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Sanity Checks in Formal Verification [chapter]

Orna Kupferman
<span title="">2006</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
Two leading sanity checks are vacuity and coverage. In vacuity, the goal is to detect cases where the system satisfies the specification in some unintended trivial way.  ...  The main justification of such suspects are possible errors in the modeling of the system or of the specification. The goal of sanity checks is to detect such errors by further automatic reasoning.  ...  in formal verification, as in model checking all reachable parts of the system are visited.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/11817949_3">doi:10.1007/11817949_3</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/zcrk5p44fbcwhcy2qhagjgnzn4">fatcat:zcrk5p44fbcwhcy2qhagjgnzn4</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20080221162822/http://www.cs.huji.ac.il/~ornak/publications/concur06b.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/f8/a0/f8a07e55c388aab03d3c921fada1dade7cbdc561.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/11817949_3"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a>

RTL2RTL Formal Equivalence: Boosting the Design Confidence

M V Achutha Kiran Kumar, Aarti Gupta, S S Bindumadhava
<span title="2014-07-08">2014</span> <i title="Open Publishing Association"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/qzezkwolyvf33pglm2jldjklca" style="color: black;">Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
The RTL2RTL FV enabled checking the design sanity in a very short time, thus enabling faster and safer design churn.  ...  We present here our experience of successfully applying the RTL to RTL (RTL2RTL) Formal Verification across a wide spectrum of problems on a Graphics design.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Sincere thanks to Archana Vijaykumar who has been supporting us strong in the activity and enabling us to try out on various designs.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.4204/eptcs.156.7">doi:10.4204/eptcs.156.7</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/dwzculj6pra75ox2giyf6get2u">fatcat:dwzculj6pra75ox2giyf6get2u</a> </span>
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Specification: The Biggest Bottleneck in Formal Methods and Autonomy [chapter]

Kristin Yvonne Rozier
<span title="">2016</span> <i title="Springer International Publishing"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
Formal methods are highly dependent on the specifications over which they reason; there is no escaping the "garbage in, garbage out" reality.  ...  Formal methods are highly dependent on the specifications over which they reason; there is no escaping the "garbage in, garbage out" reality.  ...  In [43, 44] we advocate for a sanity check of checking ϕ, ¬ϕ, and the conjunction of all specifications describing the same system for satisfiability before using them in system design and verification  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-48869-1_2">doi:10.1007/978-3-319-48869-1_2</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/uo5ochzylvckhgiewcom2bxdzy">fatcat:uo5ochzylvckhgiewcom2bxdzy</a> </span>
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Using a Formal Model to Improve Verification of a Cache-Coherent System-on-Chip [chapter]

Abderahman Kriouile, Wendelin Serwe
<span title="">2015</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
Our approach improves industrial simulation-based verification techniques in two aspects. First, we suggest to use the formal model to assess the sanity of an interface verification unit.  ...  In this paper we report about a case study on the functional verification of a System on Chip (SoC) with a formal system-level model.  ...  Conclusion We used a system-level formal model of a SoC to improve functional verification in several aspects. First, we studied the sanity of a list of industrial formal checks.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-46681-0_62">doi:10.1007/978-3-662-46681-0_62</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/4fgdecvcxnbjljnzyjgi7gmxau">fatcat:4fgdecvcxnbjljnzyjgi7gmxau</a> </span>
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Checking Sanity of Software Requirements [chapter]

Jiří Barnat, Petr Bauch, Luboš Brim
<span title="">2012</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
To complete the sanity checking we also deliver a novel semi-automatic completeness evaluation that can assess the coverage of user requirements and suggest missing properties the user might have wanted  ...  In this work we build on the fact that functional requirements can be expressed in temporal logic and we propose new techniques that automatically detect flaws and suggest improvements of given requirements  ...  These concepts are in this paper translated into model-free environment and supplemented with consistency verification to form a complex sanity checking.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-33826-7_4">doi:10.1007/978-3-642-33826-7_4</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/sbcba2nzjraohmaymvk3fx4erq">fatcat:sbcba2nzjraohmaymvk3fx4erq</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170809105233/http://anna.fi.muni.cz/papers/src/public/bb91b9eabf3f35e85a5ab654ee4c2aa3.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/e0/5b/e05b84eb00cb5ed83bc9974341b122cca140e963.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-33826-7_4"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a>

Development guidelines for dependable real-time embedded systems

Michael Short
<span title="">2008</span> <i title="IEEE"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/aoz5jnphqrhlzb22wiadmw7z4y" style="color: black;">2008 IEEE/ACS International Conference on Computer Systems and Applications</a> </i> &nbsp;
dependable implementation of such systems depends on many factors, including the design of system hardware, software and fault tolerance mechanisms, the choice of programming language, and also the testing, verification  ...  Embedded control systems play an increasing role in many safety critical system designs.  ...  Typically, software verification conditions -in the form of pre and post conditions implemented as sanity checks -should be the primary means to detect anomalous conditions during testing.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/aiccsa.2008.4493674">doi:10.1109/aiccsa.2008.4493674</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://dblp.org/rec/conf/aiccsa/Short08.html">dblp:conf/aiccsa/Short08</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/l2jvbu5f7bgsfoxdgmum5n74aq">fatcat:l2jvbu5f7bgsfoxdgmum5n74aq</a> </span>
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Analysing Sanity of Requirements for Avionics Systems (Preliminary Version) [article]

Jiří Barnat, Petr Bauch, Nikola Beneš, Luboš Brim, Jan Beran, Tomáš Kratochvíla
<span title="2015-10-09">2015</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
In this work we build on the fact that functional requirements can be expressed in temporal logic and we propose new sanity checking techniques that automatically detect flaws and suggest improvements  ...  We further report on the experience obtained from employing the consistency and redundancy checking in an industrial environment.  ...  Later in the development, when the requirements are given and a model is designed, the formal verification tools can provide a proof of correctness of the system being developed with respect to formally  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1510.02669v1">arXiv:1510.02669v1</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/7td55isojrhyxcd5k4bqdcpxhu">fatcat:7td55isojrhyxcd5k4bqdcpxhu</a> </span>
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Automation of broad sanity test generation

R. S. Zybin, V. V. Kuliamin, A. V. Ponomarenko, V. V. Rubanov, E. S. Chernov
<span title="">2008</span> <i title="Pleiades Publishing Ltd"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/ooyzpvfeuvgobees33ipb3baee" style="color: black;">Programming and computer software</a> </i> &nbsp;
Results of a practical application of this technology prove its high efficiency in generating sanity tests for systems with a large number of functions.  ...  The technology for the broad generation of sanity tests for complex software developed in the Institute for System Programming (Russian Academy of Sciences) is presented.  ...  Such methods are inefficient in sanity test generation because they require the construction of a formal model of the system's behavior.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1134/s0361768808060066">doi:10.1134/s0361768808060066</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/6nao2qoikzgdtocdigvrxsrr7a">fatcat:6nao2qoikzgdtocdigvrxsrr7a</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170809054348/http://panda.ispras.ru/~kuliamin/docs/AzovPrg-2008-en.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/03/e1/03e123bfdb0c1f46a27c20585ea2c5cffbb7568d.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1134/s0361768808060066"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

Coverage Metrics for Formal Verification [chapter]

Hana Chockler, Orna Kupferman, Moshe Y. Vardi
<span title="">2003</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
In formal verification, we verify that a system is correct with respect to a specification.  ...  Thus, for each of the metrics used in simulation-based verification, we present a corresponding metric that is suitable for the setting of formal verification, and describe an algorithmic way to check  ...  in formal verification, as in model checking all reachable parts of the design are visited.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-39724-3_11">doi:10.1007/978-3-540-39724-3_11</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/yimlbovgvnfvzcuyzihc5mwlgq">fatcat:yimlbovgvnfvzcuyzihc5mwlgq</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20070418015436/http://www.cs.huji.ac.il/~ornak/publications/charme03a.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/44/2c/442c2df599eece1827d3e1e4bd70bdcdd29e0d58.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-39724-3_11"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> springer.com </button> </a>

Coverage metrics for formal verification

Hana Chockler, Orna Kupferman, Moshe Vardi
<span title="2006-04-07">2006</span> <i title="Springer Nature"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/zzy5ovlifvatfirg4js7u4uetq" style="color: black;">International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer (STTT)</a> </i> &nbsp;
In formal verification, we verify that a system is correct with respect to a specification.  ...  Thus, for each of the metrics used in simulation-based verification, we present a corresponding metric that is suitable for the setting of formal verification, and describe an algorithmic way to check  ...  in formal verification, as in model checking all reachable parts of the design are visited.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s10009-004-0175-4">doi:10.1007/s10009-004-0175-4</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/lai5bfcdhjd7zlbopuaqbol7ze">fatcat:lai5bfcdhjd7zlbopuaqbol7ze</a> </span>
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Transaction flows and executable models: formalization and analysis of message-passing protocols

Muralidhar Talupur, Sandip Ray, John Erickson
<span title="">2015</span> <i title="IEEE"> 2015 Formal Methods in Computer-Aided Design (FMCAD) </i> &nbsp;
The lack of appropriate models is often the biggest hurdle in applying formal methods in the industry.  ...  We present industrial case studies showing that this approach to creating formal models is effective in practice.  ...  In addition to generic assertions (e.g., cache coherence) and the sanity checks discussed in Section IV, the user can write project-specific sanity checks, constraints, etc.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/fmcad.2015.7542267">doi:10.1109/fmcad.2015.7542267</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/e4hodnowynaari7tp3omugv3c4">fatcat:e4hodnowynaari7tp3omugv3c4</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20170830062758/http://www.cs.utexas.edu/users/hunt/FMCAD/FMCAD15/papers/paper06.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/c7/79/c7793340cde284f9cf5ee2982e973459f3432fcb.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/fmcad.2015.7542267"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> ieee.com </button> </a>

Formal Verification for a Next-Generation Space Shuttle [chapter]

Stacy D. Nelson, Charles Pecheur
<span title="">2003</span> <i title="Springer Berlin Heidelberg"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/2w3awgokqne6te4nvlofavy5a4" style="color: black;">Lecture Notes in Computer Science</a> </i> &nbsp;
We survey the current V&V practice and standards used in selected NASA projects, review applicable formal verification techniques, and discuss their integration into existing development practice and standards  ...  This paper discusses the verification and validation (V&V) of advanced software used for integrated vehicle health monitoring (IVHM), in the context of NASA's next-generation space shuttle.  ...  In many previous experiences in model checking of software, this translation had to be done by hand, and was by far the most complex and time-consuming part, that has hindered adoption of formal verification  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-45133-4_5">doi:10.1007/978-3-540-45133-4_5</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/worqvitlkzf77aka7nq3f7unrm">fatcat:worqvitlkzf77aka7nq3f7unrm</a> </span>
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Verification of an Ad-hoc Serial Communication Protocol through Model-checking: A Case Study with Echo Sounder

Shakaiba Majeed, Kashif Saghar, Kashif Hameed, Minsoo Ryu
<span title="">2017</span> <i title="International Academy Publishing (IAP)"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/jr7366lnajgfrhmmgwgrpt3o7u" style="color: black;">Journal of Software</a> </i> &nbsp;
Through our case study, we show how we integrated formal modeling and model-checking methods in an existing system and as a result, we were able to discover a fault in the protocol design, which could  ...  have gone unnoticed without formal software verification.  ...  The properties of the formal model are checked against basic safety (S), liveness (L), sanity (T), and reachability (R) tests.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.17706/jsw.12.4.253-264">doi:10.17706/jsw.12.4.253-264</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/ibrx52vu3rhwloryv64vpe5taq">fatcat:ibrx52vu3rhwloryv64vpe5taq</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20180721233146/http://www.jsoftware.us/vol12/247-JSW15218.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/d8/01/d801bbae248d434cd6b3e8b0d10aa74590a718df.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.17706/jsw.12.4.253-264"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="unlock alternate icon" style="background-color: #fb971f;"></i> Publisher / doi.org </button> </a>

Data Sanity Check for Deep Learning Systems via Learnt Assertions [article]

Haochuan Lu and Huanlin Xu and Nana Liu and Yangfan Zhou and Xin Wang
<span title="2019-09-28">2019</span> <i > arXiv </i> &nbsp; <span class="release-stage" >pre-print</span>
Our experiments conducted with real-world scenarios demonstrate that such an assertion-based data sanity check mechanism is effective in identifying invalid input cases.  ...  This paper proposes to perform data sanity check to identify invalid inputs, so as to enhance the reliability of DL-based systems.  ...  We propose a white-box verification framework, namely, SaneDL to perform systematic data sanity check for deep learning systems via assertion-based mechanism.  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1909.03835v3">arXiv:1909.03835v3</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/5e2pvqaquvalvgoko4e36f7jqq">fatcat:5e2pvqaquvalvgoko4e36f7jqq</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20200913024852/https://arxiv.org/pdf/1909.03835v3.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/40/03/40036531c1c41b143cf24a0762147c59debfb0bd.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1909.03835v3" title="arxiv.org access"> <button class="ui compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="file alternate outline icon"></i> arxiv.org </button> </a>

A Verification Framework for FBD Based Software in Nuclear Power Plants

Junbeom Yoo, Sungdeok Cha, Eunkyung Jee
<span title="">2008</span> <i title="IEEE"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/rcb326mbhzczfpvr26cau4pota" style="color: black;">2008 15th Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference</a> </i> &nbsp;
Formal verification of Function Block Diagram (FBD) based software is an essential task when replacing traditional relay-based analog system with PLC-based software in nuclear reactor protection system  ...  This paper proposes a software verification framework for FBD software in nuclear power plants.  ...  A formal verification, model checking was performed on NuSCR formal specification to verify important properties as presented in [21] .  ... 
<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/apsec.2008.26">doi:10.1109/apsec.2008.26</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://dblp.org/rec/conf/apsec/YooCJ08.html">dblp:conf/apsec/YooCJ08</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/7453pdf2ene6rpcidnjlyrgbj4">fatcat:7453pdf2ene6rpcidnjlyrgbj4</a> </span>
<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://web.archive.org/web/20120714033215/http://dependable.korea.ac.kr/papers/2008-12-ic-jbyoo-APSEC.pdf" title="fulltext PDF download" data-goatcounter-click="serp-fulltext" data-goatcounter-title="serp-fulltext"> <button class="ui simple right pointing dropdown compact black labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="icon ia-icon"></i> Web Archive [PDF] <div class="menu fulltext-thumbnail"> <img src="https://blobs.fatcat.wiki/thumbnail/pdf/fe/f1/fef1fea563ebfad0aaf13082ff0133a513117102.180px.jpg" alt="fulltext thumbnail" loading="lazy"> </div> </button> </a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1109/apsec.2008.26"> <button class="ui left aligned compact blue labeled icon button serp-button"> <i class="external alternate icon"></i> ieee.com </button> </a>
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