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Lecture Notes in Computer Science
The accuracy and the reactivity of link quality estimators are key concepts in Mobile Ad hoc networks (MANETs) and especially in Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs), since routing process uses link quality related metrics based on neighbour information for making routing decisions. The Expected Transmission Count (ETX) is the most salient metric that assesses the link quality for wireless ad hoc and mesh networks. Its estimation varies according to the link changes like disruption anddoi:10.1007/978-3-319-17765-6_4 fatcat:3zgdyofe4bcfld7lejjgp44i5q
more »... tion and bidirectional to unidirectional switching. Such changes occur more often in highly mobile networks like VANETs. In order to be efficient routing protocols have to deal with these events. It has been observed that current implementation of ETX leads to a limited accuracy and cannot be efficient in VANETs. In this paper is presented an algorithm which makes the ETX metric more adapted for VANETs. Our contribution significantly improves the reactivity and the accuracy of the metric. In addition, our metric is not limited to the link quality estimation but also brings a link stability information. This results a new metric called Fast-ETX (F-ETX). This metric has been tested under realistic physical layer and mobility patterns to evaluate its reactivity, accuracy and stability properties.
Lecture Notes in Computer Science
Data rate management algorithms aim to perform a proper selection of the signal modulation and the coding rate to avoid the corruption of data bits. This paper describes a preliminary investigation on the bit corruption pattern related to the IEEE 802.11p standard. Measurements have been acquired with an experimental test-bed made up with a couple of software radios to perform white-box tests. Software radios are stationary and operate on the same channel without disturbances coming fromdoi:10.1007/978-3-030-66030-7_6 fatcat:qmdqpsvldffbjpgzoytkrirkpq
more »... coming from concurrent communication. The aim of this experimental test-bed is to represent a static scenario where vehicles are stationary such as a crossroad situation. The data analysis shows that a data length reduction as an impact as much as a decrease of the data rate. A deeper analysis of the data bit corruption distribution highlights that some bits are more corrupted than others, rejecting the independent and identically distributed assumption for some situations. This opens a perspective to design algorithms dealing with multiple constraints, even if they are NP-complete.
Framework suggested by Bindel et al. ...doi:10.1109/icc.2017.7997082 dblp:conf/icc/BindelCHL17 fatcat:kqdvdfcqgnhfpju5czdiws6lju
Bindel, S. Chaumette, B. ...doi:10.4108/eai.20-6-2016.151517 fatcat:p5to3qirivdgxkatiyibz56lxa
The tools available to farmers to manage grazed pastures and adjust forage demand to grass growth are generally rather static. Unmanned aerial systems (UASs) are interesting versatile tools that can provide relevant 3D information, such as sward height (3D structure), or even describe the physical condition of pastures through the use of spectral information. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of UAS to characterize a pasture's sward height and above-ground biomass at a very finedoi:10.3390/rs11050473 fatcat:adsx5pi65ncz5e6raiopezjevi
more »... a very fine spatial scale. The pasture height provided by UAS products showed good agreement (R2 = 0.62) with a reference terrestrial light detection and ranging (LiDAR) dataset. We tested the ability of UAS imagery to model pasture biomass based on three different combinations: UAS sward height, UAS sward multispectral reflectance/vegetation indices, and a combination of both UAS data types. The mixed approach combining the UAS sward height and spectral data performed the best (adj. R2 = 0.49). This approach reached a quality comparable to that of more conventional non-destructive on-field pasture biomass monitoring tools. As all of the UAS variables used in the model fitting process were extracted from spatial information (raster data), a high spatial resolution map of pasture biomass was derived based on the best fitted model. A sward height differences map was also derived from UAS-based sward height maps before and after grazing. Our results demonstrate the potential of UAS imagery as a tool for precision grazing study applications. The UAS approach to height and biomass monitoring was revealed to be a potential alternative to the widely used but time-consuming field approaches. While reaching a similar level of accuracy to the conventional field sampling approach, the UAS approach provides wall-to-wall pasture characterization through very high spatial resolution maps, opening up a new area of research for precision grazing.
Reaching a beneficial intestinal microbiota early in life is desirable for piglets, as microbiota will impact their future health. One strategy to achieve this is the addition of prebiotics to sows' diet, as their microbiota will be transferred. Transmission of microbiota to the offspring occurs at birth and during lactation but a transfer might also occur during gestation. The objectives of this study were to determine whether and when (before and/or after birth) a maternal transfer of thedoi:10.1038/s41598-017-07228-2 pmid:28784986 pmcid:PMC5547061 fatcat:vd5qnefsv5hylmeo52atmbbmea
more »... transfer of the microbiota occurs, and to observe the impact of wheat bran (WB) in sows' diet on their faecal microbiota, their offspring's microbiota and fermentation profile. Sequencing was performed on DNA extracted from umbilical cord blood, meconium, sows' faeces and piglets' colon content. Short-chain fatty acid production was determined in piglets' distal gut. Different bacteria (mostly Proteobacteria, followed by Firmicutes) were found in the umbilical cord blood, suggesting a maternal transfer occurring already during gestation. Less butyrate was produced in the caecum of WB piglets and a lower concentration of valerate was observed in all intestinal parts of WB piglets. Maternal wheat bran supplementation affected microbiota of sows and piglets differently.
In Mobile Ad hoc networks (MANETs), advanced routing metrics use Link Quality Estimators (LQE) for making routing decisions. To be efficient and in a strong interaction with the physical layer transmission conditions, the accuracy and the reactivity of LQE used by metrics are crucial for maintaining connectivity. Current LQE estimates the link quality into a single value. This method limits the accuracy of the estimators, especially in highly volatile environments such as VANETs in urbandoi:10.1007/978-3-319-25067-0_11 fatcat:riv25lgsa5bshpcfwkqsimhumm
more »... ETs in urban environments. In this paper we propose multi-estimators LQE approach that provides both a better link quality and a link behavior assessment. These novel estimators deal with LQE requirements, reactivity, stability and accuracy to become a reliable LQE. We evaluate they reactivity and accuracy with realistic physical layer and mobility patterns and also found their forecasting properties.
Applied to grazing management, unmanned aerial systems (UASs) allow for the monitoring of vegetation at the level of each individual on the pasture while covering a significant area (>10 ha per flight). Few studies have investigated the use of UASs to descri Fourrages Mieux ASBL, Horritine 1, 6600 Bastogne, Belgium be the forage quality in terms of nutritive value or chemical composition, while these parameters are essential in supporting the productive functions of animals and are known todoi:10.3390/rs12101650 fatcat:rwfc3l63kngpjihydq3d2xwmwq
more »... nd are known to change in space (i.e., sward species and structure) and time (i.e., sward phenology). Despite interest, these parameters are scarcely assessed by practitioners as they usually require important laboratory analyses. In this context, our study investigates the potential of off-the-shelf UAS systems in modeling essential parameters of pasture productivity in a precision livestock context: sward height, biomass, and forage quality. In order to develop a solution which is easily reproducible for the research community, we chose to avoid expensive solutions such as UAS LiDAR (light detection and ranging) or hyperspectral sensors, as well as comparing several UAS acquisition strategies (sensors and view angles). Despite their low cost, all tested strategies provide accurate height, biomass, and forage quality estimates of timothy pastures. Considering globally the three groups of parameters, the UAS strategy using the DJI Phantom 4 pro (Nadir view angle) provides the most satisfactory results. The UAS survey using the DJI Phantom 4 pro (Nadir view angle) provided R2 values of 0.48, 0.72, and 0.7, respectively, for individual sward height measurements, mean sward height, and sward biomass. In terms of forage quality modeling, this UAS survey strategy provides R² values ranging from 0.33 (Acid Detergent Lignin) to 0.85 (fodder units for dairy and beef cattle and fermentable organic matter). Even if their performances are of lower order than state-of-art techniques such as LiDAR for sward height or hyperspectral sensors (for biomass and forage quality modeling), the important trade-off in terms of costs between UAS LiDAR (>100,000 €) or hyperspectral sensors (>50,000 €) promotes the use of such low-cost UAS solutions. This is particularly true for sward height modeling and biomass monitoring, where our low-cost solutions provide more accurate results than state-of-the-art field approaches, such as rising plate meters, with a broader extent and a finer spatial grain.
However, in germ-free mice, thus even in the absence of microbiota, Bindels et al.  have shown that RS alters several bile acids and modulate the immune function in adipose tissue. ...doi:10.1186/s12864-020-06854-x pmid:32590936 fatcat:hicxttvprjdrnefh7ylluqa3ze
Establishment of a beneficial microbiota profile for piglets as early in life as possible is important as it will impact their future health. In the current study, we hypothesized that resistant starch (RS) provided in the maternal diet during gestation and lactation will be fermented in their hindgut, which would favourably modify their milk and/or gut microbiota composition and that it would in turn affect piglets' microbiota profile and their absorptive and immune abilities. Methods In thisdoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0199568 pmid:29969488 pmcid:PMC6029764 fatcat:hlw7czwul5hixmmzs4hf2mrti4
more »... s. Methods In this experiment, 33% of pea starch was used in the diet of gestating and lactating sows and compared to control sows. Their faecal microbiota and milk composition were determined and the colonic microbiota, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) production and gut health related parameters of the piglets were measured two days before weaning. In addition, their overall performances and post-weaning faecal score were also assessed.
Obesity is associated with a cluster of metabolic disorders, low-grade inflammation and altered gut microbiota. Whether host metabolism is controlled by intestinal innate immune system and the gut microbiota is unknown. Here we report that inducible intestinal epithelial cell-specific deletion of MyD88 partially protects against diet-induced obesity, diabetes and inflammation. This is associated with increased energy expenditure, an improved glucose homeostasis, reduced hepatic steatosis, fatdoi:10.1038/ncomms6648 pmid:25476696 pmcid:PMC4268705 fatcat:ppitwpqg2bbgbnowb2zhvunfui
more »... ic steatosis, fat mass and inflammation. Protection is transferred following gut microbiota transplantation to germ-free recipients. We also demonstrate that intestinal epithelial MyD88 deletion increases anti-inflammatory endocannabinoids, restores antimicrobial peptides production and increases intestinal regulatory T cells during dietinduced obesity. Targeting MyD88 after the onset of obesity reduces fat mass and inflammation. Our work thus identifies intestinal epithelial MyD88 as a sensor changing host metabolism according to the nutritional status and we show that targeting intestinal epithelial MyD88 constitutes a putative therapeutic target for obesity and related disorders.
The gut microbiota participates in the control of energy homeostasis partly through fermentation of dietary fibers hence producing short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which in turn promote the secretion of the incretin Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) by binding to the SCFA receptors FFAR2 and FFAR3 on enteroendocrine L-cells. We have previously shown that activation of the nuclear Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) decreases the L-cell response to glucose. Here, we investigated whether FXR also regulatesdoi:10.1038/s41598-019-56743-x pmid:31932631 pmcid:PMC6957696 fatcat:q633wu4sf5halatspf3h6jvobu
more »... FXR also regulates the SCFA-induced GLP-1 secretion. GLP-1 secretion in response to SCFAs was evaluated ex vivo in murine colonic biopsies and in colonoids of wild-type (WT) and FXR knock-out (KO) mice, in vitro in GLUTag and NCI-H716 L-cells activated with the synthetic FXR agonist GW4064 and in vivo in WT and FXR KO mice after prebiotic supplementation. SCFA-induced GLP-1 secretion was blunted in colonic biopsies from GW4064-treated mice and enhanced in FXR KO colonoids. In vitro FXR activation inhibited GLP-1 secretion in response to SCFAs and FFAR2 synthetic ligands, mainly by decreasing FFAR2 expression and downstream Gαq-signaling. FXR KO mice displayed elevated colonic FFAR2 mRNA levels and increased plasma GLP-1 levels upon local supply of SCFAs with prebiotic supplementation. Our results demonstrate that FXR activation decreases L-cell GLP-1 secretion in response to inulin-derived SCFA by reducing FFAR2 expression and signaling. Inactivation of intestinal FXR using bile acid sequestrants or synthetic antagonists in combination with prebiotic supplementation may be a promising therapeutic approach to boost the incretin axis in type 2 diabetes.
., 1999; Some suitable grasses and legumes for ley pastures in Sudanian Africa: the case of the Borgou region in Benin Sébastien Adjolohoun (1) , Jérôme Bindelle (2) , Claude Adandédjan (1) , André ... Environ. 2008 12(4), 405-419 Adjolohoun S., Bindelle J., Adandédjan C. & Bulgen A. ...doaj:c486672046ca4715a2b40eeb72f04561 fatcat:e7uwkjmadjfxtgivc7m4ajwzt4
Bilbao, Daniel Bilek, Radovan Billotey, Claire Bindels, Laure Binder, Hans Bins, Adriaan D. ... Wekken, Anthonie Van D'Erme, Maria DeRyckere, Deborah Deryusheva, Svetlana Desai, Dhimant Desantis, Vanessa Desbois-Mouthon, Christèle Descamps, Géraldine Deshayes, Frédérique Deshayes, Sébastien ...doi:10.3390/cancers12010243 fatcat:6gtzjmccnncc3g24tzrq2vrwla
., Bindelle J., Adandedjan C., Seibou Toleba S., Houinato M. and Sinsin A.B. (2013). ...doi:10.28933/ajar-2017-10-2901 fatcat:dnt3cyy2gffsdmwg5isceuy6ki
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