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Social Rewards Enhance Offline Improvements in Motor Skill

Sho K. Sugawara, Satoshi Tanaka, Shuntaro Okazaki, Katsumi Watanabe, Norihiro Sadato, Michael Taffe
2012 PLoS ONE  
Motor skill memory is first encoded online in a fragile form during practice and then converted into a stable form by offline consolidation, which is the behavioral stage critical for successful learning. Praise, a social reward, is thought to boost motor skill learning by increasing motivation, which leads to increased practice. However, the effect of praise on consolidation is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that praise following motor training directly facilitates skill
more » ... Fortyeight healthy participants were trained on a sequential finger-tapping task. Immediately after training, participants were divided into three groups according to whether they received praise for their own training performance, praise for another participant's performance, or no praise. Participants who received praise for their own performance showed a significantly higher rate of offline improvement relative to other participants when performing a surprise recall test of the learned sequence. On the other hand, the average performance of the novel sequence and randomly-ordered tapping did not differ between the three experimental groups. These results are the first to indicate that praise-related improvements in motor skill memory are not due to a feedback-incentive mechanism, but instead involve direct effects on the offline consolidation process.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048174 pmid:23144855 pmcid:PMC3492334 fatcat:w4i5pry2lbf4tpn23c7xixmnga

Neural correlates of online cooperation during joint force production

Masaki O. Abe, Takahiko Koike, Shuntaro Okazaki, Sho K. Sugawara, Kohske Takahashi, Katsumi Watanabe, Norihiro Sadato
2019 NeuroImage  
Calculation of the NCR and statistical analysis We applied Akaike causality (Akaike, 1968; Okazaki et al., 2015) to the time-series data of force signals and evaluated the NCR in order to identify the  ...  influence from the stochastic noise involved in the partner's signal, which is a good indicator of the degree to which the participant is sensitive to the partner's behavior during the joint action (Okazaki  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.02.003 pmid:30739061 fatcat:f5yr3nnr5fdpbc2x2zzoqfxm4e

Effects of delayed auditory feedback on the vocal time-reproduction

Shuntaro Okazaki, Koichi Mori, Chang Cai
2010 Acoustical Science and Technology  
doi:10.1250/ast.31.408 fatcat:xfyiwcettjbdhblf3manismndy

Total syntheses of ent-hypocoprin A and ent-hypocoprin B

Koichiro Ota, Taiki Watanabe, Shuntaro Igarashi, Shinnosuke Okazaki, Kazuo Kamaike, Hiroaki Miyaoka
2022 RSC Advances  
This study reports the stereoselective total syntheses of the antipodes of the unique 3/10 bicyclic skeletal sesquiterpenoids, namely, hypocoprin A and hypocoprin B.
doi:10.1039/d2ra02891c pmid:35754888 pmcid:PMC9169068 fatcat:bzli5xqmfzelzpgg4nfgprjyci

Low-Cost 2-Channel Electromyography Telemeter using a Personal Computer Microphone Port

Risa Suzuki, Shuntaro Okazaki, Mayu Kuniya, Yoshihiro Muraoka
2017 International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation  
Objective: For the convenient use of electromyography devices in physical rehabilitation during locomotion, we developed a simple, low-cost 2-channel electromyography telemeter (LC-EMGT) that can be connected wirelessly with a personal computer (PC) microphone port. The aim of this study was to verify whether the performance of our LC-EMGT fulfills the need for monitoring EMG during locomotion of patients in rehabilitation. For this purpose, we compared the performance of our LC-EMGT with an
more » ... sting EMG device (NeuropackΣ). Methods: Muscle activity of the left and right vastus medialis were recorded when the participant repeated a standing-up movement for 10 seconds at 55-bpm speed. The EMG signal was simultaneously recorded by the LC-EMGT and NeuropackΣ. We compared the waveform of these EMG signals and their root mean squared signals in appearance and by cross-correlation analysis. Also, we monitored the orthopedic patients' EMG waveforms during standing-up and ascending stairs. Results: The cross-correlation analysis demonstrated an approximately 170-ms delay in EMG measurement by LC-EMGT due to the wireless signal transformation. Meanwhile, the amplitudes of the waveforms in the LC-EMGT were almost equal to those of the NeuropackΣ. In addition, with the LC-EMGT, we could visually monitor EMG waveforms of the patients during standing-up and stair climbing on-line using a PC. Conclusion: Consequently, the LC-EMGT was as reliable as the existing EMG device at monitoring EMG signals and is available as an EMG monitor in real-time. The LC-EMGT is cost-effective, convenient, and may be generally used in various clinical and sports situations.
doi:10.4172/2329-9096.1000386 fatcat:uaxuva4o5jglbmyzrbbdkthiea

Superconducting gap anisotropy sensitive to nematic domains in FeSe

Takahiro Hashimoto, Yuichi Ota, Haruyoshi Q. Yamamoto, Yuya Suzuki, Takahiro Shimojima, Shuntaro Watanabe, Chuangtian Chen, Shigeru Kasahara, Yuji Matsuda, Takasada Shibauchi, Kozo Okazaki, Shik Shin
2018 Nature Communications  
The structure of the superconducting gap in unconventional superconductors holds a key to understand the momentum-dependent pairing interactions. In superconducting FeSe, there have been controversial results reporting nodal and nodeless gap structures, raising a fundamental issue of pairing mechanisms of iron-based superconductivity. Here, by utilizing polarization-dependent laser-excited angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we report a detailed momentum dependence of the gap in
more » ... d multi-domain regions of orthorhombic FeSe crystals. We confirm that the superconducting gap has a twofold in-plane anisotropy, associated with the nematicity due to orbital ordering. In twinned regions, we clearly find finite gap minima near the vertices of the major axis of the elliptical zone-centered Fermi surface, indicating a nodeless state. In contrast, the single-domain gap drops steeply to zero in a narrow angle range, evidencing for nascent nodes. Such unusual node lifting in multi-domain regions can be explained by the nematicity-induced time-reversal symmetry breaking near the twin boundaries.
doi:10.1038/s41467-017-02739-y pmid:29348671 pmcid:PMC5773685 fatcat:hd7sdqcuw5hp7lejmexclvyl4u

Sleep Is Associated with Offline Improvement of Motor Sequence Skill in Children

Sho K. Sugawara, Satoshi Tanaka, Daisuke Tanaka, Ayumi Seki, Hitoshi T. Uchiyama, Shuntaro Okazaki, Tastuya Koeda, Norihiro Sadato, Manabu Sakakibara
2014 PLoS ONE  
In adults, sleep is necessary for the offline improvement of certain skills, such as sequential finger tapping, but whether children show a similar effect is still debatable. Here, we tested whether sleep is associated with offline performance improvement in children. Nine-and 11-year-old children trained on an explicit sequential finger tapping task. On the night following training, their parents observed and recorded the duration of each child's sleep. The following day, all children
more » ... a surprise retest session on the previously trained sequence. In both 9-and 11-year-old children, skill performance was significantly improved during the first retest session relative to the end of training on the previous day, confirming the offline improvement in performance. There was a significant correlation between the degree of improvement and sleep duration the night after training, suggesting that in children, as in adults, sleep is associated with offline skill enhancement.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0111635 pmid:25372609 pmcid:PMC4221057 fatcat:4ktqmr6rr5giddeghlwi7cedtm

What makes eye contact special? Neural substrates of on-line mutual eye-gaze: a hyperscanning fMRI study

Takahiko Koike, Motofumi Sumiya, Eri Nakagawa, Shuntaro Okazaki, Norihiro Sadato
2019 eNeuro  
Visual Abstract Significance Statement Eye contact is a key element that connects humans during social communication. We focused on a previously unaddressed characteristic of eye contact: real-time mutual interaction as a form of automatic mimicry. Our results indicate that real-time interaction during eye contact is mediated by the cerebellum and limbic mirror system. These findings underscore the importance of the mirror system and cerebellum in real-time unconscious social interaction.
more » ... tic mimicry is a critical element of social interaction. A salient type of automatic mimicry is eye contact characterized by sharing of affective and mental states among individuals. We conducted a hyperscanning functional magnetic resonance imaging study involving on-line (LIVE) and delayed off-line (REPLAY) conditions to test our hypothesis that recurrent interaction through eye contact activates the limbic mirror system, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and anterior insular cortex (AIC), both of which are critical for self-awareness. Sixteen pairs of human adults participated in the experiment. Given that an eye-blink represents an individual's attentional window toward the partner, we analyzed pairwise time-series data for eye-blinks. We used multivariate autoregression analysis to calculate the noise contribution ratio (NCR) as an index of how a participant's directional attention was influenced by that of their partner. NCR was greater in the LIVE than in the REPLAY condition, indicating mutual perceptual-motor interaction during real-time eye contact. Relative to the REPLAY condition, the LIVE condition was associated with greater activation in the left cerebellar hemisphere, vermis, and ACC, accompanied by enhanced functional connectivity between ACC and right AIC. Given the roles of the cerebellum in sensorimotor prediction and ACC in movement initiation, ACC-cerebellar activation may represent their involvement in modulating visual input related to the partner's movement, which may, in turn, involve the limbic mirror system. Our findings indicate that mutual interaction during eye contact is mediated by the cerebellum and limbic mirror system.
doi:10.1523/eneuro.0284-18.2019 fatcat:vmx62a7cnnf53bsq2ypxzpm5h4

Principal component analysis reveals differential attentional modulation of the vocal response to pitch perturbation

Shuntaro Okazaki, Koichi Mori, Minae Okada
2014 Journal of the Acoustical Society of America  
., Vol. 136, No. 1, July 2014 Okazaki et al.: Attentional modulation of vocal response  ...  Some other factors, such as the F0 dependent characteristics of the PSR Okazaki et al., 2009) , should be considered as well.  ... 
doi:10.1121/1.4881921 pmid:24993217 fatcat:gzr5uop6ovhelh6ses5yy5atee

Effect of Acquaintance on Inter-Brain EEG Synchronization

Yuto Kurihara, Hiroshi Yokoyama, Shuntaro Okazaki, Rieko Osu
2019 The Proceedings of the Annual Convention of the Japanese Psychological Association  
doi:10.4992/pacjpa.83.0_2a-043 fatcat:e35x6a65fbbdzam44kejdqkc7q

Development of a low-cost EMG biofeedback device kit as an educational tool for physical therapy students

Risa Suzuki, Yoshihiro Muraoka, Shuntaro Okazaki
2017 Journal of Physical Therapy Science  
Purpose] Electromyography biofeedback therapy is applied to various diseases during physical therapy for motor learning. Our aim was to develop a low-cost electromyography biofeedback device kit that students could build by themselves in class and to evaluate whether this kit was an adequate educational tool for physical therapy students. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 34 volunteers from a 3 year physical therapy vocational school and a 4 year university course. All students were
more » ... ked with: 1) completing a pre-questionnaire; 2) attending basic lectures on electromyography biofeedback therapy and how to build the device; 3) building the device; and 4) completing a post-questionnaire. [Results] Mean time required to build the device was 50.8 ± 34.1 minutes for the vocational course students and 27.4 ± 8.8 minutes for university students. For both groups, there was a significant increase in the number of students stating "have an interest in," "be involved with," and "have knowledge of electromyography biofeedback" when pre-and post-questionnaires were compared. In the post questionnaire, the frequency of the "knowledge increased" response was higher. [Conclusion] Physical therapy students can easily build our new device in a classroom, and this kit is a useful educational tool to motivate learning in electromyography biofeedback.
doi:10.1589/jpts.29.1522 pmid:28931980 pmcid:PMC5599813 fatcat:jhuggz6s5vg4jghucl6pkqpwoy

Preference for Solitude, Social Isolation, Suicidal Ideation, and Self-Harm in Adolescents

Kaori Endo, Shuntaro Ando, Shinji Shimodera, Syudo Yamasaki, Satoshi Usami, Yuji Okazaki, Tsukasa Sasaki, Marcus Richards, Stephani Hatch, Atsushi Nishida
2017 Journal of Adolescent Health  
doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2017.02.018 pmid:28457686 fatcat:t3i4tcaohnfxflsoflzgktlnyq

Unintentional Interpersonal Synchronization Represented as a Reciprocal Visuo-Postural Feedback System: A Multivariate Autoregressive Modeling Approach

Shuntaro Okazaki, Masako Hirotani, Takahiko Koike, Jorge Bosch-Bayard, Haruka K. Takahashi, Maho Hashiguchi, Norihiro Sadato, Alessandro D'Ausilio
2015 PLoS ONE  
People's behaviors synchronize. It is difficult, however, to determine whether synchronized behaviors occur in a mutual direction-two individuals influencing one another-or in one direction-one individual leading the other, and what the underlying mechanism for synchronization is. To answer these questions, we hypothesized a non-leader-follower postural sway synchronization, caused by a reciprocal visuo-postural feedback system operating on pairs of individuals, and tested that hypothesis both
more » ... xperimentally and via simulation. In the behavioral experiment, 22 participant pairs stood face to face either 20 or 70 cm away from each other wearing glasses with or without vision blocking lenses. The existence and direction of visual information exchanged between pairs of participants were systematically manipulated. The time series data for the postural sway of these pairs were recorded and analyzed with cross correlation and causality. Results of cross correlation showed that postural sway of paired participants was synchronized, with a shorter time lag when participant pairs could see one another's head motion than when one of the participants was blindfolded. In addition, there was less of a time lag in the observed synchronization when the distance between participant pairs was smaller. As for the causality analysis, noise contribution ratio (NCR), the measure of influence using a multivariate autoregressive model, was also computed to identify the degree to which one's postural sway is explained by that of the other's and how visual information (sighted vs. blindfolded) interacts with paired participants' postural sway. It was found that for synchronization to take place, it is crucial that paired participants be sighted and exert equal influence on one another by simultaneously exchanging visual information. Furthermore, a simulation for the proposed system with a wider range of visual input showed a pattern of results similar to the behavioral results.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0137126 pmid:26398768 pmcid:PMC4580648 fatcat:m2f75u4usfdqbfr6wzfvmoofa4

Unconventional Superconductivity in the BiS2 -Based Layered Superconductor NdO0.71F0.29BiS2

Yuichi Ota, Kozo Okazaki, Haruyoshi Q. Yamamoto, Takashi Yamamoto, Shuntaro Watanabe, Chuangtian Chen, Masanori Nagao, Satoshi Watauchi, Isao Tanaka, Yoshihiko Takano, Shik Shin
2017 Physical Review Letters  
We investigate the superconducting-gap anisotropy in one of the recently discovered BiS_2-based superconductors, NdO_0.71F_0.29BiS_2 (T_c ∼ 5 K), using laser-based angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. Whereas the previously discovered high-T_c superconductors such as copper oxides and iron-based superconductors, which are believed to have unconventional superconducting mechanisms, have 3d electrons in their conduction bands, the conduction band of BiS_2-based superconductors mainly
more » ... s of Bi 6p electrons, and hence the conventional superconducting mechanism might be expected. Contrary to this expectation, we observe a strongly anisotropic superconducting gap. This result strongly suggests that the pairing mechanism for NdO_0.71F_0.29BiS_2 is unconventional one and we attribute the observed anisotropy to competitive or cooperative multiple paring interactions.
doi:10.1103/physrevlett.118.167002 pmid:28474948 fatcat:3kbve3sdarg7fi7s5v46nydfwu

A Correlation between Increases in Suicide Rates and Increases in Male Unemployment Rates in Mie Prefecture, Japan

Ken INOUE, Hisashi TANII, Tatsushige FUKUNAGA, Shuntaro ABE, Yukika NISHIMURA, Hisanobu KAIYA, Masayuki NATA, Yuji OKAZAKI
2007 Industrial Health  
The number of suicides in Japan has increased from approximately 22,000 per year in 1988-1997 to over 30,000 per year since then. It has also increased in Mie prefecture during that period. In the present study, we investigated the correlation between annual suicide rates in Mie prefecture, Japan from 1996-2002 and the annual unemployment rate in Japan from 1996-2002 among males. Among the results, annual suicide rates in total correlated with the unemployment rate in Japan, but the relation
more » ... not statistically significant: r(7)=0.76, r 2 (7)=0.58, p=0.05 (y=3.54x+6.37); the rates in males, however, correlated significantly with the unemployment rate in Japan: r(7)=0.85, r 2 (7)=0.73, p=0.01 (y=5.72x+4.49). In addition, we found that annual suicide rates in total correlated significantly with the male unemployment rates. When a patient is unemployed and in a bad situation, the medical staff and the family should be aware of the correspondence between suicide rates and unemployment.
doi:10.2486/indhealth.45.177 pmid:17284891 fatcat:jxdl2plh2rbdlb3gx5abiqffpu
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