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Motor skill memory is first encoded online in a fragile form during practice and then converted into a stable form by offline consolidation, which is the behavioral stage critical for successful learning. Praise, a social reward, is thought to boost motor skill learning by increasing motivation, which leads to increased practice. However, the effect of praise on consolidation is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that praise following motor training directly facilitates skilldoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048174 pmid:23144855 pmcid:PMC3492334 fatcat:w4i5pry2lbf4tpn23c7xixmnga
more »... Fortyeight healthy participants were trained on a sequential finger-tapping task. Immediately after training, participants were divided into three groups according to whether they received praise for their own training performance, praise for another participant's performance, or no praise. Participants who received praise for their own performance showed a significantly higher rate of offline improvement relative to other participants when performing a surprise recall test of the learned sequence. On the other hand, the average performance of the novel sequence and randomly-ordered tapping did not differ between the three experimental groups. These results are the first to indicate that praise-related improvements in motor skill memory are not due to a feedback-incentive mechanism, but instead involve direct effects on the offline consolidation process.
Calculation of the NCR and statistical analysis We applied Akaike causality (Akaike, 1968; Okazaki et al., 2015) to the time-series data of force signals and evaluated the NCR in order to identify the ... influence from the stochastic noise involved in the partner's signal, which is a good indicator of the degree to which the participant is sensitive to the partner's behavior during the joint action (Okazaki ...doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.02.003 pmid:30739061 fatcat:f5yr3nnr5fdpbc2x2zzoqfxm4e
This study reports the stereoselective total syntheses of the antipodes of the unique 3/10 bicyclic skeletal sesquiterpenoids, namely, hypocoprin A and hypocoprin B.doi:10.1039/d2ra02891c pmid:35754888 pmcid:PMC9169068 fatcat:bzli5xqmfzelzpgg4nfgprjyci
Objective: For the convenient use of electromyography devices in physical rehabilitation during locomotion, we developed a simple, low-cost 2-channel electromyography telemeter (LC-EMGT) that can be connected wirelessly with a personal computer (PC) microphone port. The aim of this study was to verify whether the performance of our LC-EMGT fulfills the need for monitoring EMG during locomotion of patients in rehabilitation. For this purpose, we compared the performance of our LC-EMGT with andoi:10.4172/2329-9096.1000386 fatcat:uaxuva4o5jglbmyzrbbdkthiea
more »... sting EMG device (NeuropackΣ). Methods: Muscle activity of the left and right vastus medialis were recorded when the participant repeated a standing-up movement for 10 seconds at 55-bpm speed. The EMG signal was simultaneously recorded by the LC-EMGT and NeuropackΣ. We compared the waveform of these EMG signals and their root mean squared signals in appearance and by cross-correlation analysis. Also, we monitored the orthopedic patients' EMG waveforms during standing-up and ascending stairs. Results: The cross-correlation analysis demonstrated an approximately 170-ms delay in EMG measurement by LC-EMGT due to the wireless signal transformation. Meanwhile, the amplitudes of the waveforms in the LC-EMGT were almost equal to those of the NeuropackΣ. In addition, with the LC-EMGT, we could visually monitor EMG waveforms of the patients during standing-up and stair climbing on-line using a PC. Conclusion: Consequently, the LC-EMGT was as reliable as the existing EMG device at monitoring EMG signals and is available as an EMG monitor in real-time. The LC-EMGT is cost-effective, convenient, and may be generally used in various clinical and sports situations.
The structure of the superconducting gap in unconventional superconductors holds a key to understand the momentum-dependent pairing interactions. In superconducting FeSe, there have been controversial results reporting nodal and nodeless gap structures, raising a fundamental issue of pairing mechanisms of iron-based superconductivity. Here, by utilizing polarization-dependent laser-excited angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we report a detailed momentum dependence of the gap indoi:10.1038/s41467-017-02739-y pmid:29348671 pmcid:PMC5773685 fatcat:hd7sdqcuw5hp7lejmexclvyl4u
more »... d multi-domain regions of orthorhombic FeSe crystals. We confirm that the superconducting gap has a twofold in-plane anisotropy, associated with the nematicity due to orbital ordering. In twinned regions, we clearly find finite gap minima near the vertices of the major axis of the elliptical zone-centered Fermi surface, indicating a nodeless state. In contrast, the single-domain gap drops steeply to zero in a narrow angle range, evidencing for nascent nodes. Such unusual node lifting in multi-domain regions can be explained by the nematicity-induced time-reversal symmetry breaking near the twin boundaries.
In adults, sleep is necessary for the offline improvement of certain skills, such as sequential finger tapping, but whether children show a similar effect is still debatable. Here, we tested whether sleep is associated with offline performance improvement in children. Nine-and 11-year-old children trained on an explicit sequential finger tapping task. On the night following training, their parents observed and recorded the duration of each child's sleep. The following day, all childrendoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0111635 pmid:25372609 pmcid:PMC4221057 fatcat:4ktqmr6rr5giddeghlwi7cedtm
more »... a surprise retest session on the previously trained sequence. In both 9-and 11-year-old children, skill performance was significantly improved during the first retest session relative to the end of training on the previous day, confirming the offline improvement in performance. There was a significant correlation between the degree of improvement and sleep duration the night after training, suggesting that in children, as in adults, sleep is associated with offline skill enhancement.
Visual Abstract Significance Statement Eye contact is a key element that connects humans during social communication. We focused on a previously unaddressed characteristic of eye contact: real-time mutual interaction as a form of automatic mimicry. Our results indicate that real-time interaction during eye contact is mediated by the cerebellum and limbic mirror system. These findings underscore the importance of the mirror system and cerebellum in real-time unconscious social interaction.doi:10.1523/eneuro.0284-18.2019 fatcat:vmx62a7cnnf53bsq2ypxzpm5h4
more »... tic mimicry is a critical element of social interaction. A salient type of automatic mimicry is eye contact characterized by sharing of affective and mental states among individuals. We conducted a hyperscanning functional magnetic resonance imaging study involving on-line (LIVE) and delayed off-line (REPLAY) conditions to test our hypothesis that recurrent interaction through eye contact activates the limbic mirror system, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and anterior insular cortex (AIC), both of which are critical for self-awareness. Sixteen pairs of human adults participated in the experiment. Given that an eye-blink represents an individual's attentional window toward the partner, we analyzed pairwise time-series data for eye-blinks. We used multivariate autoregression analysis to calculate the noise contribution ratio (NCR) as an index of how a participant's directional attention was influenced by that of their partner. NCR was greater in the LIVE than in the REPLAY condition, indicating mutual perceptual-motor interaction during real-time eye contact. Relative to the REPLAY condition, the LIVE condition was associated with greater activation in the left cerebellar hemisphere, vermis, and ACC, accompanied by enhanced functional connectivity between ACC and right AIC. Given the roles of the cerebellum in sensorimotor prediction and ACC in movement initiation, ACC-cerebellar activation may represent their involvement in modulating visual input related to the partner's movement, which may, in turn, involve the limbic mirror system. Our findings indicate that mutual interaction during eye contact is mediated by the cerebellum and limbic mirror system.
., Vol. 136, No. 1, July 2014 Okazaki et al.: Attentional modulation of vocal response ... Some other factors, such as the F0 dependent characteristics of the PSR Okazaki et al., 2009) , should be considered as well. ...doi:10.1121/1.4881921 pmid:24993217 fatcat:gzr5uop6ovhelh6ses5yy5atee
Purpose] Electromyography biofeedback therapy is applied to various diseases during physical therapy for motor learning. Our aim was to develop a low-cost electromyography biofeedback device kit that students could build by themselves in class and to evaluate whether this kit was an adequate educational tool for physical therapy students. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 34 volunteers from a 3 year physical therapy vocational school and a 4 year university course. All students weredoi:10.1589/jpts.29.1522 pmid:28931980 pmcid:PMC5599813 fatcat:jhuggz6s5vg4jghucl6pkqpwoy
more »... ked with: 1) completing a pre-questionnaire; 2) attending basic lectures on electromyography biofeedback therapy and how to build the device; 3) building the device; and 4) completing a post-questionnaire. [Results] Mean time required to build the device was 50.8 ± 34.1 minutes for the vocational course students and 27.4 ± 8.8 minutes for university students. For both groups, there was a significant increase in the number of students stating "have an interest in," "be involved with," and "have knowledge of electromyography biofeedback" when pre-and post-questionnaires were compared. In the post questionnaire, the frequency of the "knowledge increased" response was higher. [Conclusion] Physical therapy students can easily build our new device in a classroom, and this kit is a useful educational tool to motivate learning in electromyography biofeedback.
doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2017.02.018 pmid:28457686 fatcat:t3i4tcaohnfxflsoflzgktlnyq
People's behaviors synchronize. It is difficult, however, to determine whether synchronized behaviors occur in a mutual direction-two individuals influencing one another-or in one direction-one individual leading the other, and what the underlying mechanism for synchronization is. To answer these questions, we hypothesized a non-leader-follower postural sway synchronization, caused by a reciprocal visuo-postural feedback system operating on pairs of individuals, and tested that hypothesis bothdoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0137126 pmid:26398768 pmcid:PMC4580648 fatcat:m2f75u4usfdqbfr6wzfvmoofa4
more »... xperimentally and via simulation. In the behavioral experiment, 22 participant pairs stood face to face either 20 or 70 cm away from each other wearing glasses with or without vision blocking lenses. The existence and direction of visual information exchanged between pairs of participants were systematically manipulated. The time series data for the postural sway of these pairs were recorded and analyzed with cross correlation and causality. Results of cross correlation showed that postural sway of paired participants was synchronized, with a shorter time lag when participant pairs could see one another's head motion than when one of the participants was blindfolded. In addition, there was less of a time lag in the observed synchronization when the distance between participant pairs was smaller. As for the causality analysis, noise contribution ratio (NCR), the measure of influence using a multivariate autoregressive model, was also computed to identify the degree to which one's postural sway is explained by that of the other's and how visual information (sighted vs. blindfolded) interacts with paired participants' postural sway. It was found that for synchronization to take place, it is crucial that paired participants be sighted and exert equal influence on one another by simultaneously exchanging visual information. Furthermore, a simulation for the proposed system with a wider range of visual input showed a pattern of results similar to the behavioral results.
We investigate the superconducting-gap anisotropy in one of the recently discovered BiS_2-based superconductors, NdO_0.71F_0.29BiS_2 (T_c ∼ 5 K), using laser-based angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. Whereas the previously discovered high-T_c superconductors such as copper oxides and iron-based superconductors, which are believed to have unconventional superconducting mechanisms, have 3d electrons in their conduction bands, the conduction band of BiS_2-based superconductors mainlydoi:10.1103/physrevlett.118.167002 pmid:28474948 fatcat:3kbve3sdarg7fi7s5v46nydfwu
more »... s of Bi 6p electrons, and hence the conventional superconducting mechanism might be expected. Contrary to this expectation, we observe a strongly anisotropic superconducting gap. This result strongly suggests that the pairing mechanism for NdO_0.71F_0.29BiS_2 is unconventional one and we attribute the observed anisotropy to competitive or cooperative multiple paring interactions.
The number of suicides in Japan has increased from approximately 22,000 per year in 1988-1997 to over 30,000 per year since then. It has also increased in Mie prefecture during that period. In the present study, we investigated the correlation between annual suicide rates in Mie prefecture, Japan from 1996-2002 and the annual unemployment rate in Japan from 1996-2002 among males. Among the results, annual suicide rates in total correlated with the unemployment rate in Japan, but the relationdoi:10.2486/indhealth.45.177 pmid:17284891 fatcat:jxdl2plh2rbdlb3gx5abiqffpu
more »... not statistically significant: r(7)=0.76, r 2 (7)=0.58, p=0.05 (y=3.54x+6.37); the rates in males, however, correlated significantly with the unemployment rate in Japan: r(7)=0.85, r 2 (7)=0.73, p=0.01 (y=5.72x+4.49). In addition, we found that annual suicide rates in total correlated significantly with the male unemployment rates. When a patient is unemployed and in a bad situation, the medical staff and the family should be aware of the correspondence between suicide rates and unemployment.
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