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Formal Specification of Interaction in Agent Societies [chapter]

Virginia Dignum, John-Jules C. Meyer, Frank Dignum, Hans Weigand
2003 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We also show how LCR behaves in contrary-to-duty situations common to deontic logic frameworks.  ...  LCR makes it possible to check whether agents in an agent society follow some desired interaction patterns and whether desired social states are preserved by agent activity.  ...  The authors wish to thank Andrew Jones for his valuable comments on a previous version of this paper presented at the 2nd FAABS workshop.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-45133-4_4 fatcat:qzti3u3b7zfyjosagooeyeohxq

Conditional Dependence Networks in Requirements Engineering [chapter]

Guido Boella, Leendert van der Torre, Serena Villata
2010 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
This improvement allows to define a new type of dependence networks, called conditional dependence networks, representing a new modeling technique for the requirements analysis of a system.  ...  TROPOS uses a visual modeling language called dependence networks in the requirements analysis of a system, and in this paper we propose a new conceptual model extending dependence networks with norms.  ...  and how to model sanctions, contrary-to-duty and coalition's stability in dependence networks?.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-14962-7_1 fatcat:q2a5nojgefglpc2jvs57zejmee

The pragmatic oddity in norm-based deontic logics

Xavier Parent, Leendert van der Torre
2017 Proceedings of the 16th edition of the International Conference on Articial Intelligence and Law - ICAIL '17  
The ideal worlds of a possible worlds semantics may satisfy both a primary obligation and an associated secondary obligation, for example the obligation to keep a promise and the obligation to apologise  ...  We argue that an adequate treatment of the pragmatic oddity within a norm-based semantics can be obtained, by not allowing primary and secondary obligations to aggregate, because they are obligations of  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors would like to thank the anonymous referees for their comments.  ... 
doi:10.1145/3086512.3086529 dblp:conf/icail/ParentT17 fatcat:wtf5d5hmczdhfnqvuasl7sv3su

Obligation as Optimal Goal Satisfaction

Robert Kowalski, Ken Satoh
2017 Journal of Philosophical Logic  
We show how this non-modal approach to the treatment of deontic concepts deals with problems of contrary-to-duty obligations and normative conflicts, and argue that the approach is useful for many other  ...  Formalising deontic concepts, such as obligation, prohibition and permission, is normally carried out in a modal logic with a possible world semantics, in which some worlds are better than others.  ...  Many thanks to Christoph Benzmueller, Harold Boley, Tom Blackson, Hendrik Decker, Guido Governatori, Henry Prakken, Fariba Sadri, Giovanni Sartor, Markus Schacher, Marek Sergot, Leon Van Der Torre, as  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10992-017-9440-3 fatcat:pcsnnijeorgohj6nddxdhf4q5i

A Kelsenian Deontic Logic [chapter]

Agata Ciabattoni, Xavier Parent, Giovanni Sartor
2021 Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications  
We provide a logic for normative causality, define non-contextual and contextual notions of illicit and duty, and show that the logic of such duties is well-behaved and solves the main deontic paradoxes  ...  Inspired by Kelsen's view that norms establish causal-like connections between facts and sanctions, we develop a deontic logic in which a proposition is obligatory iff its complement causes a violation  ...  This feature of our framework enables us to address contrary-to-duty CTD tions, i.e., obligations which are applicable only if other obligations are violated.  ... 
doi:10.3233/faia210330 fatcat:oy7vj7z63rgurjnlqvyubav3hm

Equivalence of defeasible normative systems

José Júlio Alferes, Ricardo Gonçalves, João Leite
2013 Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics  
The use of deontic operators and the ability to represent defeasible information are known to be two fundamental ingredients to represent and reason about normative systems.  ...  We also show how deontic logic programs can be used to represent and reason about normative systems, and establish a strong connection with input-output logic.  ...  The work was partially supported by projects ERRO -PTDC/EIA-CCO/121823/2010, and ASPEN -PTDC/EIA-CCO/110921/2009. Notes 1.  ... 
doi:10.1080/11663081.2013.798996 fatcat:5w32rtmkmjhqbiexmtydivpika

A normative multiagent approach to requirements engineering

S. Villata
2010 Logic Journal of the IGPL  
TROPOS [9] uses dependence networks in the requirements analysis, in this paper we propose to extend them with norms.  ...  This improvement allows to define a new type of dependence networks, called conditional dependence networks, representing a new modeling technique for the requirements analysis of the system.  ...  Summarizing, we represent obligations, sanctions and contrary-to-duty obligations as tuples of dependencies related to each other.  ... 
doi:10.1093/jigpal/jzp078 fatcat:goulxu6z4rhhvdntgoirj7aayu


2020 Manuscrito  
The last two sections present an alternative view of Hart's semantics of legal statements, according to which legal normativity is explained in terms of conformity to patterns of validity that by themselves  ...  the grounds that two implications of Toh's reading are arguably too disruptive to Hart's theory of law.  ...  Judges are committed officials precisely because doing soi.e. treating the law as a source of reasons to impose sanctions -is their official duty.  ... 
doi:10.1590/ fatcat:op6hhn3pxfawbdsvnw5qmf5u4m

A Dyadic Operator for the Gradation of Desirability [chapter]

Guillaume Piolle
2010 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
By bringing significant expressiveness to the logic, it allows both the definition of a monadic desirability operator similar to the SDL obligation, and the expression of the relative level of desirability  ...  The interpretation of this logic on a linear structure of worlds ordered by desirability makes its semantics more intuitive and concrete than the SDL deontic accessibility relation.  ...  We would like to thank Romuald Thion for the initial interrogation having led to this work and for his useful remarks.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-14183-6_5 fatcat:7i7mt4iq5zgv7irgshdt4nh23e

THOMAS: An agent platform for supporting normative multi-agent systems

N. Criado, E. Argente, V. Botti
2011 Journal of Logic and Computation  
However, there is still a need to define frameworks which take these organizational abstractions into account.  ...  Thus, it is needed to constrain the potential excesses of agent autonomous behaviour by means of regulation of agent interaction.  ...  On the contrary, the sanction will be active if the norm has been violated (sanction norm ).  ... 
doi:10.1093/logcom/exr025 fatcat:pseezcjegfbmvnedkom47kzwiy

Time Is Up! – Norms with Deadlines in Action Languages [chapter]

Matthias Knorr, Alfredo Gabaldon, Ricardo Gonçalves, João Leite, Martin Slota
2013 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
time, as well as norm violations and even simple contrary-to-duty obligations resulting from the satisfaction or violation of an agent's obligations.  ...  Action Languages are simple logical formalisms to describe the properties of a domain and the behavior of an agent and to reason about it.  ...  We would like to thank the anonymous reviewers whose comments helped to improve the paper.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-40624-9_14 fatcat:ef6v337xjrhknixvv2a452hcea

Visualizing Normative Systems: An Abstract Approach [chapter]

Silvano Colombo Tosatto, Guido Boella, Leendert van der Torre, Serena Villata
2012 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Contrary to duties, well known from deontic paradoxes [1, 3], must be represented without deontic explosion, that is, without derivation of all possible obligations.  ...  In this paper, we propose a our preliminary results to visualize abstract normative systems, in such a way that we are able to reason with institutional facts, obligations and permissions.  ...  Contrary to Duty Contrary to duties are a natural way to cope with violations which cannot be prevented.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-31570-1_2 fatcat:xxerdnrvfrhq7fzismpajpmlwu

Using Semantic Web technologies and production rules for reasoning on obligations, permissions, and prohibitions1

Nicoletta Fornara, Marco Colombetti
2019 AI Communications  
It is used to represent permitted and prohibited actions over a certain asset, and obligations required to be met by parties involved in the exchange of a digital asset.  ...  In this paper, we propose to extend the model of permission and obligation proposed by ODRL 2.2 in two directions.  ...  contrary to the violated final state which may bring about a sanction, differently, for permissions the exercised final state has no positive or negative connotation.  ... 
doi:10.3233/aic-190617 fatcat:aihlsnzkq5ac5f5w2iwme3fcne

Obligations and Permissions

Chris Fox
2012 Language and Linguistics Compass  
4 Utterances and statements concerning obligations and permissions are 5 known as deontic expressions.  ...  They can present something of a challenge 6 when it comes to formulating their meaning and behaviour.  ...  This could resolve 457 conflicting obligations ( §4.1.1), and Contrary-to-Duty obligations ( §4.3.4).  ... 
doi:10.1002/lnc3.352 fatcat:p65mmijvirgfbkrbtki6d5bsgi

Operational Semantics of an Extension of ODRL Able to Express Obligations [chapter]

Nicoletta Fornara, Marco Colombetti
2018 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We present also an operational semantics of this extension with the goal of being able to perform automatic reasoning on the dynamic evolution in time of obligations.  ...  The definition of such operational semantics will be based on the specification of the lifecycle of obligations and on the definition of the mechanisms for computing their state using automatic reasoning  ...  they do so they become obligated to pay a certain sum within a given temporal limit, otherwise they will be sanctioned.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-030-01713-2_13 fatcat:sxtp5436dfcm5hakikiafcicoq
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