this experimental study was to compare their in vitro characteristics and in vivo effects in the improvement of pulmonary function and protection of lung injury. The biophysical properties, ultrastructure, and lipid composition of both surfactant preparations were respectivelydoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0230229 pmid:32168331 fatcat:ffamzwze2zh45cusm5qjzi3vpu
more »... d in vitro by means of Langmuir-Blodgett trough (LBT), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and liquid-chromatography mass-spectrometry (LC-MS). Then, as core pharmacological activity, both head-to-head (100 and 200 mg/kg for both surfactants) and licensed dose comparisons (70 mg/kg Calsurf vs. 200 mg/kg Poractant alfa) between the two surfactants were conducted as prophylaxis in preterm rabbits with primary surfactant deficiency, assessing survival time and rate and dynamic compliance of the respiratory system (Cdyn). Intrapulmonary surfactant pools, morphometric volume density as alveolar expansion (Vv), and lung injury scores were determined post mortem. AFM and LC-MS analysis revealed qualitative differences in the ultrastructure as well as in the lipid composition of both preparations. Calsurf showed a longer plateau region of the LBT isotherm and lower film compressibility. In vivo, both surfactant preparations improved Cdyn at any dose, although maximum benefits in terms of Vv and intrapulmonary surfactant pools were seen with the 200 mg/kg dose in both surfactants. The group of animals treated with 200 mg/kg of Poractant alfa showed a prolonged survival time and rate compared to untreated but ventilated controls, and significantly ameliorated lung injury compared to Calsurf at any dose, including 200 mg/kg. The overall outcomes suggest the pulmonary effects to be dose dependent for both preparations. The group of animals treated with 200 mg/kg of Poractant alfa showed a significant reduction of mortality. Compared to Calsurf, Poractant alfa exerted better effects if licensed doses were compared, which requires further investigation.
Silvia Perugi in the Careggi NICU of Florence University Hospital, Florence. ... Silvia Perugi: contributed to the design of the research, survey execution and the collection of the data. Paola Cavicchioli: contributed to the design, promotion and execution of the survey. ...doi:10.1186/s13052-021-01164-8 pmid:34857018 pmcid:PMC8638249 fatcat:gfznahn3irgp5hzz4pkgikiyzy
Although taxels (in particular paclitaxel), cisplatin and fluorouracil (TPF) chemotherapy has been approved for use in the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), little is known with regard to the cellular mechanisms of this novel drug association. In order to investigate the reaction of cells to this novel treatment, the present study aimed to examine the cytotoxic effect of TPF in HNSCC cell lines in combination with irradiation, to analyze its effect on cell cycledoi:10.3892/ol.2015.3458 pmid:26622739 pmcid:PMC4533626 fatcat:6jgq2iotwzctpgwsnjkho47f7m
more »... sion and cell death, and to evaluate its ability to alter cell migration. An MTT assay was used to determine cell viability following TPF and cisplatin treatments in two human HNSCC cell lines (FaDu and SCC-9) and one keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). The concurrent use of TPF or cisplatin and irradiation was also analyzed. Flow cytometric analysis was utilized to determine the cell cycle distribution and to verify the induction of apoptosis. The capacity of the drugs to alter oral cancer cell migration was also evaluated using a Transwell migration assay. The results indicated that TPF and cisplatin were cytotoxic to all cell lines, and enhanced the effects of ionizing radiation. FaDu cells were significantly more sensitive to the two treatments, and TPF was more cytotoxic than cisplatin for all cells. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that TPF increased the number of cells in G0/G1 phase in the SCC-9 cell line, and indicated apoptotic cell death. The results of the Transwell assay demonstrated that TPF inhibited migration in oral carcinoma cell lines. The results of the present study indicated that TPF functions in oral carcinoma cell lines through the enhancement of ionizing radiation effects, inducing cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 and apoptosis, in addition to inhibiting migration.
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