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Scaling the gate dielectric: Materials, integration, and reliability

D. A. Buchanan
1999 IBM Journal of Research and Development  
In this paper a review of the more "fundamental" concerns regarding the scaling of the gate dielectric in the ultrathin regime is presented.  ...  Some integration issues regarding higher-k materials are also discussed because of their ability to solve the scaling problem.  ...  Integration and reliability of both old and new materials are discussed.  ... 
doi:10.1147/rd.433.0245 fatcat:e5xyognqnre6hdfe3souli2n3q

Electrical Reliability of Cu and Low- K Dielectric Integration

S. Simon Wong, Alvin L. S. Loke, Jeffrey T. Wetzel, Paul H. Townsend, Raymond N. Vrtis, Melvin P. Zussman
1998 Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings  
For reliable integration of both materials, Cu may need to be encapsulated by barrier materials since Cu ions (Cu + ) might drift through low-K dielectrics to degrade interconnect and device integrity.  ...  The recent demonstrations of manufacturable multilevel Cu metallization have heightened interest to integrate Cu and low-K dielectrics for future integrated circuits.  ...  We also thank Kelly Heap of Schumacher; Bingxi Sun of Applied Materials; Bill Snow of Strataglass; and Robin King and Gladys Sarmiento of the Stanford Nanofabrication Facility for some processing assistance  ... 
doi:10.1557/proc-511-317 fatcat:6idges4nsjbhxlemhffbsl2mn4

Guest Editorial IEEE International Integrated Reliability Workshop (IIRW) 2019

Stanislav Tyaginov, Zakariae Chbili
2020 IEEE transactions on device and materials reliability  
, stress migration, time dependent dielectric breakdown) as well as memory reliability, chip to package interaction, degradation effects in wide-bandgap-materials and high-voltage devices, and many others  ...  Guest Editorial IEEE International Integrated Reliability Workshop (IIRW) 2019 T HE IEEE International Integrated Reliability Workshop (IIRW) is a unique event that takes place every year at the beautiful  ... 
doi:10.1109/tdmr.2020.2995297 fatcat:gaztjffkdfb4dcd5kb5uavpkz4

CMOS scaling beyond the 100-nm node with silicon-dioxide-based gate dielectrics

E. Y. Wu, E. J. Nowak, A. Vayshenker, W. L. Lai, D. L. Harmon
2002 IBM Journal of Research and Development  
It is concluded that silicon-dioxide-based materials can provide a reliable gate dielectric, even to a thickness of 1 nm, and that CMOS scaling may well be viable to the 50-nm-technology node using silicon-dioxide-based  ...  The limitations of reliability of silicon dioxide dielectric for future CMOS scaling are investigated.  ...  , and power in verylarge-scale integrated (VLSI) circuits; thus, understanding of the reliability of such thin oxides is critical.  ... 
doi:10.1147/rd.462.0287 fatcat:fnvkbfevcvcmvjlwgcwj3sgl2i

Introduction to the Special Issue on 2008 International Integrated Reliability Workshop (IIRW)

Guoqiao Tao, Patrick Lenahan, Gaddi Haase, Chadwin Young, Alvin Strong
2009 IEEE transactions on device and materials reliability  
One paper discusses low-k dielectric reliability, one focuses on high-k/metal gate MOSFETs, and finally, one discusses on quantitative assessment of plasma-induced damages.  ...  The results presented and discussions held at the workshop should be of great interest to anyone working on the reliability aspects of advance materials, devices, circuits, and applications.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tdmr.2009.2020526 fatcat:fpsxf2vohfcvlgk7qsaomnl63q

Overview of on-chip electrostatic discharge protection design with SCR-based devices in CMOS integrated circuits

Ming-Dou Ker, K.-C. Hsu
2005 IEEE transactions on device and materials reliability  
The history and evolution of SCR device used for on-chip ESD protection is introduced.  ...  Some modified device structures and trigger-assist circuit techniques to reduce the switching voltage of SCR-based devices are discussed.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors would like to thank Prof. E. Rosenbaum and the reviewers for their valuable comments and suggestions to improve this paper.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tdmr.2005.846824 fatcat:id7lje7jgzh4lazlbjr3uatste

Efficient Simulation of Thermo-Mechanical Stress in the On-Chip Metallization of Integrated Power Semiconductors

Gimi Pham, Matthias Ritter, Martin Pfost
2017 IEEE transactions on device and materials reliability  
This leads to repetitive self-heating and thermo-mechanical stress, causing fatigue on the on-chip metallization and possibly destruction by short circuits.  ...  Integrated power semiconductors are often used for applications with cyclic on-chip power dissipation.  ...  Bosch GmbH) for valuable discussions and support.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tdmr.2017.2672743 fatcat:4g2s657pmncavk7uoownczvr5y

Dielectric Materials for Microelectronics [chapter]

Robert M. Wallace
2017 Springer Handbook of Electronic and Photonic Materials  
RMW gratefully acknowledges the many discussions and hard work of his colleagues and students engaged in gate-stack research.  ...  This work is supported in part by the Erik Jonsson Distinguished Chair at the University of Texas at Dallas.  ...  We will examine the impact of scaling on these materials, and the various materials utilized for their dielectric behavior.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-48933-9_27 fatcat:46ajx2xlw5httapa2iathh3g5e

Dielectric Materials for Microelectronics [chapter]

Robert Wallace
2006 Springer Handbook of Electronic and Photonic Materials  
RMW gratefully acknowledges the many discussions and hard work of his colleagues and students engaged in gate-stack research.  ...  This work is supported in part by the Erik Jonsson Distinguished Chair at the University of Texas at Dallas.  ...  We will examine the impact of scaling on these materials, and the various materials utilized for their dielectric behavior.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-0-387-29185-7_28 fatcat:dt7ruv5skjc33cb535p5yla6wy

High-K gate dielectrics

Wen-Jie Qi, Byoung H. Lee, Renee Nieh, LaeGu Kang, YongJoo Jeon, Katsu Onishi, Jack C. Lee, David Burnett, Toshiaki Tsuchiya
1999 Microelectronic Device Technology III  
, and ͑g͒ reliability.  ...  A review of current work and literature in the area of alternate gate dielectrics is given.  ...  The authors also gratefully acknowledge the discussions and data provided by Professor Bruce Gnade of University of North Texas, and Professor Gerry Lucovsky and Professor Greg Parsons of North Carolina  ... 
doi:10.1117/12.360537 fatcat:kb26gwq2ozh2bc7stnhnb54j3m

Dielectrics for 2D electronics

2022 IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics  
Some products including 2D materials are already being commercialized, although the 2D materials are mainly used for low-integration-density sensors.  ...  In 2017, 2D materials were mentioned for the first time in the international roadmap of devices and systems (IRDS) as a potential solution for "channel material technology inflection", and since 2020 IRDS  ...  In 2019, TSMC and IMEC reported breaking advances in the integration of 2D materials in ultra-scaled solid-state microelectronic devices and presented the first mass-production-compatible 2D materials-based  ... 
doi:10.1109/jphotov.2022.3151031 fatcat:xbnmox5xkfdh5bvvy3kbfnc27i

Modeled tunnel currents for high dielectric constant dielectrics

E.M. Vogel, K.Z. Ahmed, B. Hornung, W.K. Henson, P.K. McLarty, G. Lucovsky, J.R. Hauser, J.J. Wortman
1998 IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices  
The effect of dielectric constant and barrier height on the WKB modeled tunnel currents of MOS capacitors with effective oxide thickness of 2.0 nm is described.  ...  Furthermore, as the dielectric constant of an insulator increased, the effect of a thin layer of SiO 2 on the current characteristics of the dielectric stack increases.  ...  INTRODUCTION A S MOSFET device dimensions continue to scale into the sub-0.1-m regime, the required SiO gate dielectric thickness is projected to reduce below 2.5 nm and the voltage supply ( ) is projected  ... 
doi:10.1109/16.678572 fatcat:jybqbtaf75bp3amisvvrdzqd6a

Importance of Dielectric Science in Today's Technology

Durga Misra
2017 The Electrochemical Society Interface  
The division stimulates and disseminates fundamental research on present and future dielectric materials and their synthesis, characterization, processing, fabrication, manufacturing, and reliability through  ...  With the advancement of technology, when integrated circuits became popular, the division became the Dielectrics and Insulation Division in 1965.  ...  to attain industry-scale reliability and control over material properties is required for the deposition of these hexaferrite films.  ... 
doi:10.1149/2.f06174if fatcat:rz5ke2vrazakjc4mktrhkb7oqq

Hafnium-based High-k Gate Dielectrics [chapter]

A. P., Z. C., Paul K.
2010 Advances in Solid State Circuit Technologies  
It causes equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) scaling and reliability concerns when Hf-based high-k ultrathin gate oxides are integrated into high temperature CMOS processes [26] .  ...  Because the gate dielectric materials constitute the interlayer in the gate stacks, they should also have the ability to prevent diffusion of dopants such as boron and phosphorus and have few electrical  ...  These chapters have been written by renowned experts in the respective fields making this book valuable to the integrated circuits and materials science communities.  ... 
doi:10.5772/8631 fatcat:gf3ewicj45gfnh2v2oadao2k6a

On the Electrical Characterization of High- ĸ Dielectrics

R. Degraeve, E. Cartier, T. Kauerauf, R. Carter, L. Pantisano, A. Kerber, G. Groeseneken
2002 MRS bulletin  
We present an overview of some of the electrical characterization techniques and reliability tests used to evaluate possible high-gate materials.  ...  dielectric materials.  ...  There are, however, some additional complications, such as the presence of several different layers within one gate stack or the use of different gate electrode materials that make the interpretation and  ... 
doi:10.1557/mrs2002.75 fatcat:hecxar3dgrdtzovp4uf3dhuj5e
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