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Revisiting and Evaluating Software Side-channel Vulnerabilities and Countermeasures in Cryptographic Applications [article]

Tianwei Zhang and Jun Jiang and Yinqian Zhang
2019 arXiv   pre-print
We systematize software side-channel attacks with a focus on vulnerabilities and countermeasures in the cryptographic implementations.  ...  Based on these characterizations and evaluations, we offer some insights for side-channel researchers, cryptographic software developers and users.  ...  ., modular multiplication). Plaintext/ciphertext blinding can only defeat chosen-input side-channel attacks, while key blinding does not have this limitation.  ... 
arXiv:1911.09312v2 fatcat:o4am4aurlfajjkj7nuz3kbso6y

Online Template Attacks: Revisited

Alejandro Cabrera Aldaya, Billy Bob Brumley
2021 Transactions on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems  
An online template attack (OTA) is a powerful technique previously used to attack elliptic curve scalar multiplication algorithms.  ...  side channels.  ...  This leads to new application scenarios regardless of the exploited side channel. Section 2 presents background on elliptic curve scalar multiplication algorithms and microarchitecture side channels.  ... 
doi:10.46586/tches.v2021.i3.28-59 fatcat:p3v3uan37beprersu6oyuvggpi

Microarchitecture Online Template Attacks [article]

Alejandro Cabrera Aldaya, Billy Bob Brumley
2020 arXiv   pre-print
Online template attack (OTA) is a powerful technique previously used to attack elliptic curve scalar multiplication algorithms.  ...  In this paper we start filling this gap by revisiting the original OTA description, proposing a generic framework and evaluation metrics for any side-channel signal.  ...  Section 2 presents background on elliptic curve scalar multiplication algorithms and microarchitecture side-channels.  ... 
arXiv:2007.05337v1 fatcat:lry2o74mtbgpboescpa44zbncy

There's Something about m-ary [chapter]

Benoit Feix, Vincent Verneuil
2013 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
In this paper, we study the fixed-point scalar multiplication operation on elliptic curves in the context of embedded devices prone to physical attacks.  ...  In particular, we study their security towards side-channel and fault analysis and propose a set of low-cost yet efficient countermeasures against these attacks.  ...  Side-Channel Analysis and Countermeasures Countering SSCA on scalar multiplication can be achieved using regular implementations [25] .  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-03515-4_13 fatcat:6hgfdrwlpjfr3icxe63a2gjqza

May the Fourth Be With You

Daniel Genkin, Luke Valenta, Yuval Yarom
2017 Proceedings of the 2017 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security - CCS '17  
with better countermeasures against side channel attacks.  ...  We find that the resulting interactions of the point at infinity, order-2, and order-4 elements in the Montgomery ladder scalar-by-point multiplication routine create side channel leakage that allows us  ...  Physical Side Channel Attacks on ECC Running on Complex Devices.  ... 
doi:10.1145/3133956.3134029 dblp:conf/ccs/GenkinVY17 fatcat:vdu6zzc3ubhqbdpxu3s4siga74

Using templates to distinguish multiplications from squaring operations

Neil Hanley, Michael Tunstall, William P. Marnane
2011 International Journal of Information Security  
In this paper we present practical results of an attack on RSA signature generation, protected in this manner, based on the expected difference in Hamming weight between the result of a multiplication  ...  Moreover, an attacker does not need to know the plaintexts being operated on and, therefore, blinding and padding countermeasures applied to the plaintext do not hinder the attack in any way.  ...  , in conjunction with side channel atomicity, to prevent an attacker being able to derive information on cryptographic keys.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10207-011-0135-4 fatcat:uyx7shqlvnbupcq547djfb4pgu

CopyCat: Controlled Instruction-Level Attacks on Enclaves [article]

Daniel Moghimi, Jo Van Bulck, Nadia Heninger, Frank Piessens, Berk Sunar
2020 arXiv   pre-print
One particularly powerful class of controlled-channel attacks abuses page-table modifications to reliably track enclave memory accesses at a page-level granularity.  ...  We propose an innovative controlled-channel attack, named CopyCat, that deterministically counts the number of instructions executed within a single enclave code page.  ...  The libraries we examined implemented numerous mitigations against side-channel attacks, including always-add-and-double for elliptic curve scalar multiplication and RSA exponent masking, but these protections  ... 
arXiv:2002.08437v3 fatcat:5epnn447mjfq3hk6mqk35hlewm

Simple Power Analysis on Exponentiation Revisited [chapter]

Jean-Christophe Courrège, Benoit Feix, Mylène Roussellet
2010 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
In this paper we revisit Simple Power Analysis which is at the heart of side channel techniques. We aim at showing its true efficiency when studied rigorously.  ...  We detail the different ways to achieve this and then show that some blinded exponentiations can still be threatened by Simple Power Analysis depending on the implementation.  ...  Thanks also to Sean Commercial and Vincent Verneuil for their valuable comments and advice on this manuscript.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-12510-2_6 fatcat:4bysihssnjfg7cguwuqprthozm

Chosen Base-Point Side-Channel Attack on Montgomery Ladder with x-only coordinate: with Application to secp256k1

Congming Wei, Jiazhe Chen, An Wang, Beibei Wang, Hongsong Shi, Xiaoyun Wang
2020 IET Information Security  
This study revisits the side-channel security of the elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) scalar multiplication implemented with Montgomery ladder.  ...  efficiency of the scalar recovery attack.  ...  As a consequence, a number of publications focus on the side-channel security of the scalar multiplication when the scalar is the secret value; one can refer to [3] for a survey.  ... 
doi:10.1049/iet-ifs.2018.5228 fatcat:4opjklptgjhh5nugdr6fedvz64

Binary Edwards Curves for Intrinsically Secure ECC Implementations for the IoT

Antoine Loiseau, Jacques J. A. Fournier
2018 Proceedings of the 15th International Joint Conference on e-Business and Telecommunications  
We manage to compute one step of the Montgomery Ladder in 4 multiplications and 4 squares.  ...  On top of the performance benefits, cryptography over such curves have some intrinsic security properties against physical attacks.  ...  Table 2 summarizes the theoretical advantages of the BEC model with respect to Side Channel Attacks (SCA) and Fault Attacks (FA).  ... 
doi:10.5220/0006831506250631 dblp:conf/icete/LoiseauF18 fatcat:5f7a45glwzblfkdazctqstefj4

SoK: Lessons Learned from SSL/TLS Attacks [chapter]

Christopher Meyer, Jörg Schwenk
2014 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Protocols, on the PKI infrastructure and various other attacks.  ...  This paper presents an overview on theoretical and practical attacks of the last 17 years, in chronological order and four categories: Attacks on the Handshake protocol, on the Record and Application Data  ...  ECDSA signatures are generated in TLS/SSL when ECDHE ECDSA ciphersuites are used and rely on scalar multiplications.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-05149-9_12 fatcat:u2hn3qqjzzbobmsm4h3tiibdl4

Exp-HE: a family of fast exponentiation algorithms resistant to SPA, fault, and combined attacks

Carlos Moreno, M. Anwar Hasan, Sebastian Fischmeister
2015 2015 International Conference on Embedded Software (EMSOFT)  
Our proposed techniques also exhibit better resistance against fault attacks and combined fault and side-channel attacks, compared to previous SPA-resistant techniques.  ...  Side-channel analysis, including simple power analysis (SPA), is a class of powerful non-intrusive attacks that are suitable for adversaries with physical access to the device.  ...  The technique also introduces a vulnerability to fault attacks; more specifically, to a combined fault and side-channel attack, as shown by Amiel et al. [2] .  ... 
doi:10.1109/emsoft.2015.7318271 dblp:conf/emsoft/MorenoHF15 fatcat:infjn6rcvvh2dmidzrc5tqhmha

Data-Hiding Codes

P. Moulin, R. Koetter
2005 Proceedings of the IEEE  
Our focus is on the mathematical models, fundamental principles, and code design techniques that are applicable to data hiding.  ...  Some of these applications imply the presence of an adversary attempting to disrupt the transmission of information to the receiver; other applications involve a noisy, generally unknown, communication channel  ...  A typical scenario is one where a key-dependent block code is used, but the same key is used over multiple blocks, or over multiple images, etc.  ... 
doi:10.1109/jproc.2005.859599 fatcat:fshag72wujgntaoom7pd65uf24

An overview of scalar quantization based data hiding methods

Husrev T. Sencar, Mahalingam Ramkumar, Ali N. Akansu
2006 Signal Processing  
We analyze quantization based embedding/detection techniques in terms of the proposed framework based on three key aspects.  ...  The difference between the two frameworks is in how channel dependent nature is reflected in optimal encoding and decoding operations.  ...  Costa showed that for an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel with Gaussian input and side information, the channel capacity does not depend on the side information.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.sigpro.2005.07.018 fatcat:idc43dbnhbfypipahyc2krlzx4

Fast Constant-Time Modular Inversion over Resistant to Simple Power Analysis Attacks for IoT Applications

Anissa Sghaier, Medien Zeghid, Chiraz Massoud, Hassan Yousif Ahmed, Abdellah Chehri, Mohsen Machhout
2022 Sensors  
A modified BEE algorithm (MBEEA) resistant to simple power analysis attacks (SPA) is presented, and the design performance area-delay over is explored.  ...  Our implementation over (length of p = 256 bits) with 2035 slices achieved one modular inversion in only 1.12 μs on Virtex-7.  ...  [16] published a review on passive attacks on ECC scalar multiplication algorithms in 2016, including leakage sources and frequent errors exploited to attack the ECDSA system.  ... 
doi:10.3390/s22072535 pmid:35408148 pmcid:PMC9002486 fatcat:bsiuwvt6jvfnrmkdrjvwcmhfhe
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