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20 40 60 80 100 %Transmittance Wavenumbers (cm-1) Figure S1 . The IR spectrum for 1.doi:10.1039/c0dt00471e pmid:20717609 fatcat:4ycd2se3efa47fmu3a7z6fjeqm
β-Defensins are small antimicrobial proteins expressed in various organisms and have great potential for improving animal health and selective breeding programs. Giant pandas have a distinctive lineage in Carnivora, and it is unclear whether β-defensin genes have experienced different selective pressures during giant panda evolution. We therefore characterized the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) β-defensin gene family through gap filling, TBLASTN, and HMM searches. Among 36 β-defensinsdoi:10.1038/s41598-018-29898-2 pmid:30120296 pmcid:PMC6098084 fatcat:6is35qsxw5dyxgclx4k2bvrjuu
more »... tified, gastrointestinal disease may induce the expression of the DEFB1 and DEFB139 genes in the digestive system. Moreover, for DEFB139, a significant positive selection different from that of its homologs was revealed through branch model comparisons. A Pro-to-Arg mutation in the giant panda DEFB139 mature peptide may have enhanced the peptide's antimicrobial potency by increasing its stability, isoelectric point, surface charge and surface hydrophobicity, and by stabilizing its second β-sheet. Broth microdilution tests showed that the increase in net charge caused by the Pro-to-Arg mutation has enhanced the peptide's potency against Staphylococcus aureus, although the increase was minor. We expect that additional gene function and expression studies of the giant panda DEFB139 gene could improve the existing conservation strategies for the giant panda. Defensins are a group of small antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) found in large variety of plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates that act against a broad spectrum of pathogens including enveloped viruses, gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, mycobacteria, and fungi 1 . There are three defensin subfamilies known as α, β, and θ defensins; among these, β-defensins represent the oldest family, and most mammalian β-defensins arose before the last common ancestor of eutherian mammals 1-4 . β-defensin proteins are expressed mainly by mucosal epithelial cells lining the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary tracts, but the expression pattern and antimicrobial properties of many β-defensins remain unknown 1,4 . Apart from killing microbes directly, recent studies have discovered novel roles for β-defensins in immunology and reproduction. Navid et al. (2012) found that mouse β-defensin 14 (Defb14) can mediate the immune response by regulating T cells 5 . Human DEFB2, DEFB3, and their mouse orthologs are also chemoattractants used for recruiting immune cells to fight against infection 6 . Hardwick et al. (2011) found higher DEFB103 expression levels in the epithelial cells of people from East Asia 7 , which can increase influenza resistance in this population. In macaques, spermatozoa coated with DEFB126 are protected from attack by the female immune system, which facilitates fertilization 8, 9 . Furthermore, certain variants of some β-defensins in human and cattle are also related to fertility 8,10 . Because of these properties, several potential applications for β-defensins can be envisioned for improving animal health, including the design of antibiotics that would avoid the emergence of resistance, the development of vaccine adjuvants, dietary manipulations that enhances gut disease resistance, and selective breeding for breeds with higher fitness 1,11,12 . Giant pandas represent the 'national treasure' of China and a flagship for world wildlife conservation. These animals have received much attention not only because of their endangered status, but also because of their intriguing evolutionary history. To date, many genetic analyses have investigated the phylogeny, genetic variation, population history, adaptive evolution, and structure of this species using a combination of molecular markers including fingerprint probes, microsatellites, mitochondrial DNA, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) loci 13 . As one of the most important disease resistance genes, MHCs in the giant panda are extensively studied to
Acknowledgements The authors are indebted to Huaitian Zhang from the First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University for the BiFC vectors. ...doi:10.1016/j.nbd.2020.105133 pmid:33049318 fatcat:bkdioxxj4fgsbl5dy6b636z5nq
We analyze the outcome of circumcisions performed with 8-figure non-absorbable suture (8FNS) and assess the feasibility of using the technique in male circumcision.Methods: We randomly divided 317 patients who would undergo circumcision between February 2009 and January 2012 into 2 groups. Each group was subdivided into children (age range: 7 to 15 years) and adult (range: 16 to 85 years). In the experiment group (n =166), we used 8FNS and in the control group (n = 151), commonly absorbabledoi:10.5489/cuaj.1521 pmid:24678353 pmcid:PMC3956833 fatcat:dhzro3435jgobmgmwpt4t57g2u
more »... res (CAS) were used for the circumcised wound closure. The results of 2 groups were compared. We also performed a cost analysis and a mean 6-month follow-up (range:1-12). Chi-square and Student's t-test were used in statistical analysis. Differences were considered significant (p < 0.05).Results: No patients were required to remove their sutures postoperatively.Among them, the sutures of the 8FNS for circumcision felloff spontaneously within 9 days (6.2 ± 1.57). There was no statisticallysignificant difference between the 2 groups in surgical duration (16.2 ± 1.73 vs. 15.8 ± 2.01) and follow-up time (6.4 ± 3.82 vs. 6.2 ± 2.39). The overall complication rate of the 2 groups was 6.63% and 10.53% (p = 0.15), respectively. In addition, the complication rate among the adults was significantly lower in the 8FNS group compared to children (2.53% vs. 10.34%, p = 0.04). Also, the average cost (in US dollars) of 8FNS for circumcision was $20.7 ± $3.83 less than $35.8 ± $5.02 of CAS, which is a very significant difference (p < 0.0001).Conclusions: 8FNS for circumcision is feasible, easy, safe and cost-effective, especially for adult males.
Tang, Yong-Zhong Wu, Sheng Bi, Guo-Hua Zhang and Cheng Guo S1. ... isotropic or equivalent isotropic displacement parameters (Å 2 ) x y z U iso */U eq S 0.50888 (16) .(2009).E65, o1478 [doi:10.1107/S1600536809020236] Phenyl N-(1,3-thiazol-2-yl)carbamate Jian-Guo ...doi:10.1107/s1600536809020236 pmid:21582780 pmcid:PMC2969196 fatcat:n3hwmo6pqbhxflojmn35htlxhi
The extremely fascinating behaviors of the quantum walks of particles, which differ much from the classical counterparts, have attracted many physicists. Here we investigate another interesting part of the quantum walks, that is the quantum walks of waves. Firstly, we show the behaviors of the quantum walks of plane wave, which are largely different from the counterparts of either the classical or the quantum walks of particles. Two situations - with and without intermediate time measurementsarXiv:1010.5295v2 fatcat:3tjlx3qxyvf5pmhawd5yentlma
more »... the walks are considered. At last, it is shown that the quantum walks of plane wave can be used to calculate the evolution of the general wave packets, e.g., Gaussian wave packet.
It is widely accepted that the selection of measurement bases can affect the efficiency of quantum state estimation methods, precision of estimating an unknown state can be improved significantly by simply introduce a set of symmetrical measurement bases. Here we compare the efficiencies of estimations with different numbers of measurement bases by numerical simulation and experiment in optical system. The advantages of using a complete set of symmetrical measurement bases are illustrated more clearly.arXiv:1108.5918v2 fatcat:wlbakfa4j5d4havgn37ilka5za
Quantum illumination, that is, quantum target detection, is to detect the potential target with two-mode quantum entangled state. For a given transmitted energy, the quantum illumination can achieve a target-detection probability of error much lower than the illumination scheme without entanglement. We investigate the usefulness of noiseless linear amplification (NLA) for quantum illumination. Our result shows that NLA can help to substantially reduce the number of quantum entangled statesdoi:10.1088/0256-307x/32/9/090301 fatcat:phj6hmxmkjhkfdmeszqalsib3q
more »... cted for joint measurement of multi-copy quantum state. Our analysis on the NLA-assisted scheme could help to develop more efficient schemes for quantum illumination.
Sheng-Li Zhang(张胜利) 1,2** , Chen-Hui Jin(金晨辉) 1 , Jian-Sheng Guo(郭建胜) 1 , Jian-Hong Shi(史建红) 1 , Xu-Bo Zou(邹旭波) 2 , Guang-Can Guo(郭光灿) 2 1 The PLA Information Engineering University, Zhengzhou 450004 ...doi:10.1088/0256-307x/33/12/120302 fatcat:7adspyfaxjhwdj2dipg5gpatyi
Zhang  proposed to use context to refine the inconsistent parsing results iteratively. More recently, Ding et al. ... Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (DCNNs) have * Corresponding author: Sheng Tang (firstname.lastname@example.org) achieved remarkable progress in semantic segmentation or scene parsing. ...arXiv:1907.12411v2 fatcat:vz6yjwleo5br3dnocc75ez7g3y
Cardiac myxoma is the most common primary cardiac tumor. Approximately 75-80% of myxomas are located in the left atrium. Occurrence of multiple myxomas is extremely rare. Case presentation: We describe a rare case of biventricular myxomas resulting in right ventricular inflow and tricuspid valve obstruction. The lesions were detected by echocardiography and thoracic computerized tomography (CT) and confirmed on positron emission tomography-computed tomography. Conclusion: The patient underwentdoi:10.1186/s13019-017-0584-6 pmid:28347347 pmcid:PMC5368922 fatcat:pkp7l2vqqbclhpei7afrj3yxoq
more »... uccessful surgical resection of the multiple cardiac myxomas. This kind of biventricular case has not been previously reported. The patient is asymptomatic as of the 10-month follow-up.
Nivolumab, an anti-programmed death (PD)1 IgG 4 antibody, has shown notable success as a cancer treatment. Here, we report that nivolumab was susceptible to aggregation during manufacturing, particularly in routine purification steps. Our experimental results showed that exposure to low pH caused aggregation of nivolumab, and the Fc was primarily responsible for an acid-induced unfolding phenomenon. To compare the intrinsic propensity of acid-induced aggregation for other IgGs subclasses,doi:10.1080/19420862.2016.1197443 pmid:27310175 pmcid:PMC4968106 fatcat:ioix6nzjzbarhjc6rwphspzxdm
more »... zumab (IgG 1 ), panitumumab (IgG 2 ) and atezolizumab (aglyco-IgG 1 ) were also investigated. The accurate pH threshold of acid-induced aggregation for individual IgG Fc subclasses was identified and ranked as: IgG 1 < aglyco-IgG 1 < IgG 2 < IgG 4 . This result was cross-validated by thermostability and conformation analysis. We also assessed the effect of several protein stabilizers on nivolumab, and found mannitol ameliorated the acid-induced aggregation of the molecule. Our results provide valuable insight into downstream manufacturing process development, especially for immune checkpoint modulating molecules with a human IgG 4 backbone.
BackgroundAbdominal aortic calcification is a potentially important independent risk factor for cardiovascular health. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between serum chloride level and abdominal artery calcification.MethodsWe obtained the data of 3,018 individuals from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey database and analyzed the relationship between serum chloride and abdominal artery calcification. We performed stratified and single factor analysis,doi:10.3389/fcvm.2021.800458 pmid:35118143 pmcid:PMC8805995 fatcat:ht6inr4zvrckhkta2ctjnc63ve
more »... iple equation regression analysis, smooth curve fitting, and threshold effect and saturation effect analysis. R and EmpowerStats were used for data analysis.ResultsSerum chloride is independently related to the AAC total 24 score (AAC-24). The smooth curves fitted were all inverted-U shaped. Below a cutoff value of 92 mmol/L, increase in serum chloride level was associated with increase in AAC-24; however, above that cutoff, increase in serum chloride level was associated with decrease in AAC-24.ConclusionsAt serum levels below 92 mmol/L, chloride is a risk factor for abdominal aortic calcification but levels above 92 mmol/L appear to protect against abdominal aortic calcification.
improvethesoilphysicsstructure.Organicfertilizerandgreenorganicfertilizerandbio-fertilizerincreasedthemaizephotosyn原 theticrateattrumpetperiodby2.1耀7.6 滋mol ·m -2 ·s -1 .Thetranspirationrateofstrawturnoverandbio-fertilizertreatmentswasdecreasedby ,XUJun-sheng ...doi:10.13254/j.jare.2013.0201 doaj:ceb4fc19e133413bb3267f759d2402da fatcat:kre66jivffgjhdfpqyfe3mrfqa
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