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Author Biographies Ruijie Wang is currently working toward the MS degree in Computer Science at Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China. ... Meng Wang is currently an assistant professor at the School of Computer Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, China. ...arXiv:1909.02930v1 fatcat:jvzujind5jd77eaf4k3ifhscsu
Phenolated lignosulfonate was introduced into the synthesis of phenolic resol with phenol and formaldehyde in an alkaline condition. The modified resol was successfully applied to prepare phenolic foam using appropriate combinations of flowing agents. N-pentane was found to be suitable as the foaming agent. Sulphuric acid (50% aqueous solution, w/w) and Tween-80 were used as catalyst and surfactant, respectively. The obtained foams were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA),doaj:0db120c1ba2b46749174d3cd57be1d5d fatcat:pdqez4ha2bfq7obebvp6oqdsf4
more »... electron microscopy (SEM), friability, and mechanical property tests. The experimental results showed the foam to have lower density, better toughness, and excellent thermal insulation compared to those of foams obtained from conventional resol resin. The properties of phenolated lignosulfonate modified phenolic foam can comply with the required specifications for its practical utilization.
Compared with the results from Meng et al.  , only the first modal frequency of SHM2 in the E direction is different, with 0.065 Hz in Meng et al.  . ... Compared with the results from Meng et al.  , only the first modal frequency of SHM2 in the E direction is different, with 0.065 Hz in Meng et al.  . ...doi:10.3390/rs12172727 fatcat:ojypbtalwnh5zkefywadkc4pia
Fig. 5 Fig. 6 56 Displacement time series of Middle span Meng et al. ... For example, the low sampling rate and high level of observation noise make it impossible to detect relatively high vibration bridge frequencies (Meng 2002; Meng et al. 2007; Breuer et al. 2015; Górski ...doi:10.1186/s41445-018-0014-7 fatcat:4keqr7amwbggpkn5tdljphuu6m
With the development of deep neural networks, automatic music composition has made great progress. Although emotional music can evoke listeners' different emotions and it is important for artistic expression, only few researches have focused on generating emotional music. This paper presents EmotionBox -an music-element-driven emotional music generator that is capable of composing music given a specific emotion, where this model does not require a music dataset labeled with emotions. Instead,arXiv:2112.08561v1 fatcat:jdfiemri5na5zentb6ppgjoipa
more »... tch histogram and note density are extracted as features that represent mode and tempo respectively to control music emotions. The subjective listening tests show that the Emotionbox has a more competitive and balanced performance in arousing a specified emotion than the emotion-label-based method.
Connected and Autonomous Vehicle (CAV)-related initiatives have become some of the fastest expanding in recent years, and have started to affect the daily lives of people. More and more companies and research organizations have announced their initiatives, and some have started CAV road trials. Governments around the world have also introduced policies to support and accelerate the deployments of CAVs. Along these, issues such as CAV cyber security have become predominant, forming an essentialdoi:10.3390/math8081311 fatcat:vw4oqyv4i5hnrf7ey3lfhq2p5y
more »... art of the complications of CAV deployment. There is, however, no universally agreed upon or recognized framework for CAV cyber security. In this paper, following the UK CAV cyber security principles, we propose a UML (Unified Modeling Language)-based CAV cyber security framework, and based on which we classify the potential vulnerabilities of CAV systems. With this framework, a new CAV communication cyber-attack data set (named CAV-KDD) is generated based on the widely tested benchmark data set KDD99. This data set focuses on the communication-based CAV cyber-attacks. Two classification models are developed, using two machine learning algorithms, namely Decision Tree and Naive Bayes, based on the CAV-KDD training data set. The accuracy, precision and runtime of these two models when identifying each type of communication-based attacks are compared and analysed. It is found that the Decision Tree model requires a shorter runtime, and is more appropriate for CAV communication attack detection.
The ability to localize a sound source is very important in our daily life, specifically to analyze auditory scenes in complex acoustic environments. The concept of minimum audible angle (MAA), which is defined as the smallest detectable difference between the incident directions of two sound sources, has been widely used in the research fields of auditory perception to measure localization ability. Measuring MAAs usually involves a reference sound source and either a large number ofdoi:10.3389/fpsyg.2021.656052 pmid:34149541 pmcid:PMC8206507 fatcat:l5wecieopnh4zcqghasuimhzbm
more »... s or a movable sound source in order to reproduce sound sources at a large number of predefined incident directions. However, existing MAA test systems are often cumbersome because they require a large number of loudspeakers or a mechanical rail slide and thus are expensive and inconvenient to use. This study investigates a novel MAA test method using virtual sound source synthesis and avoiding the problems with traditional methods. We compare the perceptual localization acuity of sound sources in two experimental designs: using the virtual presentation and real sound sources. The virtual sound source is reproduced through a pair of loudspeakers weighted by vector-based amplitude panning (VBAP). Results show that the average measured MAA at 0° azimuth is 1.1° and the average measured MAA at 90° azimuth is 3.1° in a virtual acoustic system, meanwhile the average measured MAA at 0° azimuth is about 1.2° and the average measured MAA at 90° azimuth is 3.3° when using the real sound sources. The measurements of the two methods have no significant difference. We conclude that the proposed MAA test system is a suitable alternative to more complicated and expensive setups.
In the primary auditory cortex (A1), neuronal ensembles are activated relative to anticipated sound events following rhythmic stimulation, but whether the echo responses of the neurons are related to their frequency selectivity remains unknown. Therefore, we used in vivo two-photon Ca 2+ imaging to record the neuronal activities in the mouse A1 to elucidate the relationship between their echo responses and frequency selectivity. We confirmed the presence of echo responses in a subgroup of mousedoi:10.1038/s41598-017-18465-w pmid:29311673 pmcid:PMC5758803 fatcat:hhdt4ibpx5hpxezyc3rd4rvm6i
more »... Layer 2/3 A1 neurons following a train of rhythmic pure tone stimulation. After testing with a range of frequencies, we found that these echo responses occurred preferentially close to the best frequencies of the neurons. The local organization of the echo responses of the neurons was heterogeneous in the A1. Therefore, these results indicate that the observed echo responses of neurons within A1 are highly related to their frequency selectivity. When humans and other animals interact with the natural environment, the use of sensory cues and previous experience are critical to form predictions that guide behavior and ultimately survival in the world 1,2 . Recent studies have shown that anticipatory events are found at the levels of both brain activity and behavior. Sumbre et al. found that a zebrafish larva was capable of estimating the timing of a specific impending stimulus through repetitive visual stimulation 3 . Located in the caudal part of the auditory cortex, the primary auditory field (A1) displays a regularly tonotopic layout with low best frequencies positioned caudally and high best frequencies dorsoventrally 4 . The neuronal activities in the mouse A1 have also been found to contribute coding sound information and driving motor responses to expected events 5 . These studies have shown that repetitive stimulation at a regular inter-stimulus interval (ISI) can result in neuronal activity at the anticipated time interval after stimulation, a phenomenon known as "omitted stimulus-evoked responses" or "echo responses" 5-11 . Although the prediction correlated neural signals have already been observed in multiple sensory regions in different mammals, the stimulus type for the preferentially evoked echo responses is unclear. Specifically, whether the echo responses of the neurons in the auditory cortex are related to their frequency selectivity remains unknown. The processing and representation of behaviorally relevant information have been suggested to be selectively enhanced by predictive sensing in an efficient manner. For example, a recent nonhuman primate study demonstrated that high excitability was confined both in time and across neuronal ensembles in the auditory cortex when auditory stimuli were predictable in both timing and pitch 12 . As spectro-temporal filters, the features of the responses in the brain were restricted in both time and space, which is an efficient strategy to minimize the energy expenditure required to maintain a specific cortical state 13,14 . In the auditory cortex, the response profiles of neurons have often been shown to characterize sound features such as sound intensity and frequency    . Electrophysiological recordings and large-scale imaging techniques have revealed the global tonotopic map in auditory cortex and the coarse division of the separate fields in the cortex 18, 19 . Although large-scale recording techniques normally demonstrate smooth tonotopic organization of the neuronal response patterns, the response properties of neurons may vary remarkably, even in neighboring
Sixteen new prenylated flavonoids, sinoflavonoids P–Z (1–11) and sinoflavonoids NA–NE (12–16), were isolated from the fruit of Sinopodophyllum hexandrum, along with eight known analogues (17–24). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data (HR-ESI-MS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HSQC, HMBC). The cytotoxic activities of compounds 1–18, 20, and 22 were evaluated by MTT assay. Compound 6 showed the most potent cytotoxicity in MCF-7, and HepG2 cell lines, with IC50 values of 6.25 and 3.83 μM, respectively.doi:10.3390/molecules24173196 fatcat:wghvdurmvrb65pcna5unj72dy4
Three new polyhydroxylated oleanane triterpenoids, cissatriterpenoid A−C (1−3), along with one known analogue (4), were isolated from the whole plant of Cissampelos pareira var. hirsuta. Their chemical structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic data (IR, HR-ESI-MS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, DEPT, 1H-1H COSY, HSQC, HMBC, NOESY) and the microhydrolysis method. The isolation of compounds 1–4 represents the first report of polyhydroxylated oleanane triterpenoids from the family Menispermaceae.doi:10.3390/molecules27041183 pmid:35208972 pmcid:PMC8876210 fatcat:xwntqf4aujbxti6u5avkaio5nq
more »... isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against five human cancer cell lines, and the inhibitory activity against NO release in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Compound 3 showed the most potent cytotoxic activities against the A549, SMMC-7721, MCF-7, and SW480 cell lines, with IC50 values of 17.55, 34.74, 19.77, and 30.39 μM, respectively, whereas three remaining ones were found to be inactive. The preliminary structure–activity relationship analysis indicated that the γ-lactone ring at C-22 and C-29, and the olefinic bond at C-12 and C-13 were structurally required for the cytotoxicity of polyhydroxylated oleanane triterpenoids against these four cell lines. Based on lipid-water partition coefficients, compound 3 is less lipophilic than 1 and 4, which agrees with their cytotoxic activities. This confirms the potential of C. pareira var. hirsuta in the tumor treatment.
As an emerging type of Internet of Things (IoT), Internet of Vehicles (IoV) denotes the vehicle network capable of supporting diverse types of intelligent services and has attracted great attention in the 5G era. In this study, we consider the multimedia content caching with multicast beamforming in IoV-based vehicular edge networks. First, we formulate a joint vehicle-to-vehicle- (V2V-) assisted clustering, caching, and multicasting optimization problem, to minimize the weighted sum of flowdoi:10.1155/2020/8837751 fatcat:bolyggocffe3ra6icbj4aubwpy
more »... t and power cost, subject to the quality-of-service (QoS) constraints for each multicast group. Then, with the two-timescale setup, the intractable and stochastic original problem is decoupled at separate timescales. More precisely, at the large timescale, we leverage the sample average approximation (SAA) technique to solve the joint V2V-assisted clustering and caching problem and then demonstrate the equivalence of optimal solutions between the original problem and its relaxed linear programming (LP) counterpart; and at the small timescale, we leverage the successive convex approximation (SCA) method to solve the nonconvex multicast beamforming problem, whereby a series of convex subproblems can be acquired, with the convergence also assured. Finally, simulations are conducted with different system parameters to show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, revealing that the network performance can benefit from not only the power saving from wireless multicast beamforming in vehicular networks but also the content caching among vehicles.
Six new coumarin glycosides, genglycoside A–F (1–6), were isolated from the aerial parts of Gendarussa vulgaris, along with ten known analogues (7–16). Their structures were unambiguously established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data and HPLC analysis. The cytotoxic activities of all isolated compounds were evaluated by MTT assay. Compound 12 showed the most potent cytotoxicity in Eca-109, MCF-7, and HepG2 cell lines. By the preliminary structure–activity relationships, it wasdoi:10.3390/molecules24081456 fatcat:mnigwbhvfbfsxjvyclhekclbge
more »... discovered that the glycosylation or esterification at 7,8-dihydroxy or 7-hydroxy drastically reduced the cytotoxic activity of the parent coumarin.
Ruijie Liu is currently an undergraduate student at the School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology. ... Fancheng Meng is currently a research associate professor in the School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hefei University of Technology. He received his Ph. ...doi:10.1016/j.jechem.2020.08.039 fatcat:jxymeazzmzhshfenuiatubok44
Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) bioautography is an evolving technology that integrates the separation and analysis technology of TLC with biological activity detection technology, which has shown a steep rise in popularity over the past few decades. It connects TLC with convenient, economic and intuitive features and bioautography with high levels of sensitivity and specificity. In this study, we discuss the research progress of TLC bioautography and then establish a definite timeline todoi:10.3390/molecules26154647 fatcat:ma3zabdznrhabbrafejm25lxdu
more »... uce it. This review summarizes known TLC bioautography types and practical applications for determining antibacterial, antifungal, antitumor and antioxidant compounds and for inhibiting glucosidase, pancreatic lipase, tyrosinase and cholinesterase activity constitutes. Nowadays, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important to identify original, natural products with anti-COVID potential compounds from Chinese traditional medicine and natural medicinal plants. We also give an account of detection techniques, including in situ and ex situ techniques; even in situ ion sources represent a major reform. Considering the current technical innovations, we propose that the technology will make more progress in TLC plates with higher separation and detection technology with a more portable and extensive scope of application. We believe this technology will be diffusely applied in medicine, biology, agriculture, animal husbandry, garden forestry, environmental management and other fields in the future.
Software model checking is a verification technique which is widely used for checking temporal properties of software systems. Even though it is a property verification technique, its common usage in practice is in "bug finding", that is, finding violations of temporal properties. Motivated by this observation and leveraging the recent progress in fuzzing, we build a greybox fuzzing framework to find violations of Linear-time Temporal Logic (LTL) properties. Our framework takes as input aarXiv:2109.02312v3 fatcat:yancguqnnjgbfmtqz3ybm6zdu4
more »... tial program written in C/C++, and an LTL property. It finds violations, or counterexample traces, of the LTL property in stateful software systems; however, it does not achieve verification. Our work substantially extends directed greybox fuzzing to witness arbitrarily complex event orderings. We note that existing directed greybox fuzzing approaches are limited to witnessing reaching a location or witnessing simple event orderings like use-after-free. At the same time, compared to model checkers, our approach finds the counterexamples faster, thereby finding more counterexamples within a given time budget. Our LTL-Fuzzer tool, built on top of the AFL fuzzer, is shown to be effective in detecting bugs in well-known protocol implementations, such as OpenSSL and Telnet. We use LTL-Fuzzer to reproduce known vulnerabilities (CVEs), to find 15 zero-day bugs by checking properties extracted from RFCs (for which 12 CVEs have been assigned), and to find violations of both safety as well as liveness properties in real-world protocol implementations. Our work represents a practical advance over software model checkers -- while simultaneously representing a conceptual advance over existing greybox fuzzers. Our work thus provides a starting point for understanding the unexplored synergies between software model checking and greybox fuzzing.
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