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Entrepreneurship and Bank Credit Availability

Sandra E. Black, Philip E. Strahan
2002 Journal of Finance  
doi:10.1111/1540-6261.00513 fatcat:qpfxbsxqcnh5fi5yzjlbuc2yve

Focal Cortical Atrophy Syndromes

Sandra E. Black
1996 Brain and Cognition  
Atypical cases have also been reported presenting with primary cognitive impairment (Bergeron, Pollanen, Weyer, Black, & Lang, 1996) .  ...  ., 1981; Riley, Lang, Lewis, Resch, Ashby, Hornykiewicz, & Black, 1990; Thompson & Marsden, 1992; Rinne, Lee, Thompson, & Marsden, 1994) .  ... 
doi:10.1006/brcg.1996.0042 pmid:8811996 fatcat:zy2n2v6qqrbfvjkdgqpanymymy

Toward Wisdom From Failure

David J. Gladstone, Sandra E. Black, Antoine M. Hakim
2002 Stroke  
Background-Neuroprotective drugs for acute stroke have appeared to work in animals, only to fail when tested in humans. With the failure of so many clinical trials, the future of neuroprotective drug development is in jeopardy. Current hypotheses and methodologies must continue to be reevaluated, and new strategies need to be explored. Summary of Review-In part 1, we review key challenges and complexities in translational stroke research by focusing on the "disconnect" in the way that
more » ... ctive agents have traditionally been assessed in clinical trials compared with animal models. In preclinical studies, determination of neuroprotection has relied heavily on assessment of infarct volume measurements (instead of functional outcomes), short-term (instead of long-term) end points, transient (instead of permanent) ischemia models, short (instead of extended) time windows for drug administration, and protection of cerebral gray matter (instead of both gray and white matter). Clinical trials have often been limited by inappropriately long time windows, insufficient statistical power, insensitive outcome measures, inclusion of protocol violators, failure to target specific stroke subtypes, and failure to target the ischemic penumbra. In part 2, we explore new concepts in ischemic pathophysiology that should encourage us also to think beyond the hyperacute phase of ischemia and consider the design of trials that use multiagent therapy and exploit the capacity of the brain for neuroplasticity and repair. Conclusions-By recognizing the strengths and limitations of animal models of stroke and the shortcomings of previous clinical trials, we hope to move translational research forward for the development of new therapies for the acute and subacute stages after stroke. (Stroke. 2002;33:2123-2136.)
doi:10.1161/01.str.0000025518.34157.51 pmid:12154275 fatcat:3szf2ryd7zay5nkirnp2w6u3ly

Recent Developments in Intergenerational Mobility [chapter]

Sandra E. Black, Paul J. Devereux
2011 Handbook of Labor Economics  
Child endowments are assumed to follow an AR(1) process; 1 0 1 v e e      , (8) where  is between 0 and 1 and v is white noise.  ...  In Black, Devereux, and Salvanes (2005) , we apply this approach using register data from Norway.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0169-7218(11)02414-2 fatcat:jceq4k3jlvclfhkjbqw4f5gv2y

Diagnosing dementia

David C. Wang, Sandra E. Black, Katherine A. Zukotynski
2016 CMAJ - Canadian Medical Association Journal  
This Help Sheet provides information about the early signs of dementia, the techniques used to diagnose dementia and the importance of an early and correct diagnosis. What are the early signs of dementia? Because the diseases that cause dementia develop gradually, the early signs may be very subtle and not immediately obvious. Early symptoms also depend on the type of dementia and vary a great deal from person to person. Common early symptoms include: • Memory problems, particularly remembering
more » ... recent events • Increasing confusion • Reduced concentration
doi:10.1503/cmaj.150508 pmid:27067820 pmcid:PMC4868610 fatcat:jvfawfge6zab5m5235disxsiee

Attentional networks in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease

Diego Fernandez-Duque, Sandra E. Black
2006 Neuropsychology  
The basic display was visible at all times and consisted of two black rectangular boxes and a black fixation cross against a gray background.  ...  memory load modulations (Baddeley et al., 1999; Fernandez-Duque & Black, 2006a) .  ... 
doi:10.1037/0894-4105.20.2.133 pmid:16594774 fatcat:a262iylenfglvfqzdegoqptn7y

How Workers Fare When Employers Innovate

Sandra E. Black, Lisa M. Lynch, Anya Krivelyova
2004 Industrial Relations  
This last finding is consistent with establishment productivity; Black and Lynch (2001) found higher productivity in unionized establishments that had a higher proportion of workers meeting.  ...  Other factors that appear to be associated with the adoption of HPW practices include the education of the workforce (Black, Krivelyova, Lynch (2001)), the participation of the business in local employer  ... 
doi:10.1111/j.0019-8676.2004.00318.x fatcat:3x5q6selu5fztchj7r6gjytuxe

Coronary Artery Calcification

Walter Swardfager, Sandra E. Black
2016 Journal of the American College of Cardiology  
In the present study, black men and women had lower levels of CAC, consistent with previous  ...  Sandra E. Black, Cognitive Neurology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Room A4 21, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada.  ...  In the present study, black men and women had lower levels of CAC, consistent with previous SEE PAGE 1013 *Editorials published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology reflect the views of  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2016.01.007 pmid:26940920 fatcat:553bg5aetzaqfc4en7id6vcgty

Metacognitive judgment and denial of deficit

Diego Fernandez-Duque, Sandra E. Black
2007 Judgment and Decision Making  
Words were displayed in Courier New 36 point against a black background. Procedure.  ...  The timing of the stimulus display and data collection were managed using E-prime, a commercial experiment application. Data were collected via a microphone and response box. Stimuli.  ... 
doaj:e157f2fab1584bc0a68f734bfc043313 fatcat:mgxk5ve3mnb4rjiecci6kes6si

CADASIL accelerated by acute hypotension

Jacqueline A. Pettersen, Julia Keith, Fuqiang Gao, J. David Spence, Sandra E. Black
2017 Neurology  
Sandra E. Black: study concept and design, acquisition of data, critical revision of manuscript for intellectual content.  ...  reveals multiple acute-on-chronic infarcts on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) (A, B) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) (C) images after a first hypotensive episode and on DWI (D, E) and  ... 
doi:10.1212/wnl.0000000000003717 pmid:28202707 pmcid:PMC5384836 fatcat:qoel3hrx5bftphc555h62u6dhy

Somatosensory Gating and Recovery From Stroke Involving the Thalamus

W. Richard Staines, Sandra E. Black, Simon J. Graham, William E. McIlroy
2002 Stroke  
and Purpose-In the undamaged brain, sensory input to the cortex is intricately controlled via sensory gating mechanisms. Given the role of corticothalamic pathways in this control, it was hypothesized that in patients recovering from thalamic stroke there would be evidence of disrupted sensory gating and that efficient control of cortical sensory inputs would emerge during recovery. Methods-Four patients were tested serially after stroke from 1 to 24 weeks after injury. Perceptual thresholds,
more » ... matosensory evoked potential amplitudes, and functional MRI activations under specific somatosensory stimulation conditions were measured. Results-All patients demonstrated comparable results, revealing disrupted threshold detection to vibrotactile stimuli in the presence of a concurrent competing, contralateral input. In contrast, threshold detection was comparable between the affected and unaffected sides when there were no competing stimuli. This compromised capacity to inhibit competing sensory inputs was paralleled by a reduction in the measured activation of cortical representation in the stroke-affected hemisphere (functional MRI and somatosensory evoked potential) during bilateral stimulation. After recovery, perceptual detection improvements during bilateral stimulation were paralleled by enhancements of primary somatosensory cortical activation in the stroke-affected hemisphere. Conclusions-These results provide insight into potential mechanisms that contribute to sensory gating and suggest that the ability to control sensory input through effective gating mechanisms, in addition to primary somatosensory representation, may be important for poststroke sensory recovery. (Stroke. 2002;33:2642-2651.)
doi:10.1161/01.str.0000032552.40405.40 pmid:12411655 fatcat:7vedobx72fgb3bo7vpkpvznwxu

Apply Yourself: Racial and Ethnic Differences in College Application

Sandra E. Black, Kalena E. Cortes, Jane Arnold Lincove
2018 Education Finance and Policy  
The effect is particularly large for Asian and black students.  ...  white students, largely due to the presence of historically black universities.  ... 
doi:10.1162/edfp_a_00273 fatcat:ruyodfuj3vfnpks7k4vsnlmecm

Remote spatial memory in an amnesic person with extensive bilateral hippocampal lesions

R. Shayna Rosenbaum, Sandra Priselac, Stefan Köhler, Sandra E. Black, Fuqiang Gao, Lynn Nadel, Morris Moscovitch
2000 Nature Neuroscience  
Despite his severe amnesia for autobiographical knowledge, E C . performed nomally on a wide range of spatial tests of his neighbourhood and the world which included: 1. naturai navigation in his wighbourhood  ...  ' O& To assess M e r K.C.'  ...  The Extent of Wp-poc- Involv- Remte S m Memay McLachian, & Moscovitch, 1988; Tuiving et al-, 199 1 ; Kahler, Black, Levine, & Tdving, 1 994) because his amnesia is relatively pure.  ... 
doi:10.1038/79867 pmid:11017178 fatcat:o7qietdnzrgdbc7i4q5igetndq

Hemispatial Neglect and Visual Search: A Large Scale Analysis

Marlene Behrmann, Patricia Ebert, Sandra E. Black
2004 Cortex  
E.  ...  Black and by a University of Toronto Open Scholarship to Patricia Ebert.  ...  Performance is scored out of 100 (Black et al., 1990; Leibovitch et al., 1998) .  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0010-9452(08)70120-5 pmid:15156783 fatcat:y4dlqg7d6ngrjaadarqcazpkrq

Small Family, Smart Family?

Sandra E. Black, Paul J. Devereux, Kjell G. Salvanes
2010 The Journal of human resources  
In recent work (Black, Devereux and Salvanes 2005) , we use Norwegian data on cohorts born between 1912 and 1975 and variation in family size induced by the birth of twins to examine the effects of family  ...  is 17 Recent papers have found that the impacts of birth weight on adult outcomes are generally similar in magnitude in the cross-section to when twin or sibling differences are used in estimation [Black  ... 
doi:10.3368/jhr.45.1.33 fatcat:dahwoszfnja7fj2t5qoqd2enti
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