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Actin is a highly abundant protein in eukaryotic cells and dynamically changes its polymerized states with the help of actin-binding proteins. Its critical function as a constituent of cytoskeleton has been well-documented. Growing evidence demonstrates that actin is also present in nuclei, referred to as nuclear actin, and is involved in a number of nuclear processes, including transcriptional regulation and chromatin remodeling. The contribution of nuclear actin to transcriptional regulationdoi:10.3389/fgene.2017.00027 pmid:28326098 pmcid:PMC5339334 fatcat:tu2n3qpixbfgnlerhjxsf64fe4
more »... an be explained by its direct interaction with transcription machineries and chromatin remodeling factors and by controlling the activities of transcription factors. In both cases, polymerized states of nuclear actin affect the transcriptional outcome. Nuclear actin also plays an important role in activating strongly silenced genes in somatic cells for transcriptional reprogramming. When these nuclear functions of actin are considered, it is plausible to speculate that nuclear actin is also implicated in embryonic development, in which numerous genes need to be activated in a well-coordinated manner. In this review, we especially focus on nuclear actin's roles in transcriptional activation, reprogramming and development, including stem cell differentiation and we discuss how nuclear actin can be an important player in development and cell differentiation.
Dated charcoal and humic materials in soil, both which are evidence of forest fire and vegetation changes, as well as micro fossils such as pollen and opal phytolith (plant opal) in soil indicate occurence of past deforestation in the Himalayan region, Timing and causes of the deforestation were discussed. Severe damage was inflicted between the late 10th and first half of the 20th century in Sirubari, central Nepal. Human impact such as population growth and cultural change due to thedoi:10.3759/tropics.5.243 fatcat:x6c5ntikt5fohi3ivdnvj45qjm
more »... y in the Kathmandu Valley and the active cultural exchanges between Nepal and India may have accelerated an environmental change during the l4-l5th centuries. The deforestation during this period in
年に Conway らは血中のインターロイキン (IL)-6 が 3) ,また,Sata らは血中の tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-αが 4) ,それぞれ AF 患者で上昇している ことを報告した.われわれは最近,開心術により得 られた AF 患者の心房組織において,走査・透過電 子顕微鏡を用いて,心房内皮に形成された孔からマ クロファージが内皮下に浸潤していく様子を報告し た 5) .これらの知見から,ヒトにおいても,生化学 的には全身性の炎症が AF と関連していること,ま た組織学的には心房筋への炎症細胞浸潤が AF 発症 と関連していることが示唆される. 総 説 心外膜脂肪組織と心房細動の関連についての研究 安部一太郎 1 * 宮本伸二 2 髙橋尚彦 1 近年,心外膜脂肪組織 (EAT) の量が,心房細動 (AF) の発症や重症度に関連する ことが報告されている.そこでわれわれは,ヒト組織を用いて,EAT に含まれる 炎症性サイトカインと AF 基質としての心房線維化の関連を調べた.対象は,開心 術を受けた際に,左心耳切除術を施行された AFdoi:10.5105/jse.40.149 fatcat:abydk4hsrbcf5busz5bz5k2kaq
more »... 連続 59 症例 (女性 31 名, 73.5 ± 7.8 歳) である.切除された左心耳組織の組織学的検討から,EAT 自体の 線維化程度 (severity of EAT fibrosis) に違いが存在した.EAT 線維化の程度と心房 線維化の程度には正の相関関係が認められ,線維化の強い EAT ではマクロファー ジ浸潤が顕著であった.生化学的検討からは,EAT 中の多くの炎症性サイトカイ ンや MMP と,線維化指標としての心房筋中の total collagen に正の相関関係を認 めた.以上により,線維化の強い EAT では,そこから分泌される炎症性サイトカ インや MMP が,隣接する心房筋に炎症と線維化を惹起し,AF 基質を形成してい る可能性が示唆された. (心電図,2020,40:149-157) Keywords ⃝心外膜脂肪組織 ⃝心房細動 ⃝心房線維化 ⃝炎症 1 大分大学医学部循環器内科・臨床検査診断学 (〒 879-5503 大分県由布市挾間町医大ヶ丘 1 丁目 1 番地) 2 大分大学医学部心臓血管外科 *は責任者を示す
Recent studies on excitons in two-dimensional materials have been widely conducted for their potential usages for novel electronic and optical devices. Especially, sophisticated manipulation techniques of quantum degrees of freedom of excitons are demanded. In this paper we propose a technique of forming an optical dipole trap for excitons in graphane, a two-dimensional wide gap semiconductor, based on first principles calculations. We develop a first principles method to evaluate the excitonarXiv:2011.05834v1 fatcat:ggrhb43npvcanehu2ici5tjphu
more »... ansition dipole matrix and combine it with the density functional theory and GW+BSE calculations. We reveal that in graphane the huge exciton binding energy and the large dipole moments of Wannier-like excitons enable us to induce the dipole trap of the order of meV depth and μm width. This work opens a new way to control light-exciton interacting systems based on a newly developed numerically robust ab initio calculations.
Miyamoto et al. Multiple pulmonary cavernous hemangioma affect a wide age range (7-84)     . ...doi:10.1002/rcr2.93 pmid:25802747 pmcid:PMC4364796 fatcat:s6ancpan35b2hnupaksq2w7pym
This paper describes an improved insulating rod which is used to drive a moving contact contained in a vacuum vessel.doi:10.3131/jvsj.43.32 fatcat:yukf2ifjyfdynposi56cvb6bu4
Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is one of the most common reasons for hospitalization and a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recently developed endoscopic devices and supporting apparatuses can achieve endoscopic hemostasis with greater safety and efficiency. With these advancements in technology and technique, gastroenterologists should have no concerns regarding the management of acute upper GI bleeding, provided that they are well prepared and trained.doi:10.5946/ce.2015.48.2.96 pmid:25844335 pmcid:PMC4381152 fatcat:2tgr3xu2xfdcrfuij3kasaml5m
more »... r, when endoscopic hemostasis fails, endoscopy should not be continued. Rather, endoscopists should refer patients to radiologists and surgeons without any delay for evaluation regarding the appropriateness of emergency interventional radiology or surgery.
A relatively rare case of chemodectoma of the glomus jugulare with multiple metastases is reported. Ten years ago, a 37-year-old male was seen because of dysphagia and a mass in the right retro-auricular region. The mass in the right jugular foramen was partially resected and irradiated. Histological examination revealed a chemodectoma. Five years thereafter the patient was readmit ted with an epidural mass involving the left eighth cervical nerve root. One year later he developed a chest paindoi:10.2176/nmc.26.701 pmid:2433631 fatcat:3oedbifhxbhrbpqcytraynflvu
more »... nd lumbago. A bone scan revealed multiple skeletal metastases. Histologically, specimens from the right parietal bone and the right 10th rib showed a chemodectoma. He was again irradiated. He was again admitted with paraplegia, 9 years after the first admission. With repeated irradiation with a total dose of 16,700 rads in 10 years, he died with cachexia and aspira tion pneumonia at the age of 47. The autopsy revealed multiple metastases of chemodectoma to bone, spinal epidural space, lung, and pancreas. Although chemodectoma of the glomus jugulare is generally considered to be a rare benign tumor, slow metastatic spread to various organs is not un common. A careful search for metastatic lesions, possibly for years is essential when following up the patient.
In this paper, we deal with a node capacitated in-tree packing problem. The input consists of a directed graph, a root node, a node capacity function and edge consumption functions. The problem is to find the maximum number of rooted in-trees such that the total consumption of in-trees at each node does not exceed the capacity of the node. The problem is one of the network lifetime problems that are among the most important issues in the context of sensor networks. We reveal the computationaldoi:10.1002/net.20476 fatcat:m2pmzd23vzh35prdnz7ixvlgkm
more »... mplexity of the problem under various restrictions on consumption functions and graphs. For example, we consider general graphs, acyclic graphs and complete graphs embedded in the d-dimensional space R d having edge consumption functions depending on distances between end nodes.
Ascertaining the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) profile of drugs is one of the most crucial factors in the process of drug discovery. Since it is important to combine water solubility and cell permeability within the compound to achieve the desired ADME properties, an appropriate balance between lipophilicity and hydrophilicity is required. It is often necessary to facilitate hydrophilicity of very hydrophobic candidates, because quite lipophobic molecules are rarelydoi:10.1248/yakushi.20-00012-6 pmid:32741857 fatcat:kalnoxhqjvh5pptkcdrm7p7jmi
more »... hit as positive in molecular-targeted or cell-based screenings. For that purpose, it has been popular to conjugate hydrophobic molecules with polyethylene glycol (PEG). However, PEG is a polymer, and PEG-conjugated molecules are not uniform. Besides, the dosage should be much increased compared with the original molecule due to the increase in molecular weight. Therefore we have been developing alternative ways to endow hydrophobic compounds with extra hydrophilicity by conjugating with symmetrically branched glycerol oligomers. This technology is versatile and easily applicable to various hydrophobic compounds. Water-solubility of fenofibrate, one of the most hydrophobic medicines in clinical use, was facilitated by a factor of more than 2000, and its lipid-lowering effect in vivo improved more than ten-fold, by simply conjugating with branched glycerol trimer, for instance. Here we will briefly introduce the basic concepts and our successful experiences of applying branched glycerol oligomers including antitumor agents in terms of water-solubility, pharmacological effects, and pharmacokinetics, and merits and current issues will be discussed in this review.
It is difficult to distinguish gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) from other types of submucosal tumors under conventional gastrointestinal endoscopy. We aimed to detect GISTs by molecular fluorescence imaging using a near-infrared (NIR) photosensitizer (IR700)-conjugated anti-c-KIT antibody and to treat GISTs by photoimmunotherapy with NIR irradiation as a non-invasive theranostic procedure. We also investigated the therapeutic mechanisms. Methods: Human GIST cell lines GIST-T1 anddoi:10.7150/thno.22027 pmid:29721082 pmcid:PMC5928892 fatcat:zybnpq4leza4xpxclsbjug6hq4
more »... 2M were incubated with IR700-conjugated anti-c-KIT antibody, IR700-12A8, and observed by confocal laser microscopy. Mice with GIST-T1 xenografts or rats with orthotopic xenografts were injected with IR700-12A8 or AF488-conjugated antibody, and observed under IVIS or autofluorescence imaging (AFI) endoscopy. GIST cells were treated with IR700-12A8 and NIR light in vitro and vivo, and cell viability, histology and apoptosis were evaluated. Results: Strong red fluorescence of IR700-12A8 was observed on the cell membrane of GIST cells and was gradually internalized into the cytoplasm. Tumor-specific accumulation of IR700-12A8 was observed in GIST-T1 xenografts in mice. Under AFI endoscopy, a strong fluorescence signal was observed in orthotopic GIST xenografts in rats through the normal mucosa covering the tumor. The percentage of dead cells significantly increased in a light-dose-dependent manner and both acute necrotic and late apoptotic cell death was observed with annexin/PI staining. Cleaved PARP expression was significantly increased after IR700-12A8-mediated NIR irradiation, which was almost completely reversed by NaN3. All xenograft tumors (7/7) immediately regressed and 4/7 tumors completely disappeared after IR700-12A8-mediated NIR irradiation. Histologic assessment and TUNEL staining revealed apoptosis in the tumors. Conclusion: NIR fluorescence imaging using IR700-12A8 and subsequent NIR irradiation could be a very effective theranostic technology for GIST, the underlying mechanism of which appears to involve acute necrosis and supposedly late apoptosis induced by singlet oxygen.
O RCI D Yoshihiko Miyamoto https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4876-9156 Tetsuji Takayama https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0175-1573 R E FE R E N C E S EGFR monoclonal antibody. ...doi:10.1111/cas.14020 pmid:30973663 pmcid:PMC6549923 fatcat:otbnc2s5ujc75ac4xfkziib6hm
An epitaxial growth mechanism of oxide superconductor films has been investigated by using computer graphics for the combination of orthorhombic Ba2YCu3O7-x, with substrate crystals of SrTiO3, MgO, and ZrO2. The (001) plane of Ba2YCu3O7-x has been shown to fit well the (100) plane of these substrate crystals. A crystallographic fit has also been demonstrated between the (110) plane of Ba2YCu3O7-x and the (110) plane of SrTiO3. Detailed investigation of atomic arrangements has indicated somedoi:10.1380/jsssj.10.481 fatcat:hz2dqfwrajeojbfnorobmjwkzi
more »... erences in the ionic interaction at the superconductor-substrate interface among SrTiO3, MgO, and ZrO2 substrates. For the combination of the (001) plane of Ba2YCu3-O 7-x and the (100) plane of SrTiO3, various layers of Ba2YCu3O7-x and SrTiO3 are possible to provide arrangements of ions which stabilize the electrostatic interaction at the interface. Although the Ba-O layer of Ba2YCu3O7-x, does not provide such a stable interaction with the MgO (100) plane, the Cu-O layer of Ba2YCu3O7-x. can favorably interact with the MgO (100) plane. As for ZrO2 (100) plane, ionic arrangements at the oxide layer is favorable only for the interaction with Y3+ layer of Ba2YCu3O7-x, while the Zr-O layer of ZrO2 can interact with both Ba-O layer and Cu-O layer of Ba2YCu3O7-x.
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