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Farewell My Fantasy Sean Metzger University of California, Davis SUMMARY. ... Metzger, Sean. Co-published simultaneous ly in n Journal of Homosexuality (The Haworth Press, Inc.) ...doi:10.1300/j082v39n03_09 pmid:11133133 fatcat:pvy434tzrjgttor7y4pfaqhctu
Direct neural recordings from human auditory cortex have demonstrated encoding for acoustic-phonetic features of consonants and vowels. Neural responses also encode distinct acoustic amplitude cues related to timing, such as those that occur at the onset of a sentence after a silent period or the onset of the vowel in each syllable. Here, we used a group reduced rank regression model to show that distributed cortical responses support a low-dimensional latent state representation of temporaldoi:10.1101/2021.07.15.452519 fatcat:pajbqsxbozgm3nkhevcgvahb2a
more »... text in speech. The timing cues each capture more unique variance than all other phonetic features and exhibit rotational or cyclical dynamics in latent space from activity that is widespread over the superior temporal gyrus. We propose that these spatially distributed timing signals could serve to provide temporal context for, and possibly bind across time, the concurrent processing of individual phonetic features, to compose higher-order phonological (e.g. word-level) representations.
This essay examines the relationships of performing bodies to elaborate "Asian/American corporeal citations" and argues that such citations create the grounds for a politics of mobility. Revisiting and extending Sau-ling Wong's theoretical engagement with "myths of mobility," it specifically uses the nexus of mourning, performance, and racialization to rearticulate modes of cultural passing by constructing a lineage through several men: screen star Toshiro Mifune, actor Lane Nishikawa (whodoaj:463aef035f5a4ee0be9e1b18c6d2bded fatcat:rsr5xjrokvadhcsnggck4szsjq
more »... es Mifune through Nishikawa's elegiac solo piece Mifune and Me), and the author (disciplined through acting classes with Nishikawa). The stakes of re-membering are further articulated through the interweaving of the bodily acts associated with the death of the author's grandfather, Bo Jung. Joining the principal argument with this more personal reflection is an attempt to think through the implications of Nishikawa's theatrical memorial and to grapple with loss and the complex, nonlinear structures of memory that attend it. Ultimately, all the cultural transmissions discussed place the body at the center of transnational, racial, and ethnic discourses. In so doing, the essay revises kinship as the foundation for what might otherwise be too easily read as diasporic cultural productions.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is known to be associated with protein alterations and extracellular fibrous deposition. We investigated the urinary proteomic profiles of HCC patients in this prospective cross sectional multicentre study. 195 patients were recruited from the UK (Coventry) and Germany (Hannover) between 1 January 2013 and 30 June 2019. Out of these, 57 were HCC patients with a background of liver cirrhosis (LC) and 138 were non-HCC controls; 72 patients with LC, 57 withdoi:10.3390/cancers13153786 fatcat:x5zcovkmtnbr3hih3mimw66mii
more »... tic liver disease and 9 with normal liver function. Analysis of the urine samples was performed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS). Peptide sequences were obtained and 31 specific peptide markers for HCC were identified and further integrated into a multivariate classification model. The peptide model demonstrated 79.5% sensitivity and 85.1% specificity (95% CI: 0.81–0.93, p < 0.0001) for HCC and 4.1-fold increased risk of death (95% CI: 1.7–9.8, p = 0.0005). Proteases potentially involved in HCC progression were mapped to the N- and C-terminal sequence motifs of the CE-MS peptide markers. In silico protease prediction revealed that kallikrein-6 (KLK6) elicits increased activity, whilst Meprin A subunit α (MEP1A) has reduced activity in HCC compared to the controls. Tissue expression of KLK6 and MEP1A was subsequently verified by immunohistochemistry.
A common practice in unsupervised representation learning is to use labeled data to evaluate the quality of the learned representations. This supervised evaluation is then used to guide critical aspects of the training process such as selecting the data augmentation policy. However, guiding an unsupervised training process through supervised evaluations is not possible for real-world data that does not actually contain labels (which may be the case, for example, in privacy sensitive fields sucharXiv:2009.07724v3 fatcat:e4tmeetpvzckdbqlcgccsklr7u
more »... as medical imaging). Therefore, in this work we show that evaluating the learned representations with a self-supervised image rotation task is highly correlated with a standard set of supervised evaluations (rank correlation > 0.94). We establish this correlation across hundreds of augmentation policies, training settings, and network architectures and provide an algorithm (SelfAugment) to automatically and efficiently select augmentation policies without using supervised evaluations. Despite not using any labeled data, the learned augmentation policies perform comparably with augmentation policies that were determined using exhaustive supervised evaluations.
Fatal outcomes following influenza infection are often associated with secondary bacterial infections. Allergic airway disease (AAD) is known to influence severe complications from respiratory infections, and yet the mechanistic effect of AAD on influenza virus-Streptococcus pneumoniae coinfection has not been investigated previously. We examined the impact of AAD on host susceptibility to viral-bacterial coinfections. We report that AAD improved survival during coinfection when viral-bacterialdoi:10.1128/mbio.01335-19 pmid:31266877 pmcid:PMC6606812 fatcat:tbtdmjq5ibhshbubzaic6squu4
more »... challenge occurred 1 week after AAD. Counterintuitively, mice with AAD had significantly deceased proinflammatory responses during infection. Specifically, both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell interferon gamma (IFN-γ) responses were suppressed following AAD. Resistance to coinfection was also associated with strong transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) expression and increased bacterial clearance. Treatment of AAD mice with IFN-γ or genetic deletion of TGF-β receptor II expression reversed the protective effects of AAD. Using a novel triple-challenge model system, we show for the first time that AAD can provide protection against influenza virus-S. pneumoniae coinfection through the production of TGF-β that suppresses the influenza virus-induced IFN-γ response, thereby preserving antibacterial immunity. IMPORTANCE Asthma has become one of the most common chronic diseases and has been identified as a risk factor for developing influenza. However, the impact of asthma on postinfluenza secondary bacterial infection is currently not known. Here, we developed a novel triple-challenge model of allergic airway disease, primary influenza infection, and secondary Streptococcus pneumoniae infection to investigate the impact of asthma on susceptibility to viral-bacterial coinfections. We report for the first time that mice recovering from acute allergic airway disease are highly resistant to influenza-pneumococcal coinfection and that this resistance is due to inhibition of influenza virus-mediated impairment of bacterial clearance. Further characterization of allergic airway disease-associated resistance against postinfluenza secondary bacterial infection may aid in the development of prophylactic and/or therapeutic treatment against coinfection.
Asthma is believed to be a risk factor for influenza infection, however little experimental evidence exists to directly demonstrate the impact of asthma on susceptibility to influenza infection. Using a mouse model, we now report that asthmatic mice are actually significantly more resistant to a lethal influenza virus challenge. Notably, the observed increased resistance was not attributable to enhanced viral clearance, but instead, was due to reduced lung inflammation. Asthmatic mice exhibiteddoi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1005180 pmid:26407325 pmcid:PMC4583434 fatcat:i5p6rcvo6nc2nctthzb6zhimje
more »... a significantly reduced cytokine storm, as well as reduced total protein levels and cytotoxicity in the airways, indicators of decreased tissue injury. Further, asthmatic mice had significantly increased levels of TGF-β1 and the heightened resistance of asthmatic mice was abrogated in the absence of TGF-β receptor II. We conclude that a transient increase in TGF-β expression following acute asthma can induce protection against influenza-induced immunopathology. PLOS Pathogens |
Metzger, unpublished data). ...doi:10.1128/aac.00968-15 pmid:26248370 pmcid:PMC4576051 fatcat:cgdnqxaxvncuplynxm7aib7uhu
doi:10.1093/infdis/jiv066 pmid:25649173 pmcid:PMC4615793 fatcat:geb3pvvmjvefbfr6adpuupsjpu
Metzger, unpublished observations). It is well established that commensal bacteria regulate immune responses in the gut through secretion of ligands for pattern recognition receptors (30) . ...doi:10.1128/iai.00408-13 pmid:23836815 pmcid:PMC3754209 fatcat:honuugecffay3njzczeukez2si
This package, described in detail in Metzger et al. (2012 Metzger et al. ( , 2013a , has been verified against other turbulence processors (e.g., Mauder and Foken, 2011) . ... Active testing and research on optimizing GSS subsystems and system components have been underway at NEON (see Metzger et al., 2014) and ICOS (see De Ligne et al., 2014) . ...doi:10.5194/amt-9-1341-2016 fatcat:dsdwkaqxhndcpjcqfrfobq74te
While self-supervised pretraining has proven beneficial for many computer vision tasks, it requires expensive and lengthy computation, large amounts of data, and is sensitive to data augmentation. Prior work demonstrates that models pretrained on datasets dissimilar to their target data, such as chest X-ray models trained on ImageNet, underperform models trained from scratch. Users that lack the resources to pretrain must use existing models with lower performance. This paper exploresarXiv:2103.12718v2 fatcat:nodmk6irlnemvis2hrhipjzwa4
more »... al PreTraining (HPT), which decreases convergence time and improves accuracy by initializing the pretraining process with an existing pretrained model. Through experimentation on 16 diverse vision datasets, we show HPT converges up to 80x faster, improves accuracy across tasks, and improves the robustness of the self-supervised pretraining process to changes in the image augmentation policy or amount of pretraining data. Taken together, HPT provides a simple framework for obtaining better pretrained representations with less computational resources.
Secondary bacterial pneumonia is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality during seasonal and pandemic influenza. Due to the unpredictability of influenza A virus evolution and the time-consuming process of manufacturing strain-specific influenza vaccines, recent efforts have been focused on developing anti-Streptococcus pneumoniae immunity to prevent influenza-related illness and death. Bacterial vaccination to prevent viral-bacterial synergistic interaction during co-infection is adoi:10.3390/vaccines7040146 pmid:31614565 pmcid:PMC6963301 fatcat:i3d6a654tzfoncmowqz3j5yb2q
more »... promising concept that needs further investigation. Here, we show that immunization with pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) fully protects mice against low-dose, but not high-dose, secondary bacterial challenge using a murine model of influenza A virus-S. pneumoniae co-infection. We further show that immunization with PspA is more broadly protective than the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (Prevnar). These results demonstrate that PspA is a promising vaccine target that can provide protection against a physiologically relevant dose of S. pneumoniae following influenza infection.
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Outbreak on a Stem Cell Transplant Unit Sean G. ... Kelly 1 , Kristen Metzger 2 , Maureen Bolon 1,2 , Christina Silkaitis 2 , Mary Mielnicki 3 , Jane Cullen 4 , Melissa Rooney 4 , Timothy Blanke 5 AlaaEddin Tahboub 5 , Gary A. Noskin 1 , Teresa R. ...doi:10.1016/j.ajic.2016.03.075 pmid:27430734 fatcat:xqt7cm2r3ngz3kp77j2orqorji
The aim of this study was to examine whether the translocator protein 18-kDa (TSPO) PET ligand [18F]FEPPA has the sensitivity for detecting changes in CD68-positive microglial/macrophage activation in hemiparkinsonian rhesus macaques treated with allogeneic grafts of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived midbrain dopaminergic neurons (iPSC-mDA). In vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with [18F]FEPPA was used in conjunction with postmortem CD68 immunostaining to evaluatedoi:10.1186/s13550-020-00683-5 pmid:32761399 fatcat:pfzbehmrajda7hg3becu25uw2u
more »... tion in the brains of hemiparkinsonian rhesus macaques (n = 6) that received allogeneic iPSC-mDA grafts in the putamen ipsilateral to MPTP administration. Based on assessment of radiotracer uptake and confirmed by visual inspection of the imaging data, nonhuman primates with allogeneic grafts showed increased [18F]FEPPA binding at the graft sites relative to the contralateral putamen. From PET asymmetry analysis of the images, the mean asymmetry index of the monkeys was AI = - 0.085 ± 0.018. Evaluation and scoring of CD68 immunoreactivity by an investigator blind to the treatment identified significantly more neuroinflammation in the grafted areas of the putamen compared to the contralateral putamen (p = 0.0004). [18F]FEPPA PET AI showed a positive correlation with CD68 immunoreactivity AI ratings in the monkeys (Spearman's ρ = 0.94; p = 0.005). These findings reveal that [18F]FEPPA PET is an effective marker for detecting increased CD68-positive microglial/macrophage activation and demonstrates sufficient sensitivity to detect changes in neuroinflammation in vivo following allogeneic cell engraftment.
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