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Security Properties of Light Clients on the Ethereum Blockchain

Santeri Paavolainen, Christopher Carr
2020 IEEE Access  
INDEX TERMS Blockchain, ethereum, light client, light ethereum subprotocol, security.  ...  Light clients connect to multiple light servers to mitigate the risk of relying on a single potentially dishonest server.  ...  They also would like to thank Signe-Anita Lindgrén for her help during the proofreading of the final version.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2020.3006113 fatcat:5uwjj3367zcrldqt343uyesq54

Decentralized Beacons: Attesting the Ground Truth of Blockchain State for Constrained IoT Devices

Santeri Paavolainen, Pekka Nikander
2019 2019 Global IoT Summit (GIoTS)  
them to gain full security guarantees of the blockchain state.  ...  This makes them ill-suited to operate as firstclass citizens on a blockchain, such as Ethereum, preventing the IoT devices from attaining the security guarantees that are available to better resourced  ...  Acknowledgment This work has been written as part of the SOFIE project, and has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 779984  ... 
doi:10.1109/giots.2019.8766432 dblp:conf/giots/PaavolainenN19 fatcat:p6vuyxupxbekxhtxgg7l77zsuy


Hoang-Long Nguyen, Claudia-Lavinia Ignat, Olivier Perrin
2018 Companion of the The Web Conference 2018 on The Web Conference 2018 - WWW '18  
To ensure the trustworthiness of a public key server, transparent log systems such as CONIKS employ a tamper-evident data structure on the server and a gossiping protocol among clients in order to detect  ...  This paper presents Trusternity, an auditing scheme relying on Ethereum blockchain that is easy to implement, scalable and inexpensive to operate.  ...  Even when TC uses a light wallet, the adversary can neither trick TC into accepting a fake transaction nor modify any published ST R due to the immutability property of the blockchain.  ... 
doi:10.1145/3184558.3186938 dblp:conf/www/NguyenIP18 fatcat:istdaimlyfaxflyejmwkpbiylm

BlAsT: Blockchain-Assisted Key Transparency for Device Authentication

Alessandro Gattolin, Cristina Rottondi, Giacomo Verticale
2018 2018 IEEE 4th International Forum on Research and Technology for Society and Industry (RTSI)  
We discuss the implementation of BlAsT over the Bitcoin and the Ethereum blokchains, provide a techno-economic analysis to evaluate the costs related to blockchain adoption, and numerically assess the  ...  The scheme guarantees the properties of linearity, non-equivocation, time-stamping and transparency.  ...  Conversely, a light node adopting the Light Ethereum Subprotocol (which has been included for the first time at the end of 2016 in Geth 1.5) operates only on block headers, which are composed by different  ... 
doi:10.1109/rtsi.2018.8548405 dblp:conf/rtsi/GattolinRV18 fatcat:npoju4klbjdhpcktescqg7r35y

Approaching the Communication Constraints of Ethereum-Based Decentralized Applications

Matevž Pustišek, Anton Umek, Andrej Kos
2019 Sensors  
We therefore investigated possible design approaches to decentralized applications based on the Ethereum blockchain for the IoT.  ...  Those working on Blockchain technologies have described several new innovative directions and novel services in the Internet of things (IoT), including decentralized trust, trusted and verifiable execution  ...  The founding sponsors had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, and in the decision to publish the results.  ... 
doi:10.3390/s19112647 fatcat:smz7bs56tzgvnbs4czqey7awu4

Secure Digital Transactions in The Education Sector Using Blockchain

Muhammad Nouman, Kareem Ullah, Muhammad Azam
2021 EAI Endorsed Transactions on Scalable Information Systems  
When using blockchain technology in education, data or records can be stored permanently without fear of hacking due to the secure hashing algorithms in blockchain technology.  ...  This research was applied in the following ways: (a) analysing the three most well-known blockchain cryptocurrencies (Bitcoin, Litecoin, and Ethereum); (b) investigating the features and issues surrounding  ...  Although plans exist to develop thin clients for smaller devices such as phones, IoT (Light Client based on Android), and so on. Geth is the most popular Ethereum client.  ... 
doi:10.4108/eai.3-11-2021.171758 fatcat:fo35frmxnzebpjigy4qqfwqnvu

Adventures of a Light Blockchain Protocol in a Forest of Transactions: A Subset of a Story

Santeri Paavolainen, Christopher Carr, Essam Ghadafi
2021 IEEE Access  
The Ethereum blockchain is one of the most popular permissionless blockchains.  ...  on the blockchain.  ...  There are also proposals to improve the security of Ethereum light clients.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2021.3101717 fatcat:b6sciy4ozjbwvouvywcf6p7cwy

Designing a Blockchain-Based IoT With Ethereum, Swarm, and LoRa: The Software Solution to Create High Availability With Minimal Security Risks

Kazim Rifat Ozyilmaz, Arda Yurdakul
2019 IEEE Consumer Electronics Magazine  
The illustrated system used LoRa as the emerging network technology, Swarm as the distributed data storage and Ethereum as the blockchain platform.  ...  Today, the number of IoT devices in all aspects of life is exponentially increasing. The cities we are living in are getting smarter and informing us about our surroundings in a contextual manner.  ...  ABOUT THE AUTHORS  ... 
doi:10.1109/mce.2018.2880806 fatcat:kcc7gwdez5bvlphme6mfah7wbu

Permissionless Blockchains and Secure Logging [article]

Chunpeng Ge, Siwei Sun, Pawel Szalachowski
2019 arXiv   pre-print
Due to these properties, the blockchain technology is regarded as a general consensus infrastructure and based on which a variety of systems have been built.  ...  This article presents a study and survey of permissionless blockchain systems in the context of secure logging.  ...  . * This work was done while the author was at SUTD.  ... 
arXiv:1903.03954v1 fatcat:f22y4pf5vvdllonflp6vlzdbzi

Securing MQTT by Blockchain-Based OTP Authentication

Francesco Buccafurri, Vincenzo De Angelis, Roberto Nardone
2020 Sensors  
On the other hand, the lack of security measures could negatively impact the concrete adoption of this paradigm.  ...  Hence, this paper proposes a novel OTP (one-time password)-authentication schema for MQTT, which uses the Ethereum blockchain to implement a second-factor out-of-band channel.  ...  However, it is possible to rely on secure transport protocol such as SSL or TLS to carry the message, but it has a price in terms of the light weight of the protocol.  ... 
doi:10.3390/s20072002 pmid:32260049 fatcat:2ygg5376gvcqzcb4y3ahdkzvwu

Blockchain in the Internet of Things: Architectures and Implementation

Oscar Delgado-Mohatar, Ruben Tolosana, Julian Fierrez, Aythami Morales
2020 arXiv   pre-print
The source code of our implementation is publicly available in the Ethereum testnet.  ...  In this study we propose and evaluate a new approach based on the incorporation of Blockchain into current IoT scenarios.  ...  23] , running the official Ethereum client (Geth), and connected to the Ropsten testnet in light mode. • IoT Device: we consider the Wemos D1 mini [24] , a popular low-cost microcontroller based on the  ... 
arXiv:2004.05817v1 fatcat:xinyugxa7zaifcplr5ue5jjif4

SmartCert: Redesigning Digital Certificates with Smart Contracts [article]

Pawel Szalachowski
2020 arXiv   pre-print
We present the implementation and evaluation of SmartCert, and discuss its deployability.  ...  The Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol and its public-key infrastructure (PKI) are widely used in the Internet to achieve secure communication.  ...  Client wishes to contact a service (served by a domain) in a secure way. Clients trust CAs and they are also blockchain light client able to obtain the blockchain block headers.  ... 
arXiv:2003.13259v1 fatcat:fh3gcmwu4rgkvjzuwmazefkb6a

BLOCKBENCH: A Framework for Analyzing Private Blockchains [article]

Tien Tuan Anh Dinh, Ji Wang, Gang Chen, Rui Liu, Beng Chin Ooi, Kian-Lee Tan
2017 arXiv   pre-print
Blockchain technologies are taking the world by storm. Public blockchains, such as Bitcoin and Ethereum, enable secure peer-to-peer applications like crypto-currency or smart contracts.  ...  Next, we use BlockBench to conduct comprehensive evaluation of three major private blockchains: Ethereum, Parity and Hyperledger Fabric.  ...  Special thanks to Hao Zhang, Loi Luu, the developers from Ethereum, Parity and Hyperledger projects for helping us with the experiment setup.  ... 
arXiv:1703.04057v1 fatcat:czc76zfsvfd3xhh5jmaob6veeq


Tien Tuan Anh Dinh, Ji Wang, Gang Chen, Rui Liu, Beng Chin Ooi, Kian-Lee Tan
2017 Proceedings of the 2017 ACM International Conference on Management of Data - SIGMOD '17  
Blockchain technologies are taking the world by storm. Public blockchains, such as Bitcoin and Ethereum, enable secure peer-to-peer applications like crypto-currency or smart contracts.  ...  Next, we use BLOCKBENCH to conduct comprehensive evaluation of three major private blockchains: Ethereum, Parity and Hyperledger Fabric.  ...  Gang Chen is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61472348).  ... 
doi:10.1145/3035918.3064033 dblp:conf/sigmod/DinhW0LOT17 fatcat:i32pmfvtpbhhto2ykzlbk3fo2e

Decentralization in Bitcoin and Ethereum Networks [article]

Adem Efe Gencer and Soumya Basu and Ittay Eyal and Robbert van Renesse and Emin Gün Sirer
2018 arXiv   pre-print
We present a measurement study on various decentralization metrics of two of the leading cryptocurrencies with the largest market capitalization and user base, Bitcoin and Ethereum.  ...  Blockchain-based cryptocurrencies have demonstrated how to securely implement traditionally centralized systems, such as currencies, in a decentralized fashion.  ...  Acknowledgements The authors thank Vitalik Buterin and the anonymous reviewers for their feedback on earlier drafts of this manuscript. Ittay Eyal is supported by the Viterbi  ... 
arXiv:1801.03998v2 fatcat:3o2f2e4w2zgltpv2yk4e6q4i2m
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