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Automatic SAT-Compilation of Planning Problems

Michael D. Ernst, Todd D. Millstein, Daniel S. Weld
1997 International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence  
We parameterize the space of encodings along two major dimensions, action and frame representation.  ...  We explore the space of such transformations, providing a simple framework that generates eight major encodings (generated by selecting one of four action representations and one of two frame axioms) and  ...  David Smith made many insightful observations that led to a major reformulation of our encoding space.  ... 
dblp:conf/ijcai/ErnstMW97 fatcat:45pwplwkfnanzigqr3guqy7pma

Challenges in Bridging Plan Synthesis Paradigms

Subbarao Kambhampati
1997 International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence  
In this paper, I provide a generalized view of refinement planning, that subsumes both traditional and newer approaches to plan synthesis.  ...  I will interpret the contributions of the new approaches in terms of a new subclass of refinement planners called "disjunctive planners".  ...  Alternative representations may either be dictated by necessity (for example, the time-map based plan representations used in planners like HSTS [Muscettola, 1993] to support the use of expressive resource  ... 
dblp:conf/ijcai/Kambhampati97 fatcat:atfxi2lar5bk5jk7gqrnfrrfqa

Ten Challenges in Propositional Reasoning and Search

Bart Selman, Henry A. Kautz, David A. McAllester
1997 International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence  
In this paper, I provide a generalized view of refinement planning, that subsumes both traditional and newer approaches to plan synthesis.  ...  I will interpret the contributions of the new approaches in terms of a new subclass of refinement planners called "disjunctive planners".  ...  Alternative representations may either be dictated by necessity (for example, the time-map based plan representations used in planners like HSTS [Muscettola, 1993] to support the use of expressive resource  ... 
dblp:conf/ijcai/SelmanKM97 fatcat:wjggw5t35bamnemfjzfhaidaxi

plasp: A Prototype for PDDL-Based Planning in ASP [chapter]

Martin Gebser, Roland Kaminski, Murat Knecht, Torsten Schaub
2011 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Finally, the ASP community gains access to a wide range of planning problems, and the planning community benefits from the knowledge representation and reasoning capacities of ASP.  ...  First, ASP modelings are easily modifiable and can be studied in a transparent setting. Second, we can take advantage of available ASP grounders to obtain propositional representations.  ...  While SGPlan [12] does not guarantee shortest plan lengths, the approach of SATPlan, based on compilation and the use of a SAT solver as search backend, leads to shortest plans.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-20895-9_41 fatcat:4rs6mfwq6ndmjl47vmwys25hgm

Search and Inference in AI Planning [chapter]

Héctor Geffner
2005 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Planning is a form of general problem solving Problem =⇒ Language =⇒ Planner =⇒ Solution • Idea: problems described at high-level and solved automatically • Goal: facilitate modeling, maintain performance  ...  Geffner, Search and Inference in AI Planning, CP-05, 10/2005 2  ...  by using an heuristic search algorithm like IDA* • We can translate the planning graph into SAT, and get a reasonable optimal parallel planner using a state-of-the-art SAT solver • Neither approach, however  ... 
doi:10.1007/11564751_1 fatcat:vuy4s7u42jgjnph4xrks4lanim

Recent Advances in AI Planning

Daniel S. Weld
1999 The AI Magazine  
normal form formulas for solution using systematic or stochastic SAT methods.  ...  search can find a plan.  ...  Second, the representations used by GRAPH-PLAN form the basis of the most successful encodings of planning problems into propositional SAT; hence, familiarity with GRAPHPLAN aids in understanding SAT-based  ... 
doi:10.1609/aimag.v20i2.1459 dblp:journals/aim/Weld99 fatcat:wdc3oslle5h4dlvzwhp65ku6va

Unifying SAT-based and Graph-based Planning

Henry A. Kautz, Bart Selman
1999 International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence  
We show that STRIPS problems can be directly translated into SAT and efficiently solved using new randomized systematic solvers.  ...  We also demonstrate that polynomialtime SAT simplification algorithms applied to the encoded problem instances are a powerful complement to the "mutex" propagation algorithm that works directly on the  ...  In short: use of an intermediate plan graph representation appears to improve the quality of automatic SAT encodings of STRIPS problems.  ... 
dblp:conf/ijcai/KautzS99 fatcat:tqyq6v6m2rhfjbs62nj5hpjaiu

Gearing Up for Effective ASP Planning [chapter]

Martin Gebser, Roland Kaufmann, Torsten Schaub
2012 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We elaborate upon incremental modeling techniques for ASP Planning, a term coined by Vladimir Lifschitz at the end of the nineties.  ...  Taking up this line of research, we argue that ASP needs both a dedicated modeling methodology and sophisticated solving technology in view of the high practical relevance of dynamic systems in real-world  ...  We are grateful to Son Cao Tran and Oliver Ray for comments on an earlier draft of this paper.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-30743-0_20 fatcat:7e7esr6dfzbn5hy6shvtbbkhjy

SAS+ Planning as Satisfiability

R. Huang, Y. Chen, W. Zhang
2012 The Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research  
We introduce a novel SAT encoding scheme (SASE) based on the SAS+ formalism.  ...  Planning as satisfiability is a principal approach to planning with many eminent advantages. The existing planning as satisfiability techniques usually use encodings compiled from STRIPS.  ...  Acknowledgments This research was supported by National Science Foundation of the United States under grants NeTS-1017701, DBI-0743797, IIS-0713109, and a Microsoft Research New Faculty Fellowship.  ... 
doi:10.1613/jair.3442 fatcat:ug5taksm6bgk7nlsldt3q4ngm4

Applying integer programming to AI planning

THOMAS VOSSEN, MICHAEL BALL, AMNON LOTEM, DANA NAU
2000 Knowledge engineering review (Print)  
This paper provides approaches to encode AI planning problems as IP problems, describes some of the more significant issues that arise in using IP for AI planning, and discusses promising directions for  ...  to solve AI planning problems.  ...  The number of variables representing actions can be reduced by using an alternative action representation such as simple action splitting , overloaded splitting or bitwise representation [Ernst, Millstein  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0269888900001065 fatcat:jizysjn6bfgv5oibtzqno7kg2u

Classical Planning as QBF without Grounding (extended version) [article]

Irfansha Shaik, Jaco van de Pol
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Most classical planners use grounding as a preprocessing step, essentially reducing planning to propositional logic.  ...  However, grounding involves instantiating all action rules with concrete object combinations, and results in large encodings for SAT/QBF-based planners.  ...  This is the strength of SAT/QBF based planners, for problems where quickly refuting the existence of a plan of bounded length is useful.  ... 
arXiv:2106.10138v2 fatcat:evjiw4gwzzf4bayz57ki5jtpmq

Improving Online Railway Deadlock Detection using a Partial Order Reduction

Bjørnar Luteberget
2021 Electronic Proceedings in Theoretical Computer Science  
We describe a SAT-based planning algorithm for online detection of bound-for-deadlock situations.  ...  The algorithm exploits parallel updates of train positions and a partial order reduction technique to significantly reduce the number of state transitions (and correspondingly, the sizes of the formulas  ...  We thank Carlo Mannino for comments on the ideas and comparison of our approach with the literature on railway deadlocks.  ... 
doi:10.4204/eptcs.348.8 fatcat:hyvqikpznvbm5gwvu5fned6zi4

Refinement Planning as a Unifying Framework for Plan Synthesis

Subbarao Kambhampati
1997 The AI Magazine  
Planning-the ability to synthesize a course of action to achieve desired goals-is an important part of intelligent agency and has thus received significant attention within AI for more than 30 years.  ...  To fulfill this ambitious objective, I introduce a generalized approach to plan synthesis called refinement planning and show that in its various guises, refinement planning subsumes most of the algorithms  ...  Acknowledgments This article is based on an invited talk given at the 1996 American Association for  ... 
doi:10.1609/aimag.v18i2.1295 dblp:journals/aim/Kambhampati97 fatcat:wwjpgsn6vne4pp426iqacqv6oa

Formally Verified SAT-Based AI Planning [article]

Mohammad Abdulaziz, Friedrich Kurz
2020 arXiv   pre-print
We also use it as a reference to test a state-of-the-art SAT-based planner, showing that it sometimes falsely claims that problems have no solutions of certain lengths.  ...  We present an executable formally verified SAT encoding of classical AI planning. We use the theorem prover Isabelle/HOL to perform the verification.  ...  2020 for property directed SAT-based planning.  ... 
arXiv:2010.14648v4 fatcat:6vshv3kuifhs3oer5mffkdlay4

To Encode or Not to Encode - Linear Planning

Ronen I. Brafman, Holger H. Hoos
1999 International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence  
In AI, plan ning is the main area in which this methodology is used.  ...  LPSP out performs SLS applied to encoded planning prob lems that enforce a similar linearity assumption be cause of its ability to exploit the special structure of planning problems.  ...  Acknowledgments Craig Boutilier was-instrumental in the development of earlier versions of LPSP.  ... 
dblp:conf/ijcai/BrafmanH99 fatcat:xdy7m3ykcffajkwikpwdy6zw4y
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