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Scrypt Is Maximally Memory-Hard [chapter]

Joël Alwen, Binyi Chen, Krzysztof Pietrzak, Leonid Reyzin, Stefano Tessaro
<span title="">2017</span> <i title="Springer International Publishing"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
We prove that scrypt is optimally memory hard, i.e., its cumulative memory complexity (cmc) in the parallel random oracle model is Ω(n 2 w), where w and n are the output length and number of invocations  ...  Memory-hard functions (MHFs) are hash algorithms whose evaluation cost is dominated by memory cost.  ...  Theorem 1 (Memory-hardness of Scrypt, main theorem).  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-56617-7_2">doi:10.1007/978-3-319-56617-7_2</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/hgoqht4am5hv7gzssya5icaxta">fatcat:hgoqht4am5hv7gzssya5icaxta</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170710192729/http://eprint.iacr.org/2016/989.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/7b/41/7b412025ccec85b51f604a9bca3fed5f3d00771f.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-56617-7_2"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a>

Demystifying Crypto-Mining: Analysis and Optimizations of Memory-Hard PoW Algorithms

Runchao Han, Nikos Foutris, Christos Kotselidis
<span title="">2019</span> <i title="IEEE"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/klj774afczhfrbcdddkg3ve4wi" style="color: black;">2019 IEEE International Symposium on Performance Analysis of Systems and Software (ISPASS)</a> </i> &nbsp;
In this paper, we perform an in-depth performance analysis and characterization of the most common memory-hard PoW algorithms running on NVIDIA GPUs.  ...  At the heart of every blockchain deployment is the consensus protocol, which maintains the consistency of the blockchain upon satisfying incoming transactions.  ...  This work is partially supported by the EU Horizon 2020 E2Data 780245, ACTiCLOUD 732366, and EuroEXA 754337 grants.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/ispass.2019.00011">doi:10.1109/ispass.2019.00011</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://dblp.org/rec/conf/ispass/HanFK19.html">dblp:conf/ispass/HanFK19</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/vydexmzt7jfcrpclkesw2mjnim">fatcat:vydexmzt7jfcrpclkesw2mjnim</a> </span>
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On Password Guessing with GPUs and FPGAs [chapter]

Markus Dürmuth, Thorsten Kranz
<span title="">2015</span> <i title="Springer International Publishing"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
bcrypt and scrypt on GPUs and FPGAs.  ...  However, having exact measures for the rate of password guessing against determined attackers is non-trivial but important for evaluating the security for many systems.  ...  However, one thread can access a word of at most 16 bytes, so memory throughput is maximized when several threads access contiguous and aligned words; then memory access is called coalesced.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-24192-0_2">doi:10.1007/978-3-319-24192-0_2</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/xs7ywdci35bmzfl2prb53gmghy">fatcat:xs7ywdci35bmzfl2prb53gmghy</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20161110063256/http://www.ei.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/media/mobsec/veroeffentlichungen/2015/04/02/duermuth-2014-password-guessing.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/de/66/de6688ceeb8ebdc458b2b205846abd156086363b.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-24192-0_2"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a>

MRSA: A High-Efficiency Multi ROMix Scrypt Accelerator for Cryptocurrency Mining and Data Security

Vu Trung Duong Le, Thi Hong Tran, Hoai Luan Pham, Duc Khai Lam, Yasuhiko Namashima
<span title="">2021</span> <i title="Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/q7qi7j4ckfac7ehf3mjbso4hne" style="color: black;">IEEE Access</a> </i> &nbsp;
The proposed Multi ROMix Scrypt Accelerator (MRSA) hardware architecture applies several optimization techniques: configuration, local-memory computing with high-performance pipelined Multi ROMix and rescheduling  ...  Therefore, Scrypt, the most representative ASIC-resistant algorithm, was developed to solve this problem. However, there are still some problems and challenges with the current Scrypt hardware.  ...  /Multi-ROMix-Scrypt-Accelerator/.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/access.2021.3131558">doi:10.1109/access.2021.3131558</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/hgpga7toqjaknf4eqfubuxzrcq">fatcat:hgpga7toqjaknf4eqfubuxzrcq</a> </span>
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Balloon Hashing: A Memory-Hard Function Providing Provable Protection Against Sequential Attacks [chapter]

Dan Boneh, Henry Corrigan-Gibbs, Stuart Schechter
<span title="">2016</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
This is the first practical cryptographic hash function that: (i) has proven memory-hardness properties in the random-oracle model, (ii) uses a password-independent access pattern, and (iii) meets or exceeds  ...  Finally, we use experimental results to compare the performance of the Balloon hashing algorithm to other memory-hard functions.  ...  [6] prove, under combinatorial conjectures 11 that scrypt is nearoptimally memory-hard in the pROM.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-53887-6_8">doi:10.1007/978-3-662-53887-6_8</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/suv2aimhkvcelggdqh45jmgfie">fatcat:suv2aimhkvcelggdqh45jmgfie</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20190216023152/http://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/0001/f92cf8e343bcb10f24498cee635159e5c08f.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/00/01/0001f92cf8e343bcb10f24498cee635159e5c08f.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-53887-6_8"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a>

Open Sesame: The Password Hashing Competition and Argon2 [article]

Jos Wetzels
<span title="2016-02-11">2016</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
The only standardized scheme is PBKDF2 [25] with bcrypt [26] and scrypt [21] being the main alternatives.  ...  [2] a scheme is called memory-hard if, given a cracking implementation requiring reduced memory (with < 1) and increased running-time cost ( ) and thus having maximum time-area product gain = max (  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1602.03097v2">arXiv:1602.03097v2</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/cvsjzq4wifbp7kkcktsuiisy7a">fatcat:cvsjzq4wifbp7kkcktsuiisy7a</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200929205824/https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1602/1602.03097.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/48/90/489014c67a0efa9ad4817f440a614a040964ebc0.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1602.03097v2" title="arxiv.org access"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> arxiv.org </button> </a>

Tradeoff Cryptanalysis of Memory-Hard Functions [chapter]

Alex Biryukov, Dmitry Khovratovich
<span title="">2015</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
We explore time-memory and other tradeoffs for memory-hard functions, which are supposed to impose significant computational and time penalties if less memory is used than intended.  ...  We demonstrate that Catena's proof of tradeoff resilience is flawed, and attack it with a novel precomputation tradeoff. We show that using M 2/3 memory instead of M we may have no time penalties.  ...  An example of Catena with λ = 2 and n = 3 is shown at Figure 1 . The bit-reversal permutation is supposed to provide memory-hardness.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-48800-3_26">doi:10.1007/978-3-662-48800-3_26</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/ixi5pnn355chzjthlbfvdpgati">fatcat:ixi5pnn355chzjthlbfvdpgati</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170119084750/http://orbilu.uni.lu/bitstream/10993/20043/1/Tradeoff%20Cryptanalysis.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/cc/e7/cce73740324f39622bb9cb3dc99e060b8e0abe47.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-48800-3_26"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a>

Argon2: New Generation of Memory-Hard Functions for Password Hashing and Other Applications

Alex Biryukov, Daniel Dinu, Dmitry Khovratovich
<span title="">2016</span> <i title="IEEE"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/u2svuludwbbl3kyi56ta4uqumm" style="color: black;">2016 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS&amp;P)</a> </i> &nbsp;
It requires a certain (but tunable) amount of memory, imposes prohibitive time-memory and computation-memory tradeoffs on memory-saving users, and is exceptionally fast on regular PC.  ...  We present a new hash function Argon2, which is oriented at protection of low-entropy secrets without secret keys.  ...  CONCLUSION We presented the memory-hard function Argon2, which maximizes the ASIC implementation costs for given CPU computing time.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/eurosp.2016.31">doi:10.1109/eurosp.2016.31</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://dblp.org/rec/conf/eurosp/BiryukovDK16.html">dblp:conf/eurosp/BiryukovDK16</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/zzx5hvyganaq7nbusxyrted454">fatcat:zzx5hvyganaq7nbusxyrted454</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20180720215301/http://orbilu.uni.lu/bitstream/10993/31652/1/Argon2ESP.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/05/2e/052eda12c9acee6e8ddbbcb889ae0c767db9aa48.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/eurosp.2016.31"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> ieee.com </button> </a>

Computationally Data-Independent Memory Hard Functions

Mohammad Hassan Ameri, Jeremiah Blocki, Samson Zhou, Michael Wagner
<span title="2020-01-10">2020</span> <i > <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/cjckxhgqp5dobfucnrxpxnsy4u" style="color: black;">Innovations in Theoretical Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
By contrast, the dMHF scrypt achieves maximal CMC Ω(N 2 ) -though the CMC of scrypt would be reduced to just O (N ) after a side-channel attack.  ...  Broadly speaking, MHFs can be divided into two categories: datadependent memory hard functions (dMHFs) and data-independent memory hard functions (iMHFs). iMHFs are resistant to certain side-channel attacks  ...  it is impossible to obtain maximally memory hard ciMHFs for small k.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.4230/lipics.itcs.2020.36">doi:10.4230/lipics.itcs.2020.36</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://dblp.org/rec/conf/innovations/AmeriBZ20.html">dblp:conf/innovations/AmeriBZ20</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/sxg6xwp3dzemjflj6h77niupym">fatcat:sxg6xwp3dzemjflj6h77niupym</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20201214051257/https://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/volltexte/2020/11721/pdf/LIPIcs-ITCS-2020-36.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/87/6c/876ca1c0bf4f8ca92d70d997fe0137bb4001fa72.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.4230/lipics.itcs.2020.36"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

Foundations, Properties, and Security Applications of Puzzles: A Survey [article]

Isra Mohamed Ali, Maurantonio Caprolu, Roberto Di Pietro
<span title="2020-04-26">2020</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
These cryptograms, generally called puzzles, require the use of a certain amount of resources to be solved, hence introducing a cost that is often regarded as a time delay---though it could involve other  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS e authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their comments and suggestions, that helped improving the quality of the manuscript. is publication was partially supported by  ...  Veri cation requires a single call to Scrypt and a single comparison operation to check the output value (V N ) against the target value T. e memory hardness of Scrypt can be set by increasing or decreasing  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1904.10164v3">arXiv:1904.10164v3</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/xurbif2cxjgp5gtcrq56rtm4qa">fatcat:xurbif2cxjgp5gtcrq56rtm4qa</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200930072002/https://arxiv.org/pdf/1904.10164v3.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/de/23/de23a28415ec5c3b0a7f0df481d943c43b25a774.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1904.10164v3" title="arxiv.org access"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> arxiv.org </button> </a>

Computationally Data-Independent Memory Hard Functions [article]

Mohammad Hassan Ameri, Jeremiah Blocki, Samson Zhou
<span title="2019-11-15">2019</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
Broadly speaking, MHFs can be divided into two categories: data-dependent memory hard functions (dMHFs) and data-independent memory hard functions (iMHFs). iMHFs are resistant to certain side-channel attacks  ...  In this paper, we introduce the notion of computationally data-independent memory hard functions (ciMHFs).  ...  to design, but even more concerning is the inability of iMHFs to be maximally memory hard.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1911.06790v1">arXiv:1911.06790v1</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/w2h7v5abxjawphfauxwfw6tozm">fatcat:w2h7v5abxjawphfauxwfw6tozm</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200908042650/https://arxiv.org/pdf/1911.06790v1.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/94/67/94671342ebce81502364d3cd61d5b97b21f7e69f.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1911.06790v1" title="arxiv.org access"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> arxiv.org </button> </a>

Practical Graphs for Optimal Side-Channel Resistant Memory-Hard Functions

Joel Alwen, Jeremiah Blocki, Ben Harsha
<span title="">2017</span> <i title="ACM Press"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/rau5643b7ncwvh74y6p64hntle" style="color: black;">Proceedings of the 2017 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security - CCS &#39;17</a> </i> &nbsp;
A memory-hard function (MHF) f n with parameter n can be computed in sequential time and space n. Simultaneously, a high amortized parallel area-time complexity (aAT) is incurred per evaluation.  ...  For each DAG we: • Prove that their depth-robustness is asymptoticly maximal. • Prove bounds of at least 3 orders of magnitude better on their exact depth-robustness compared to known bounds for other  ...  More recently, memory-hard functions (MHFs) were introduced by Percival [34] in the form of the scrypt algorithm.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1145/3133956.3134031">doi:10.1145/3133956.3134031</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://dblp.org/rec/conf/ccs/AlwenBH17.html">dblp:conf/ccs/AlwenBH17</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/st4qlbjw7jaapdz3j4iscvv7ni">fatcat:st4qlbjw7jaapdz3j4iscvv7ni</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170714155858/https://eprint.iacr.org/2017/443.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/b0/d6/b0d6cb27677bff9c245c83ddbb663f1bc9cf9d7b.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1145/3133956.3134031"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> acm.org </button> </a>

Egalitarian computing [article]

Alex Biryukov, Dmitry Khovratovich
<span title="2018-01-29">2018</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
We suggest memory-hard computing as a generic paradigm, where every task is amalgamated with a certain procedure requiring intensive access to RAM both in terms of size and (very importantly) bandwidth  ...  It can be also used for memory-hard time-lock puzzles.  ...  Our goal is to maximize W with keeping T the same or smaller. The memory-hard functions seem to serve perfectly for the purpose of maximizing W .  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1606.03588v2">arXiv:1606.03588v2</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/deazhh5s35cj7aeatig4dnqnny">fatcat:deazhh5s35cj7aeatig4dnqnny</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200903171712/https://arxiv.org/pdf/1606.03588v2.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/fc/9c/fc9c62886e1cea0e6c48483473d95030f5390b16.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1606.03588v2" title="arxiv.org access"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> arxiv.org </button> </a>

On the Economics of Offline Password Cracking

Jeremiah Blocki, Benjamin Harsha, Samson Zhou
<span title="">2018</span> <i title="IEEE"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/inod5dqjxfdj3bnjykkklcg7d4" style="color: black;">2018 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP)</a> </i> &nbsp;
On a positive note our analysis demonstrates that memory hard functions (MHFs) such as SCRYPT or Argon2i can significantly reduce the damage of an offline attack.  ...  Based on our analysis we advocate that password hashing standards should be updated to require the use of memory hard functions for password hashing and disallow the use of non-memory hard functions such  ...  Intuitively, a memory hard function is a function whose computation requires large amounts of memory.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/sp.2018.00009">doi:10.1109/sp.2018.00009</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://dblp.org/rec/conf/sp/BlockiHZ18.html">dblp:conf/sp/BlockiHZ18</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/6jsv32mzdvdsfc4mmqpnnzmqoq">fatcat:6jsv32mzdvdsfc4mmqpnnzmqoq</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20171217232018/https://www.cs.purdue.edu/homes/jblocki/papers/SP18EconomicsOfOfflinePasswordCracking.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/67/1e/671e039c3ba333393c02877e1ff06e6ad778ea95.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/sp.2018.00009"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> ieee.com </button> </a>

Cuckoo Cycle: A Memory Bound Graph-Theoretic Proof-of-Work [chapter]

John Tromp
<span title="">2015</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
The constant implied in Ω() gives a notion of memory-hardness, which is shown to be dependent on cycle length, guiding the latter's choice.  ...  Runtime is linear in graph size and dominated by random access latency, ideal properties for a memory bound proof-of-work.  ...  Scrypt, designed as a sequential memory-hard key derivation function, was specifically chosen to resist the migration away from CPUs and be "GPU-hostile".  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-48051-9_4">doi:10.1007/978-3-662-48051-9_4</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/blviwat4c5fkzg4dxa7miefd5q">fatcat:blviwat4c5fkzg4dxa7miefd5q</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20150318093916/http://eprint.iacr.org/2014/059.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/72/8e/728e1131e5253a249715721e3a2020ee67931090.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-48051-9_4"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a>
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