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Terpenoids in plant and arbuscular mycorrhiza-reinforced defence against herbivorous insects

Esha Sharma, Garima Anand, Rupam Kapoor
2017 Annals of Botany  
., 2006; Kapoor et al., 2007; Rapparini et al., 2008) .  ...  Systemic effects of AM on the quantity and quality of terpenoids in above-ground parts of plants have also been mooted (Kapoor et al., 2002a, b; Copetta et al., 2006; Khaosaad et al., 2006; Kapoor et  ... 
doi:10.1093/aob/mcw263 pmid:28087662 pmcid:PMC5378189 fatcat:q3u4nlfvjrgopmsfl6whnt5zhm

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in alleviation of salt stress: a review

Heikham Evelin, Rupam Kapoor, Bhoopander Giri
2009 Annals of Botany  
This is facilitated by the improved hydraulic conductivity of the root at low water potential (Kapoor et al., 2008) .  ... 
doi:10.1093/aob/mcp251 pmid:19815570 pmcid:PMC2778396 fatcat:ms3natgmczhizaqiehhbmfddqa

Carbon dioxide (CO2) utilizing strain database
English

Saini Rashmi, C Majhi Manash, Kapoor Rupam, Kumar Rita, Kumar Anil
2011 African Journal of Biotechnology  
Culling of excess carbon dioxide from our environment is one of the major challenges to scientific communities. Many physical, chemical and biological methods have been practiced to overcome this problem. The biological means of CO 2 fixation using various microorganisms is gaining importance because database of their substantial role in reversing global warming. Carbon dioxide utilizing strain database (CSD) presents a comprehensive overview of microorganisms involved in biological fixation of
more » ... carbon dioxide. As a part of this work, the wealth of information on CO 2 utilizing strains was first collected and was then managed within four classes, that is, microorganisms, genus listing, mechanisms and literature. The first two classes consolidate information regarding the microbial genus and species, while the later two provide information regarding the CO 2 fixing pathways and the taxonomic details of these organisms. The database also holds the current information about the issue. CSD can be used to gain information related to CO 2 fixing microbes. It can also contribute to devising biological strategies for reducing carbon dioxide from the environment. It introduces an innovative idea of exploring the potential of these bacterial strains for reversing global warming. The CSD can be accessed at http://csd.igib.res.in.
doi:10.5897/ajb10.2643 fatcat:xyh7cl2zazbo5mg3zygcm7k42a

Induced Resistance in Mycorrhizal Tomato is correlated to Concentration of Jasmonic Acid

Rupam Kapoor
2008 OnLine Journal of Biological Sciences  
This observation is in accordance with the observation of Copetta et al. and Kapoor et al., [12, 27] .  ... 
doi:10.3844/ojbsci.2008.49.56 fatcat:cs4hcask5ffalolicbbb3gmpe4

Secreted in Xylem Genes: Drivers of Host Adaptation in Fusarium oxysporum

Pooja Jangir, Namita Mehra, Karuna Sharma, Neeraja Singh, Mamta Rani, Rupam Kapoor
2021 Frontiers in Plant Science  
Copyright © 2021 Jangir, Mehra, Sharma, Singh, Rani and Kapoor. This is an openaccess article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY).  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpls.2021.628611 pmid:33968096 pmcid:PMC8101498 fatcat:uo6vdahoinat3k5sovqvl2keqa

Mitigation of Salinity Stress in Plants by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis: Current Understanding and New Challenges

Heikham Evelin, Thokchom Sarda Devi, Samta Gupta, Rupam Kapoor
2019 Frontiers in Plant Science  
*Correspondence: Rupam Kapoor, kapoor_rupam@yahoo.com  ...  Mycorrhiza23, 71–86. doi: 10.1007/s00572-012-0449-8 PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar Evelin, H., and Kapoor, R. (2014).  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpls.2019.00470 pmid:31031793 pmcid:PMC6473083 fatcat:kc4kliriyfhptau7od6a74vig4

The Potential Roles of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Soil Health and Conservation

Karuna Sharma, Samta Gupta, Sarda D. Thokchom, Rupam Kapoor
2021 International Journal of Plant and Environment  
Soil is an indispensable resource of the terrestrial ecosystem that provides manifold ecosystem services. Soil functions include regulation of nutrient cycle aided by armies of decomposers present in the soil, anchorage of plants and facilitation of their growth, sustenance of water quality, and regulation of water filtration, air quality, and temperature. Soil health is tightly correlated with sustainable agriculture, owing to the multitudinous microflora and fauna residing in the soil whose
more » ... tivity is instrumental to soil welfare. Maintenance of soil structure and quality is, thus, crucial for facilitating rapid plant growth so that the lag between food production and exponential population growth can be bridled. Regarding this, a major group of soil-dwelling fungus, i.e., Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (AMF), regulate soil quality and ecological interactions operating therein. This review pays attention to the AMF-secreted miracle glycoprotein −"glomalin" that considerably influences soil dynamics. The major takeaway is that mycorrhizal association in the rhizosphere improves soil quality by regulating soil aggregation, tilth and fertility, and enriching soil organic carbon pool. Besides, mycorrhiza-mediated amelioration of contaminated soil, which reflects a prominent role of AMF in ecosystem functioning, is also discussed. Along these lines, further studies should target the functional ecology of AMF in agro-ecosystems, and bioprospecting of more AMF strains should be done to completely harness their potential in biocontrol, bioremediation, and soil conservation.
doi:10.18811/ijpen.v7i01.4 fatcat:sucogs44zfaltkanfcujsakeba

Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Augments Arsenic Tolerance in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by Strengthening Antioxidant Defense System and Thiol Metabolism

Surbhi Sharma, Garima Anand, Neeraja Singh, Rupam Kapoor
2017 Frontiers in Plant Science  
., 2006; Evelin and Kapoor, 2014) .  ...  These were propagated as soil-based open cultures in sterile soil mixture (Kapoor et al., 2002) .  ...  Copyright © 2017 Sharma, Anand, Singh and Kapoor. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY).  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpls.2017.00906 pmid:28642762 pmcid:PMC5462957 fatcat:4chrhgcqsza5xpuc23rmjtmrw4

A Botrytis cinerea KLP-7 Kinesin acts as a Virulence Determinant during Plant Infection

Pamil Tayal, Sumit Raj, Esha Sharma, Manoj Kumar, Vikram Dayaman, Nidhi Verma, Abhimanyu Jogawat, Meenakshi Dua, Rupam Kapoor, Atul Kumar Johri
2017 Scientific Reports  
Botrytis cinerea is a necrotrophic pathogen that infects many important crops. In an attempt to unravel some novel factors that govern pathogenicity in B. cinerea, Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation (ATMT) was deployed, and a number of tagged transformants were generated. Among these, a mutant, BCM-29 exhibited slower growth rate, reduced conidia size, conidiation and penetration. The mutant was also defective in secretion of oxalic acid (OA) and exhibited reduced activities of
more » ... lygalacturonase (PG) and pectin methyl esterases (PME). TAIL-PCR followed by BLAST search identified the tagged gene as KLP-7 that encodes for kinesin. Targeted deletion of KLP-7 resulted in several folds decrease in virulence of mutants as compared to WT, while complementation of the gene helped in rescue of virulence traits. This is the first time when a unique kinesin KLP-7 that is mainly found in the phylum Pezizomycotina has been linked to virulence in B. cinerea. Botrytis cinerea Persoon ex. Fries (teleomorph: Botryotinia fuckeliana (de Bary) Whetzel) is a widely distributed phytopathogen, that causes serious pre and post harvest yield losses in more than 235 different plant species in a range of agronomically important crops such as strawberry (Fragaria ananassa), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), grapevine (Vitis vinifera), cucumber (Cucumis sativus). It affects almost all vegetative parts such as bulb, stem, leaves and even flowers of ornamental plants under conducive conditions 1, 2 . The fungus is widely distributed in the temperate areas of the world where it infects an extremely wide range of host plants 3 . The stages of plant infection by B. cinerea includes attachment of conidia on host surface, germination i.e. germ tube formation, penetration and colonization that finally leads to killing of the host tissue resulting in tissue maceration 4, 5 . B. cinerea is capable of attacking crops at all stages of their growth and under storage; also affects all plant parts 6 . B. cinerea germ tubes enter the plant via direct penetration through natural openings or wounds to derive nutrients from dead or decaying cells 7 ; therefore its colonization in the plant depends upon the ability of the fungus to kill the host cells. Chemical control is the primary means to reduce the incidence of this pathogen. However, the technique is only partially successful as it develops resistance against a wide range of fungicides. Therefore, it is vital to understand the biology of pathogen, and study host-pathogen interaction for the development of improved strategies for effective disease resistance. A large number of candidate genes for virulence like tetraspanin -BcPls1 factor, Mitogen-Activated Protein (MAP) kinase -BMP1 and components of some signalling transduction cascade have been identified in B. cinerea using targeted gene inactivation approach 8-17 . In addition, several virulence factors like cell wall degrading enzymes, transporter proteins and enzymes for protecting the fungus from oxidative stress are also involved in symptom development [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] . In parallel, random insertional mutagenesis approach has also yielded a wealth of pathogenicity mutants that led to identification of new, partly unexpected virulence factors 24, 25 . In an attempt to unravel some novel factors that govern pathogenicity in B. cinerea, we utilized ATMT and generated a number of tagged transformants. A mutant namely BCM-29 that showed considerably reduced pathogenicity was selected for detailed characterization. Tagged gene in the mutant was identified via TAIL-PCR and BLAST analysis. The sequence showed homology to a gene KLP-7 that encodes a kinesin protein. Kinesins are microtubule based energy hydrolysing motor proteins that help in the segregation of genetic material during cell division and cell growth. A high number of kinesin sub-families exist in the angiosperms, Published: xx xx xxxx OPEN www.nature.com/scientificreports/ 2 ScieNtific REPoRTS | 7: 10664 |
doi:10.1038/s41598-017-09409-5 pmid:28878341 pmcid:PMC5587557 fatcat:eeemb64l7bfzhmyzyqf5yjkvjq

Arbuscular Mycorrhiza-Mediated Regulation of Polyamines and Aquaporins During Abiotic Stress: Deep Insights on the Recondite Players

Karuna Sharma, Samta Gupta, Sarda Devi Thokchom, Pooja Jangir, Rupam Kapoor
2021 Frontiers in Plant Science  
Environmental stresses of (a)biotic origin induce the production of multitudinous compounds (metabolites and proteins) as protective defense mechanisms in plants. On account of the regulation of some of these compounds, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) reinforce the inherent tolerance of plants toward the stress of different origins and kind. This article reviews two specific fundamental mechanisms that are categorically associated with mycorrhiza in alleviating major abiotic stresses, salt,
more » ... rought, and heavy metal (HM) toxicity. It puts emphasis on aquaporins (AQPs), the conduits of water and stress signals; and polyamines (PAs), the primordial stress molecules, which are regulated by AMF to assure water, nutrient, ion, and redox homeostasis. Under stressful conditions, AMF-mediated host AQP responses register distinct patterns: an upregulation to encourage water and nutrient uptake; a downregulation to restrict water loss and HM uptake; or no alterations. The patterns thereof are apparently an integrative outcome of the duration, intensity, and type of stress, AMF species, the interaction of fungal AQPs with that of plants, and the host type. However, the cellular and molecular bases of mycorrhizal influence on host AQPs are largely unexplored. The roles of PAs in augmenting the antioxidant defense system and improving the tolerance against oxidative stress are well-evident. However, the precise mechanism by which mycorrhiza accords stress tolerance by influencing the PA metabolism per se is abstruse and broadly variable under different stresses and plant species. This review comprehensively analyzes the current state-of-art of the involvement of AMF in "PA and AQP modulation" under abiotic stress and identifies the lesser-explored landscapes, gaps in understanding, and the accompanying challenges. Finally, this review outlines the prospects of AMF in realizing sustainable agriculture and provides insights into potential thrust areas of research on AMF and abiotic stress.
doi:10.3389/fpls.2021.642101 fatcat:5ga7pewgqbfgfkmo2rlfuxchmm

Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Improves Photosynthesis and Restores Alteration in Sugar Metabolism in Triticum aestivum L. Grown in Arsenic Contaminated Soil

Samta Gupta, Sarda Devi Thokchom, Rupam Kapoor
2021 Frontiers in Plant Science  
Proliferation of fungal spores was carried out in sterile soil using Sorghum bicolor L. as trap plant (Kapoor et al., 2002) .  ... 
doi:10.3389/fpls.2021.640379 pmid:33777073 pmcid:PMC7991624 fatcat:7oueme6ivrgo3mzva72hbr4h44

Efficient Genetic Transformation of Rice for CRISPR/Cas9 Mediated Genome-Editing and Stable Overexpression Studies: A Case Study on Rice Lipase 1 and Galactinol Synthase Encoding Genes

Tanika Thakur, Kshitija Sinha, Tushpinder Kaur, Ritu Kapoor, Gulshan Kumar, Rupam Kumar Bhunia, Prafull Salvi
2022 Agronomy  
Rice is a staple food crop for almost half of the world's population, especially in the developing countries of Asia and Africa. It is widely grown in different climatic conditions, depending on the quality of the water, soil, and genetic makeup of the rice cultivar. Many (a)biotic stresses severely curtail rice growth and development, with an eventual reduction in crop yield. However, for molecular functional analysis, the availability of an efficient genetic transformation protocol is
more » ... l. To ensure food security and safety for the continuously increasing global population, the development of climate-resilient crops is crucial. Here, in this study, the rice transformation protocol has been effectively optimized for the efficient and rapid generation of rice transgenic plants. We also highlighted the critical steps and precautionary measures to be taken while performing the rice transformation. We further assess the efficacy of this protocol by transforming rice with two different transformation constructs for generating galactinol synthase (GolS) overexpression lines and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated edited lines of lipase (Lip) encoding the OsLip1 gene. The putative transformants were subjected to molecular analysis to confirm gene integration/editing, respectively. Collectively, the easy, efficient, and rapid rice transformation protocol used in this present study can be applied as a potential tool for gene(s) function studies in rice and eventually to the rice crop improvement.
doi:10.3390/agronomy12010179 fatcat:dfwe7aegznhwpkubv5m4beloei

The distribution and presence of versicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi in rhizosphere soil of Da Xanh pummelo in Ba Ria Vung Tau province

Huong N. D. Thai
2021 ˜The œJournal of Agriculture and Development  
Một vài loài trong chi Glomus phổ biến trong đất trung tính hoặc kiềm nhưng một số ít lại hiện diện trong đất chua trong khi các loài thuộc chi Acaulospora lại thường tìm thấy trên đất chua (Rupam & ctv  ...  đất trồng bưởi Da Xanh Những đặc điểm của đất có ảnh hưởng một cách rõ ràng đến cả cây trồng và nấm cộng sinh nên việc nghiên cứu về VAM cần xem xét đến yếu tố thổ nhưỡng cũng như cây trồng và nấm (Kapoor  ... 
doi:10.52997/jad.2.02.2021 fatcat:fwape6w7cfhodjwof3g5rtjuxi

Paradoksy w Dźiwy Goswamina koncepcji duszy, drogi do doskonałości oraz wyzwolenia

Dagmara Wasilewska
2019 Adeptus  
Jak pisze Kapoor (Kapoor, 1976, s. 152) , symbolizować ma "moc godzenia tego, co niemożliwe do pogodzenia, pozwalającą wznieść się ponad sprzeczność dualizmu i monizmu w wyższej syntezie".  ...  Dasgupta, 1961, s. 18; Kapoor, 1976, s. 170) wiążą koncepcję "niepojętości" (acintya) w filozofii Dźiwy Goswamina z wiśeszą w systemie Madhwy.  ... 
doi:10.11649/a.1625 fatcat:gp3q32zhwvhqlpy227fav36lni

Phenotypic and molecular characterization of extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from various samples of animal origin from Assam, India [article]

Leena Das, Probodh Borah, Rajeev Sharma, Dipika Malakar, Girin K Saikia, Krishna Sharma, Shantanu Tamuly, Rupam Dutta
2020 bioRxiv   pre-print
.; Kapoor, R.K.; Virdi, J.S.; Gulati, P.(2018). Integrons in 315 Enterobacteriaceae: Diversity, distribution and epidemiology. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents, 316 51:167-176. 317 17.  ... 
doi:10.1101/2020.05.28.122705 fatcat:y3akcrd5nrh7rcdbcdxl5xdw5e
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