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Comparative Analysis of Real-Time Global Illumination Techniques in Current Game Engines

Cristian Lambru, Anca Morar, Florica Moldoveanu, Victor Asavei, Alin Moldoveanu
2021 IEEE Access  
ACKNOWLEDGMENT Many appreciations to Alexandru Naiman for all technical assistance provided.  ...  To produce glossy reflections, we used the SSR technique and for the shadows we used a ray casting process in screen space.  ...  occlusion using cone tracing in the voxel volume (c) Ambient occlusion using screen space sampling FIGURE 8: Ambient occlusion map comparison. using the LPV.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2021.3109663 fatcat:jnheuu43treptl7pibqjbx3x3e

Interactive indirect illumination using voxel-based cone tracing

Cyril Crassin, Fabrice Neyret, Miguel Sainz, Simon Green, Elmar Eisemann
2011 ACM SIGGRAPH 2011 Talks on - SIGGRAPH '11  
In addition, we demonstrate that our voxel cone tracing can be used to efficiently estimate Ambient Occlusion.  ...  Our approach can manage two light bounces for both Lambertian and Glossy materials at interactive framerates (25-70FPS).  ...  The aperture of this cone is derived from the specular exponent of the material, allowing us to compute glossy reflections.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2037826.2037853 dblp:conf/siggraph/CrassinNSGE11 fatcat:2vo2s52gqvhh5jqqoibskblp7a

Extending Backward Polygon Beam Tracing to Glossy Scattering Surfaces

B. Duvenhage, K. Bouatouch, D. G. Kourie
2011 Computer graphics forum (Print)  
Although we limit the discussion to short transport paths, we show that backward beam tracing is faster than photon mapping by an order of magnitude for rendering caustics from glossy and specular surfaces  ...  This paper generalizes backward polygon beam tracing to include a glossy (G) scattering surface.  ...  We would certainly like to port the raytrace forward renderer to NVIDIA's OptiX ray engine to access GPU acceleration while maintaining the accuracy of ray tracing.  ... 
doi:10.1111/j.1467-8659.2011.01903.x fatcat:qmrexxzj7zdnxpwhdtf33o34dm

Virtual spherical lights for many-light rendering of glossy scenes

Miloš Hašan, Jaroslav Křivánek, Bruce Walter, Kavita Bala
2009 ACM Transactions on Graphics  
By combining VSLs with the matrix row-column sampling algorithm, we achieve high-quality images in one to four minutes, even in scenes where path tracing or photon mapping take hours to converge.  ...  The illumination contribution of a VSL is computed over a non-zero solid angle, thus eliminating the illumination spikes that virtual point lights used in traditional many-light methods are notorious for  ...  Acknowledgments We thank Edgar Velázquez-Armendáriz and Fabio Pellacini for implementing important parts of our code base.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1618452.1618489 fatcat:dzk45cwarnhoxpmqz2jl2qqyuy

Real-Time Global Illumination Using OpenGL And Voxel Cone Tracing [article]

Benjamin Kahl
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Voxel Cone Tracing, as proposed by Cyril Crassin et al. in 2011, makes use of mipmapped 3D textures containing a voxelized representation of an environments direct light component to trace diffuse, specular  ...  and occlusion cones in linear time to extrapolate a surface fragments indirect light emitted towards a given photo-receptor.  ...  tracing, voxel cone tracing uses phong reflection model techniques (see 3.3) for direct light, and adds on top the indirect light sampled by cone-traces.  ... 
arXiv:2104.00618v1 fatcat:up42e762vbdzbb6cmsejostm2a

Environment Mapping and Other Applications of World Projections

Ned Greene
1986 IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications  
Thanks also to Nelson Max and John Lewis for their comments, and to Dick Lundin, who assembled and rendered the scene of Figure 1 . Ariel Shaw and Rich Carter provided photographic assistance.  ...  Figure 3 shows the quadrilateral cone of "sky" reflected by the region of a surface subtended by a screen pixel.  ...  The regions are always polygonal for quadrilateral reflection cones (as in Figure 4b) , and for elliptical reflection cones they are bounded by second-degree curves (as in Figure 6b ).  ... 
doi:10.1109/mcg.1986.276658 fatcat:nru3ohgclrfttae6ikwl7lj6ti

Interactive indirect illumination using voxel cone tracing

Cyril Crassin, Fabrice Neyret, Miguel Sainz, Simon Green, Elmar Eisemann
2011 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics and Games on - I3D '11  
Figure 1: Real-time indirect illumination (25-70 fps on a GTX480): We rely on a voxel-based cone tracing to ensure efficient integration of 2-bounce illumination and support diffuse and glossy materials  ...  It is based on a hierarchical voxel octree representation generated and updated on the fly from a regular scene mesh coupled with an approximate voxel cone tracing that allows for a fast estimation of  ...  A near-interactive approach has been proposed in [LWDB10] to render glossy reflections with indirect highlights, caused by two successive reflections on glossy surfaces.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1944745.1944787 dblp:conf/si3d/CrassinNSGE11 fatcat:yspwjyyq2vd35b7mbczzyekise

Interactive Indirect Illumination Using Voxel Cone Tracing

Cyril Crassin, Fabrice Neyret, Miguel Sainz, Simon Green, Elmar Eisemann
2011 Computer graphics forum (Print)  
Figure 1: Real-time indirect illumination (25-70 fps on a GTX480): We rely on a voxel-based cone tracing to ensure efficient integration of 2-bounce illumination and support diffuse and glossy materials  ...  It is based on a hierarchical voxel octree representation generated and updated on the fly from a regular scene mesh coupled with an approximate voxel cone tracing that allows for a fast estimation of  ...  A near-interactive approach has been proposed in [LWDB10] to render glossy reflections with indirect highlights, caused by two successive reflections on glossy surfaces.  ... 
doi:10.1111/j.1467-8659.2011.02063.x fatcat:wjzd7gwgdbbllkd3p5chffcvqu

Increased photorealism for interactive architectural walkthroughs

Rui Bastos, Kenneth Hoff, William Wynn, Anselmo Lastra
1999 Proceedings of the 1999 symposium on Interactive 3D graphics - SI3D '99  
This paper presents a new method for interactive rendering of globally illuminated static scenes.  ...  The view-dependent component is decomposed into "what is reflected" (radiance with depth) and "how it is reflected" (BRDF), and precomputed and rendered using image-based approaches.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would like to thank Fred Brooks, Mary Whitton, Wolfgang Stuerzlinger and the reviewers for their helpful comments.  ... 
doi:10.1145/300523.300551 dblp:conf/si3d/BastosHWL99 fatcat:rmojqmgrlffjfczhkjcrqnaiqi

Whitted Ray-Tracing for Dynamic Scenes using a Ray-Space Hierarchy on the GPU [article]

David Roger, Ulf Assarsson, Nicolas Holzschuch
2007 Symposium on Rendering  
In this paper, we present a new algorithm for interactive rendering of animated scenes with Whitted Ray-Tracing, running on the GPU.  ...  Our algorithm results in interactive rendering with specular reflections and shadows for moderately complex scenes (~ 700K triangles), handles any kind of dynamic or unstructured scenes without any pre-processing  ...  Ray-space hierarchies Amanatides [Ama84] suggested grouping rays together for faster rendering and more realistic effects; he traced cones instead of rays, and used them for soft shadows and glossy reflections  ... 
doi:10.2312/egwr/egsr07/099-110 fatcat:o3u3sumxgzajbixrlvuglua7s4

Real-time rough refraction

Charles de Rousiers, Adrien Bousseau, Kartic Subr, Nicolas Holzschuch, Ravi Ramamoorthi
2011 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics and Games on - I3D '11  
real-time estimation of environment lighting using pre-convolution; second, a combination of cone tracing and macro-geometry filtering to efficiently integrate the scattered rays at the exiting interface  ...  the successive scattering events at interfaces, due to rough refraction : First, an approximation of the Bidirectional Transmittance Distribution Function (BTDF), using spherical Gaussians, suitable for  ...  Screen-space filtering: Since we rely on a screen-space algorithm to estimate the NDF at the second interface, our method is restricted to geometry that lies inside the view frustum.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1944745.1944764 dblp:conf/si3d/RousiersBSHR11 fatcat:hbbxt2pymngq7lxgejiyvpkvam

Accurate Real-Time Specular Reflections with Radiance Caching [chapter]

Antti Hirvonen, Atte Seppälä, Maksim Aizenshtein, Niklas Smal
2019 Ray Tracing Gems  
We present an algorithm for perspective-correct, real-time specular illumination for surfaces of varying glossiness in dynamic environments.  ...  ., radiance probes and screenspace reflections) while reducing the amount of visual errors by adding ray tracing to the rendering pipeline.  ...  SCREEN-SPACE REFLECTIONS Screen-space reflections (SSR) is a reflection technique that only uses screenspace data to approximate the specular term for the visible surfaces.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-1-4842-4427-2_32 fatcat:ciqhe4nomfavnlqihl37glqc2i

Toward practical real-time photon mapping

Michael Mara, David Luebke, Morgan McGuire
2013 Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics and Games - I3D '13  
Those must be ray traced or approximated with screen space techniques. Why fast? Offline global illumination takes minutes to hours to render with current tools.  ...  All produce reasonable results on NVIDIA GeForce 670 at 1920×1080 for complex scenes with multiple-bounce diffuse effects, caustics, and glossy reflection in real-time.  ...  Acknowledgements We thank our colleagues Jacopo Pantaleoni at NVIDIA and Guedis Cardenas at Williams College for their contributions to this project.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2448196.2448207 dblp:conf/si3d/MaraLM13 fatcat:wlnpksbz4bewtcg4rfwoucywwu

Filtering Environment Illumination for Interactive Physically-Based Rendering in Mixed Reality [article]

Soham Uday Mehta, Kihwan Kim, Dawid Pajak, Kari Pulli, Jan Kautz, Ravi Ramamoorthi
2015 Symposium on Rendering  
For this, we demonstrate a novel two-mode path tracing approach that allows ray-tracing a scene with image-based real geometry and mesh-based virtual geometry.  ...  Physically correct rendering of environment illumination has been a long-standing challenge in interactive graphics, since Monte-Carlo ray-tracing requires thousands of rays per pixel.  ...  Further, we use screen-space ray-tracing for real objects.  ... 
doi:10.2312/sre.20151172 fatcat:y2p2ow2dxzb4xegrwlbjwdz6ei

Axis-aligned filtering for interactive physically-based diffuse indirect lighting

Soham Uday Mehta, Brandon Wang, Ravi Ramamoorthi, Fredo Durand
2013 ACM Transactions on Graphics  
We extend previous work on sheared and axis-aligned filtering for motion blur and shadows, to develop an image-space filtering method for interreflections.  ...  In practice, we demonstrate accurate interactive global illumination with diffuse and moderately glossy objects, at 1-3 fps.  ...  Acknowledgements: We thank the reviewers for their helpful suggestions.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2461912.2461947 fatcat:rnqvupoegjeydklghvbosujzge
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