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Self-Representation on Twitter Using Emoji Skin Color Modifiers [article]

Alexander Robertson, Walid Magdy, Sharon Goldwater
2018 arXiv   pre-print
This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the use of skin tone modifiers on emoji on Twitter, showing that users with darker-skinned profile photos employ them more often than users with lighter-skinned  ...  Since 2015, it has been possible to modify certain emoji with a skin tone.  ...  In this paper, we present an analysis of how skin tone modifiers are used in emoji on Twitter.  ... 
arXiv:1803.10738v1 fatcat:f3sppthqevdmjp3hksgjzptw7a

How Gender and Skin Tone Modifiers Affect Emoji Semantics in Twitter

Francesco Barbieri, Jose Camacho-Collados
2018 Proceedings of the Seventh Joint Conference on Lexical and Computational Semantics  
Our analyses reveal that some stereotypes related to the skin color and gender seem to be reflected on the use of these modifiers.  ...  Moreover, we carry out a semantic analysis on the usage of emojis and their modifiers (e.g. gender and skin tone) by embedding all words, emojis and modifiers into the same vector space.  ...  Acknowledgments We thank Roberto Carlini for the initial idea of the paper, and Luis Espinox-Anke for fruitful discussions on this topic.  ... 
doi:10.18653/v1/s18-2011 dblp:conf/starsem/BarbieriC18 fatcat:7d4yw25kbnanvi2iq3bctq7f3e

Technically white: Emoji skin-tone modifiers as American technoculture

Miriam E. Sweeney, Kelsea Whaley
2019 First Monday  
The inclusion of skin-tone modifiers into the standard emoji set marked a shift from the default white racialization of emoji towards explicit attempts to expand racial representation in the human emoji  ...  Our findings suggest that though the skin-tone modifiers were introduced as an intervention into the lack of racial representation in emoji, they continue to technically center whiteness in the emoji set  ...  modifier on Twitter.  ... 
doi:10.5210/fm.v24i7.10060 fatcat:tofg6xwndfh3hgc6qn2jzu4v4e

Black or White but Never Neutral: How Readers Perceive Identity from Yellow or Skin-toned Emoji

Alexander Roberston, Walid Magdy, Sharon Goldwater
2021 Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction  
Recent work established a connection between expression of identity and emoji usage on social media, through use of emoji skin tone modifiers.  ...  Participant groups (based on self-identified ethnicity) showed no differences in how they perceive this signal, except in the case of the default yellow emoji.  ...  [73, 74] conclude that tone-modified emoji are used as a form of self-representation.  ... 
doi:10.1145/3476091 fatcat:uphyqfijnzcmxng3gnlw47hm4m

The Conservatism of Emoji: Work, Affect, and Communication

Luke Stark, Kate Crawford
2015 Social Media + Society  
A shorter version of this piece appeared in The New Inquiry as "The Conservatism of Emoji" in August 2014, and is accessible at essays/the-conservatism-of-emoji/ Declaration  ...  Moreover, even in systems that do not support the combined character of a face plus a skin tone modifier, a skin tone modifier itself might be supported on its own.  ...  The addition of standalone skin tone modifiers has the potential to destabilize, for good and ill, a wide range of emoji characters.  ... 
doi:10.1177/2056305115604853 fatcat:5g32jisevbbufe5xdk6louywrq

Emoji Accessibility for Visually Impaired People

Garreth W. Tigwell, Benjamin M. Gorman, Rachel Menzies
2020 Proceedings of the 2020 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems  
Using our findings from both studies, we propose best practice when using emoji and recommendations to improve the future accessibility of emoji for visually impaired people.  ...  This portion of the population may use and encounter emoji, yet it is unclear what accessibility challenges emoji introduce.  ...  Solutions discussed include changing the skin colour of the 'thumbs up' emoji (using a skin tone modifier such as 'Fitzpatrick Type-4' ) to improve the visibility against certain backgrounds or requesting  ... 
doi:10.1145/3313831.3376267 dblp:conf/chi/TigwellGM20 fatcat:itxlvtqf5ndgzjvvvt2wun5iei

Facial recognition, emotion and race in animated social media

Luke Stark
2018 First Monday  
AR Emoji.  ...  These technologies are also increasingly being put to use in consumer-facing social media video-sharing applications, such as Apple's animoji and memoji, Facebook Messenger's masks and filters and Samsung's  ...  This technical affordance places the onus on people of color to make a proactive decision to change the look of each character — by simply using the default yellow emoji in the context of the new modifiers  ... 
doi:10.5210/fm.v23i9.9406 fatcat:nn2m645yn5cmddp4j4buasdmyi

What Did They Mean by That? Young Adults' Interpretations of 105 Common Emojis

Christopher A. Was, Phillip Hamrick
2021 Frontiers in Psychology  
In cases of emojis representing hand gestures, we randomly chose one example from the multiple skin tone representations.  ...  ., "to") nor have they been modified (e.g., to correct spelling errors). TABLE 1 | 1 Text use, emoji use, emotional valence of emoji, and number of words produced per emoji by self-reported sex.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We are grateful to Randall Jamieson for sharing the R code for making the pre-trained word vectors with us.  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2021.655297 pmid:34135815 pmcid:PMC8200631 fatcat:zgojuqll65f5phyudpg3qajfju

Demographic Representation and Collective Storytelling in the Me Too Twitter Hashtag Activism Movement [article]

Aaron Mueller, Zach Wood-Doughty, Silvio Amir, Mark Dredze, Alicia L. Nobles
2020 arXiv   pre-print
The #MeToo movement on Twitter has drawn attention to the pervasive nature of sexual harassment and violence.  ...  While #MeToo has been praised for providing support for self-disclosures of harassment or violence and shifting societal response, it has also been criticized for exemplifying how women of color have been  ...  Similar to the gender model, examining word-level content does allow us to pick up on key features potentially indicative of race (e.g., skin tone of emoji).  ... 
arXiv:2010.06472v1 fatcat:ze772wdfzbdezlchcyksg5drei

Fluids on Pictures on Screens: Pseudonymous Affect on Reddit's TributeMe

Emily van der Nagel
2020 Social Media + Society  
Although the strict verification system involves providing consent for the image to be tributed, people deliberately remain pseudonymous on TributeMe.  ...  This article draws on two week-long archives of the subreddit TributeMe to study the way affective exchanges are intensified by the circulation of digital images.  ...  As a subreddit for self-portrait photographs, TributeMe can be understood within recent scholarship on selfies, which are intimate portraits taken by the subject of the photograph in an act of self-representation  ... 
doi:10.1177/2056305120905644 fatcat:yxpkp4hx3je7he4nykll5lj7bq

The body as a brand in social media: Analyzing Digital Fitness Influencers as Product Endorsers

Marianny Jessica de Brito Silva, Salomão Alencar de Farias, Michelle Helena Kovacs Grigg, Maria de Lourdes De Azevedo Barbosa
2021 Athenea Digital  
We used the Semiotic Image Analysis to investigate the postings of three Brazilian digital fitness influencers and identified four categories that configure the post format: body exposure, body extension  ...  The sociability on digital platforms has a considerable representation in the projection of the individual, significantly expanding behaviors of social differentiation and reference of the person, modifying  ...  By the way, she uses clothing that highlight her achievements, modeling her body as a second skin, using them as an extension of the purpose of the activity too (See Figure 8 , post 2).  ... 
doi:10.5565/rev/athenea.2614 fatcat:dsyx3rznfnfxzgilrc35intpru

Slack, Social Justice, and Online Technical Communication Pedagogy

Jennifer Sano-Franchini, André M. Jones, Priyanka Ganguly, Chloe J. Robertson, Luana J. Shafer, Marti Wagnon, Olayemi Awotayo, Megan Bronson
2022 Technical Communication Quarterly  
Drawing on our experiences using Slack within an online graduate course during the COVID-19 pandemic, we consider how Slack supports pedagogical community building and accessibility in online instruction  ...  Today, his research examines the influence of Black Athletic Ethos on the political subjectivities of non-athletic people. Priyanka  ...  On Slack one can easily change their full name, display name, and avatar as desired, as well as edit their profile, modify skin tone of emojis, and choose from a variety of means to express themselves  ... 
doi:10.1080/10572252.2022.2085809 fatcat:fdxoscumvvdcfpbp5vsigugfu4

The grammar of emoji? Constraints on communicative pictorial sequencing

Neil Cohn, Jan Engelen, Joost Schilperoord
2019 Cognitive Research  
We conducted two experiments that asked participants to have a digital conversation with each other using only emoji (Experiment 1) or to substitute at least one emoji for a word in the sentences (Experiment  ...  Here, we ask the questions: does a grammatical system govern the way people use emoji; and how do emoji interact with the grammar of written text?  ...  Modulation of an emoji requires encoding a fully different lexical entry into the emoji system, such as variants of skin color for emoji faces.  ... 
doi:10.1186/s41235-019-0177-0 fatcat:n7sk4hnugnffdknieqva6hymbu

Black or White but never neutral: How readers perceive identity from yellow or skin-toned emoji

Alexander Robertson, Walid Magdy, Sharon Goldwater
Recent work established a connection between expression of identity and emoji usage on social media, through use of emoji skin tone modifiers.  ...  Participant groups (based on self-identified ethnicity) showed no differences in how they perceive this signal, except in the case of the default yellow emoji.  ...  [74] found that users on Twitter with darker skin, regardless of their geographic location, were more likely to have used skin-toned emoji than users with lighter skin.  ... 
doi:10.48550/arxiv.2105.05887 fatcat:35molnqgnbdl5l6aundj3vpqdi

Expression and perception of identity through skin-toned emoji [article]

Alexander Robertson, University Of Edinburgh, Sharon Goldwater, Walid Magdy
The introduction of emoji skin tone modifiers to the Unicode Standard in 2015 was met with considerable debate on the extent to which these emoji would be used, who would actually use them, and what they  ...  I also identify particular variations in emoji production based on real-life skin tone and geographical location, as well as the context in which emoji are used.  ...  Chapter 3 Production This chapter consolidates work published in two papers: ''Self-Representation on Twitter Using Emoji Skin Color Modifiers'' (Robertson et al., 2018) and ''Emoji Skin Tone Modifiers  ... 
doi:10.7488/era/2471 fatcat:wwf442qx5ndctjip6jksxkh5py
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