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Assessing Architecture Conformance to Coupling-Related Patterns and Practices in Microservices

Evangelos Ntentos, Uwe Zdun, Konstantinos Plakidas, Sebastian Meixner, Sebastian Geiger Geiger
2020 Zenodo  
Microservices are the go-to architectural style for building applications that are polyglot, support high scalability, independent development and deployment, and are rapidly adaptable to changes. Among the core tenets for a successful microservice architecture is high independence of the individual microservices, i.e.\ loose coupling. A number of patterns and best practices are well-established in the literature, but most actual microservice-based systems do not, as a whole or in part, conform
more » ... to them. Assessing this conformance manually is not realistically possible for large-scale systems. This study aims to provide the foundations for an automated approach for assessing conformance to coupling-related patterns and practices specific for microservice architectures. We propose a model-based assessment based on generic, technology-independent metrics, connected to typical design decisions encountered in microservice architectures. We demonstrate and assess the validity and appropriateness of these metrics by performing an assessment of the conformance of real-world systems to patterns through statistical methods.
doi:10.5281/zenodo.4551524 fatcat:w7n7oaajpfaltgh3ujt766k3tq

High Resolution Köppen-Geiger Classifications of Paleoclimate Simulations

Christian Willmes, Daniel Becker, Sebastian Brocks, Christoph Hütt, Georg Bareth
2016 Transactions on GIS  
In Section 3.4, we describe the updated K€ oppen-Geiger classification scheme after Peel et al. (2007) and Kottek et al. (2006) , which we implemented in this contribution.  ...  The development and application of an algorithm to compute K€ oppen-Geiger climate classifications from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) and Paleo Model Intercomparison Project (PMIP) climate  ...  Later, the German meteorologist Rudolph Geiger developed the classification system further (Geiger and Pohl 1954) .  ... 
doi:10.1111/tgis.12187 fatcat:h5pjtgsb6namranupibvtxiuz4

Detector-based Component Model Abstraction for Microservice-Based Systems

Evangelos Ntentos, Uwe Zdun, Konstantinos Plakidas, Patric Genfer, Sebastian Geiger, Sebastian Meixner, Wilhelm Hasselbring
2021 Zenodo  
One of the chief problems in software architecture is avoiding architecture model drift and erosion in all kinds of complex software systems. Microservice-based systems introduce new challenges in this context, as they often use a large variety of technologies in their latest iteration, and are changed and released very frequently. Existing solutions that can be used to reconstruct architecture models fall short in addressing these new challenges, as they cannot easily cope with continuous
more » ... tion, their accuracy is too low, and highly polyglot settings are not supported well. In this work, we report on a research study aiming to design a highly accurate architecture model abstraction approach for comprehending component architecture models of highly polyglot systems that can cope with continuous evolution. After analyzing the results of related studies, we found two possible architecture model abstraction approaches that meet the requirements of our study: an opportunistic, and a reusable semi-automatic detector-based approach. We have conducted an empirical case study for validation and comparison of the two approaches. We conclude that both detector approaches are feasible. In our case study, the reusable approach breaks even in terms of time and effort needed for establishing reuse, if modest reuse of detectors is possible, and is producing slightly more high quality and evolution-stable solutions than the opportunistic approach.
doi:10.5281/zenodo.5724108 fatcat:w4hewexw4vb7jhznkczknybsme

Metrics for Assessing Architecture Conformance to Microservice Architecture Patterns and Practices

Evangelos Ntentos, Uwe Zdun, Konstantinos Plakidas, Sebastian Meixner, Sebastian Geiger
2020 Zenodo  
Many contemporary service-based systems follow the microservice approach, particularly in DevOps or continuous delivery contexts. They share a set of important tenets such as independent development and deployment, high releasability, polyglot technology support, and loose coupling. A number of best practices for microservice architectures have been codified as patterns, which embody those tenets. However, no real-world microservices system can support all patterns and practices well, but
more » ... architectural decisions making trade-offs among them are needed. Conformance to the patterns and practices selected in such decisions is hard to ensure and assess automatically, especially in large-scale, complex, and evolving systems. In this work, we propose a model-based approach based on generic, technology-independent metrics, tied to typical architectural design decisions in the microservice domain. With this approach we can measure conformance to the patterns and related tenets. We demonstrate and assess the validity and appropriateness of these metrics in performing an assessment of a system's conformance to patterns through statistical methods.
doi:10.5281/zenodo.4551447 fatcat:emnwhqknkbbllm24q4reita7le

Assessing Architecture Conformance to Coupling-Related Patterns and Practices in Microservices

Evangelos Ntentos, Uwe Zdun, Konstantinos Plakidas, Sebastian Meixner, Sebastian Geiger
2020 Zenodo  
Microservices are the go-to architectural style for building applications that are polyglot, support high scalability, independent development and deployment, and are rapidly adaptable to changes. Among the core tenets for a successful microservice architecture is high independence of the individual microservices, i.e. loose coupling. A number of patterns and best practices are wellestablished in the literature, but most actual microservice-based systems do not, as a whole or in part, conform
more » ... them. Assessing this conformance manually is not realistically possible for large-scale systems. This study aims to provide the foundations for an automated approach for assessing conformance to couplingrelated patterns and practices specific for microservice architectures. We propose a model-based assessment based on generic, technology-independent metrics, connected to typical design decisions encountered in microservice architectures. We demonstrate and assess the validity and appropriateness of these metrics by performing an assessment of the conformance of real-world systems to patterns through statistical methods.
doi:10.5281/zenodo.3951868 fatcat:ta7ozw2kp5a3jnzph6czdm6yuq

Das Geiger-Müller-Zählrohr

Sebastian Korff
2012 NTM. International Journal of History and Ethics of Natural Sciences, Technology and Medicine  
Nur wenige Besucher waren in die SEBASTIAN KORFF Labore eingeladen worden oder hatten gar ein Zählrohr von Geiger erhalten.  ...  für die SEBASTIAN KORFF Konstruktion eines möglichst quellentreuen Nachbaus gewinnen.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s00048-012-0080-y pmid:23233194 fatcat:vwk2ylfzzvamdgkwllmpt5np6y

Probabilistic Duality for Parallel Gibbs Sampling without Graph Coloring [article]

Lars Mescheder, Sebastian Nowozin, Andreas Geiger
2016 arXiv   pre-print
We present a new notion of probabilistic duality for random variables involving mixture distributions. Using this notion, we show how to implement a highly-parallelizable Gibbs sampler for weakly coupled discrete pairwise graphical models with strictly positive factors that requires almost no preprocessing and is easy to implement. Moreover, we show how our method can be combined with blocking to improve mixing. Even though our method leads to inferior mixing times compared to a sequential
more » ... sampler, we argue that our method is still very useful for large dynamic networks, where factors are added and removed on a continuous basis, as it is hard to maintain a graph coloring in this setup. Similarly, our method is useful for parallelizing Gibbs sampling in graphical models that do not allow for graph colorings with a small number of colors such as densely connected graphs.
arXiv:1611.06684v1 fatcat:fcugbmnr2ffzhkphk3xs7berge

The Numerics of GANs [article]

Lars Mescheder, Sebastian Nowozin, Andreas Geiger
2018 arXiv   pre-print
In this paper, we analyze the numerics of common algorithms for training Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs). Using the formalism of smooth two-player games we analyze the associated gradient vector field of GAN training objectives. Our findings suggest that the convergence of current algorithms suffers due to two factors: i) presence of eigenvalues of the Jacobian of the gradient vector field with zero real-part, and ii) eigenvalues with big imaginary part. Using these findings, we design a
more » ... new algorithm that overcomes some of these limitations and has better convergence properties. Experimentally, we demonstrate its superiority on training common GAN architectures and show convergence on GAN architectures that are known to be notoriously hard to train.
arXiv:1705.10461v3 fatcat:xbaa3osi5ja3hh3ygf2tsi7ahq

Adversarial Variational Bayes: Unifying Variational Autoencoders and Generative Adversarial Networks [article]

Lars Mescheder, Sebastian Nowozin, Andreas Geiger
2017 arXiv   pre-print
Supplementary Material for Adversarial Variational Bayes: Unifying Variational Autoencoders and Generative Adversarial Networks Lars Mescheder 1 Sebastian Nowozin 2 Andreas Geiger 1 3 Abstract In the  ... 
arXiv:1701.04722v3 fatcat:tc6pxpcrljgb7lpjhbyze77v7a

The design of an open-source carbonate reservoir model

Jorge Costa Gomes, Sebastian Geiger, Daniel Arnold
2022 figshare.com  
Supplementary material.
doi:10.6084/m9.figshare.19115152.v1 fatcat:7rnrbi4rrnc7zccorujygi4pke

Evaluating and Improving Microservice Architecture Conformance to Architectural Design Decisions

Evangelos Ntentos, Uwe Zdun, Konstantinos Plakidas, Sebastian Geiger
2021 Zenodo  
Microservices are a commonly used architectural style targeting independent development, deployment, and release of services, as well as supporting polyglot capabilities and rapid release strategies. This depends on the presence of certain software architecture qualities. A number of architecture patterns and best practices that support the required qualities have been proposed in the literature, but usually in isolation of one another. Additionally, in real-world systems, assessing conformance
more » ... to these patterns and practices and detecting possible violations is a significant challenge. For small-scale systems of a few services, a manual assessment and violation detection by an expert is probably both accurate and sufficient. However, for industrial-scale systems of several hundred or more services, manual assessment and violation detection is laborious and likely leads to inaccurate results. Furthermore, manual assessment is impractical for rapidly evolving and frequently released system architectures. In this work we examine a subset of microservice-relevant patterns, and propose a method for the semi-automatic detection and resolution of conformance violations. Our aim is to assist the software architect by providing a set of possible fix options and generating models of "fixed" architectures.
doi:10.5281/zenodo.5724082 fatcat:qxcwlgsaeng7zjck5wa5bhnfeq

Introduction to the thematic collection: Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

Thomas Finkbeiner, Giovanni Bertotti, Sebastian Geiger
2019 Petroleum Geoscience  
doi:10.1144/petgeo2019-122 fatcat:gdmolpmspzadjnzsl7whzjs6zi

Geoscience and decarbonisation: current status and future directions

Michael H. Stephenson, Philip Ringrose, Sebastian Geiger, Michael Bridden
2019 Petroleum Geoscience  
Sebastian Bauer and Andreas Dahmke, from Christian-Albrechts-University in Kiel, noted that in Germany, about 50% of total energy demand is from heating and cooling systems, with only a small fraction  ... 
doi:10.1144/petgeo2019-084 fatcat:e46okqyigfey3ifmpqe577awpu

Occupancy Networks: Learning 3D Reconstruction in Function Space [article]

Lars Mescheder, Michael Oechsle, Michael Niemeyer, Sebastian Nowozin, Andreas Geiger
2019 arXiv   pre-print
With the advent of deep neural networks, learning-based approaches for 3D reconstruction have gained popularity. However, unlike for images, in 3D there is no canonical representation which is both computationally and memory efficient yet allows for representing high-resolution geometry of arbitrary topology. Many of the state-of-the-art learning-based 3D reconstruction approaches can hence only represent very coarse 3D geometry or are limited to a restricted domain. In this paper, we propose
more » ... cupancy Networks, a new representation for learning-based 3D reconstruction methods. Occupancy networks implicitly represent the 3D surface as the continuous decision boundary of a deep neural network classifier. In contrast to existing approaches, our representation encodes a description of the 3D output at infinite resolution without excessive memory footprint. We validate that our representation can efficiently encode 3D structure and can be inferred from various kinds of input. Our experiments demonstrate competitive results, both qualitatively and quantitatively, for the challenging tasks of 3D reconstruction from single images, noisy point clouds and coarse discrete voxel grids. We believe that occupancy networks will become a useful tool in a wide variety of learning-based 3D tasks.
arXiv:1812.03828v2 fatcat:jyk7zrqhnveexbogshq7nrc4ee

Poromechanical controls on spontaneous imbibition in earth materials

Amir H. Haghi, Richard Chalaturnyk, Martin J. Blunt, Kevin Hodder, Sebastian Geiger
2021 Scientific Reports  
AbstractOver the last century, the state of stress in the earth's upper crust has undergone rapid changes because of human activities associated with fluid withdrawal and injection in subsurface formations. The stress dependency of multiphase flow mechanisms in earth materials is a substantial challenge to understand, quantify, and model for many applications in groundwater hydrology, applied geophysics, CO2 subsurface storage, and the wider geoenergy field (e.g., geothermal energy, hydrogen
more » ... rage, hydrocarbon recovery). Here, we conduct core-scale experiments using N2/water phases to study primary drainage followed by spontaneous imbibition in a carbonate specimen under increasing isotropic effective stress and isothermal conditions. Using X-ray computed micro-tomography images of the unconfined specimen, we introduce a novel coupling approach to reconstruct pore-deformation and simulate multiphase flow inside the deformed pore-space followed by a semi-analytical calculation of spontaneous imbibition. We show that the irreducible water saturation increases while the normalized volume of spontaneously imbibed water into the specimen decreases (46–25%) in response to an increase in effective stress (0–30 MPa), leading to higher residual gas saturations. Furthermore, the imbibition rate decreases with effective stress, which is also predicted by a numerical model, due to a decrease in water relative permeability as the pore-space becomes more confined and tortuous. This fundamental study provides new insights into the physics of multiphase fluid transport, CO2 storage capacity, and recovery of subsurface resources incorporating the impact of poromechanics.
doi:10.1038/s41598-021-82236-x pmid:33558612 fatcat:ezyjsobcpzhljfkmv2xtg6pqm4
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