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Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, results in the impairment of executive function, including that of performance monitoring. Feedback-related negativity (FRN) is an electrophysiological measure reflecting the activity of this monitoring system via feedback signals, and is generated from the anterior cingulate cortex. However, there have been no reports on FRN in AD. Based on prior aging studies, we hypothesized that FRN would decrease in AD patients. Todoi:10.3389/fnhum.2017.00179 pmid:28503138 pmcid:PMC5408015 fatcat:fsmrr3td5zgqriyon5alu6flcq
more »... assess this, FRN was measured in healthy individuals and those with AD during a simple gambling task involving positive and negative feedback stimuli. Contrary to our hypothesis, FRN amplitude increased in AD patients, compared with the healthy elderly. We speculate that this may reflect the existence of a compensatory mechanism against the decline in executive function. Also, there was a significant association between FRN amplitude and depression scores in AD, and the FRN amplitude tended to increase insomuch as the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) was higher. This result suggests the existence of a negative bias in the affective state in AD. Thus, the impaired functioning monitoring system in AD is a more complex phenomenon than we thought.
This situation reflects the history of IV thrombolysis for acute stroke treatment. In 1995, the NINDS trial first showed the efficacy of alteplase (0.9 mg/kg) for acute ischemic stroke. The dosage of 0.9 mg/kg was decided according to the two pilot studies [8, 9] , despite any attempts to investigate the apparent dose effect of alteplase in these studies. Similarly, in Japan, although observational studies showed the efficacy and the safety of thrombolysis with 0.6 mg/kg alteplase  , adoi:10.1159/000367647 pmid:25300432 fatcat:pzqtwu5dnbaajdt2rair6yocji
more »... ized controlled trial testing this low-dose regimen was never performed. The rationale to use 0.6 mg/kg was based on the findings of another recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (duteplase) trial for acute stroke  and alteplase trials for acute myocardial infarction  . There is also a controversy over the optimal dosage of alteplase in other Asian countries. The Taiwan Thrombolytic Therapy for Acute Ischemic Stroke (TTT-AIS) study raises the possibility that 0.9 mg/kg alteplase may cause a higher incidence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage and mortality than low-dose regimens in Chinese patients, especially in patients ≥ 70 years old  . On the other hand, a more recent report from the Thrombolysis Implementation and Monitor of Acute Ischemic Stroke in China (TIMS-China) concluded that 0.9 mg/kg alteplase had a more favorable outcome than low-dose regimens in Chinese population  .
Paradoxical cerebral embolism (PCE) is defined to be a pathological condition in which emboli originating from the venous system reach the cerebral arterial circulation via the right-to-left (R-L) shunt. In patients with PCE, emboli originating from the venous system most commonly pass through the patent foramen ovale during Valsalva-provoking activities which increase the right atrial pressure above the left atrial pressure. The size of cerebral infarction caused by PCE is generally small,doi:10.2169/internalmedicine.46.6046 pmid:17527043 fatcat:oyiihi3enjhhzaoheezngclgmu
more »... e the size of emboli which can pass through the R-L shunt is small. Here, we report a case of PCE which occluded the internal carotid artery (ICA).
Extremely early CT signs in hyperacute ischemic strokedoi:10.3995/jstroke.27.633 fatcat:n7r6koz6xzbytbslurraepa4u4
Journal of Neurology
Introduction The etiology of transient global amnesia (TGA) is still a matter of debate. Based, among others, on the observation of a close temporal relation between certain events and subsequent TGA episodes, recent proposals discuss the relevance of stress-associated processes impacting on hippocampal functioning. Circadian, infra- and ultradian rhythmicity has been found to play a relevant role in the multifactorial pathomechanisms of various disorders but has not been thoroughly studied indoi:10.1007/s00415-021-10639-x pmid:34104990 pmcid:PMC8739464 fatcat:65jfayrgqjgcpbz6p6ayh7bnwi
more »... GA. Methods Data of patients with a final diagnosis of TGA were collected in Mannheim, Germany (06/1999–01/2018, n = 404), and in the Kansai district, Japan (04/2006–03/2018, n = 261). Chronological patterns of TGA occurrence were determined. Results Significant circadian rhythmicity of TGA occurrence with bimodal peaks (mid-morning, late afternoon) was found for the entire population (p = 0.002) and for either sub-cohort (Mannheim: p = 0.003, Kansai: p = 0.007). This finding was confirmed for either sex (women: p = 0.004, men: p = 0.004) and different age groups (< 65 years: p = 0.0009, ≥ 65 years: p = 0.003). There was no variation according to day of the week, month or season, but the proportion of patients with a weekday episode was significantly higher in the Mannheim cohort (p = 0.002). Discussion We identified a robust circadian rhythm in TGA occurrence which remarkably applied to either of the two study sites located on different continents and which was independent of sex and age. In light of abundant evidence of circadian rhythmicity of both, components of the human stress response system and memory, chronobiological analyses may provide an opportunity to further uncover the mechanisms underlying TGA.
Two stroke neurologists (Shuhei Okazaki, Eva Hornberger) viewed T1weighted sequences of follow-up MRI, and assessed the presence of a cavity independently blind to other MRI data. ... A stroke-neurologist (Shuhei Okazaki), blinded to the clinical data, outlined borders of the lesions manually on each transverse DWI and FLAIR image, then calculated areas using the scanner software package ...doi:10.3389/fneur.2015.00118 pmid:26074870 pmcid:PMC4443727 fatcat:pj7bsnnzfrh6bevzx2k7pbfxwq
and Purpose-Limited information is available on the long-term effects of interleukin-6 (IL-6) on systemic atherosclerosis. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the relationship between chronic elevation of IL-6 and the long-term progression of carotid atherosclerosis. Methods-We prospectively evaluated 210 patients with ≥1 vascular risk factors for 9.0±1.0 years. Carotid mean-maximal intima-media thickness (mmIMT), the serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) level, and thedoi:10.1161/strokeaha.114.005991 pmid:25139874 fatcat:zhwb37eufra6vkaw2bc4lofmly
more »... serum IL-6 level were measured at baseline and every 3 years. The associations between the progression of mmIMT and the long-term average levels of hs-CRP and IL-6 were analyzed. Results-Carotid mmIMT increased throughout the study period (0.031±0.026 mm/y). Baseline mmIMT was significantly associated with baseline hs-CRP (P=0.002) and baseline IL-6 (P<0.001) levels. Progression of mmIMT was positively correlated with average hs-CRP (P=0.001) and average IL-6 (P<0.001) levels. When adjusted for age, sex, traditional risk factors, and baseline mmIMT, mmIMT progression remained significantly associated only with the average IL-6 level (standardized β=0.17; P=0.02), but not with the average hs-CRP level (standardized β=0.10; P=0.18). Conclusions-Chronic elevation of serum IL-6 was associated with the progression of atherosclerosis in patients with vascular risk factors. IL-6 could be used as a quantitative marker and a potential therapeutic target for accelerated atherosclerosis. (Stroke. 2014;45:2924-2929.)
Staphylococcus gastric cancer chronic renal failure none multiple acute CI in cerebrum small parenchymal hematoma 8 AVR thalamic hemorrhage Downloaded by: 126.96.36.199 -7/12/2013 6:39:33 AM Okazaki ...doi:10.1159/000346101 pmid:23446361 fatcat:rw5eixmqtffnrd56rqf22z4eci
Community, Market and State in Development
consistent with MITI's general policy in screening applications for technology adoption, which Kiyota and Okazaki (2005) revealed. ... Kiyota and Okazaki (2005) examine the effect of technology adoption on the firm's performance using firm-level data from 1957 to 1970. ...doi:10.1057/9780230295018_4 fatcat:ciai4i3hzjayhcrh5c4zu5riyu
ObjectiveThe impact of the 2018 Japan Floods on prescriptions of Yokukansan was evaluated.MethodsThis was a retrospective cohort study based on the National Database of Health Insurance Claims which covers all the prescriptions issued in Japan. Participants were patients aged 65 or older who received any medical care at medical institutions located in the three most-severely affected prefectures between 1 year before and after the disaster. We analyzed the number of new prescriptions ofdoi:10.3389/fnut.2021.777330 pmid:35141264 pmcid:PMC8819099 fatcat:rlzilccv35ekdexvdintaya5au
more »... an and other Kampo drugs among those who had not been prescribed any Kampo for 1 year before the disaster. Kaplan-Meier analysis and a Cox proportional hazards model were used to evaluate the risk of the disaster for a new prescription.ResultsSubjects comprised 1,372,417 people (including 12,787 victims, 0.93%). The hazard ratio (HR) of the disaster for Yokukansan prescriptions was 1.49 [95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.25–1.78], and 1.54 (95% CI: 1.29–1.84) in the crude and age-sex adjusted model, respectively. The HR of the disaster for prescription of other Kampo drugs in the crude and adjusted model was 1.33 (95% CI: 1.27–1.39), and 1.32 (95% CI: 1.27–1.38), respectively. The magnitude of increase of victims prescribed Yokukansan (31.4%) was statistically higher than for those prescribed other Kampo drugs (19.3%) (p < 0.001).ConclusionThe disaster increased prescriptions of both Yokukansan and other Kampo drugs among elderly victims. The increase was more remarkable in Yokukansan than other Kampo drugs. Clinicians and policymakers should be aware of the increased need for Yokukansan in times of natural disaster.
Mamoru Watanabe, Ayaka Ishida Akihiro Funaoka, Sae Nakayama Chino Iizuka, Hitoshi Amano Maki Iiya, Isao Arima Shuhei Nishigori, Takashi Kaneko Hiroyuki Oka, Hiroshi Okazaki Case 1 is an 85-year-old man ...doi:10.11641/pde.94.1_65 fatcat:y77523qbkjcadkdmmujlaro2by
Previous exposure to a nonlethal ischemic insult protects the brain against subsequent harmful ischemia. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are a highly studied target of neuroprotection after ischemia. Recently, NMDA receptor subtypes were implicated in neuronal survival and death. We focused on the contribution of NR2A and cyclic-AMP response element (CRE)-binding protein (CREB) signaling to ischemic tolerance using primary cortical neurons. Ischemia in vitro was modeled by oxygen-glucosedoi:10.1038/jcbfm.2010.18 pmid:20145658 pmcid:PMC2949236 fatcat:llydxaz4d5cl3fsc7fdllfx2ni
more »... eprivation (OGD). Ischemic tolerance was induced by applying 45-mins OGD 24 h before 180-mins OGD. Sublethal OGD also induced cross-tolerance against lethal glutamate and hydrogen peroxide. After sublethal OGD, expression of phosphorylated CREB and CRE transcriptional activity were significantly increased. When CRE activity was inhibited by CREB-S133A, a mutant CREB, ischemic tolerance was abolished. Inhibiting NR2A using NVP-AAM077 attenuated preconditioning-induced neuroprotection and correlated with decreased CRE activity levels. Activating NR2A using bicuculline and 4-aminopiridine induced resistance to lethal ischemia accompanied by elevated CRE activity levels, and this effect was abolished by NVP-AAM077. Elevated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) transcriptional activities were observed after sublethal OGD and administration of bicuculline and 4-aminopiridine. NR2A-containing NMDA receptors and CREB signaling have important functions in the induction of ischemic tolerance. This may provide potential novel therapeutic strategies to treat ischemic stroke.
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