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Routing and Staffing when Servers are Strategic [article]

Ragavendran Gopalakrishnan and Sherwin Doroudi and Amy R. Ward and Adam Wierman
2016 arXiv   pre-print
In a service system, the routing and staffing policies control such workload incentives; and so the rate servers work will be impacted by the system's routing and staffing policies.  ...  Then, within the class of policies that admit an equilibrium, we (asymptotically) solve the problem of minimizing the total cost, when there are linear staffing costs and linear waiting costs.  ...  This work was supported by NSF grant #CCF-1101470, AFOSR grant #FA9550-12-1-0359, and ONR grant #N00014-09-1-0751.  ... 
arXiv:1402.3606v4 fatcat:m7qsknnirbawrk4sczwnoe3wci

Routing and Staffing When Servers Are Strategic

Ragavendran Gopalakrishnan, Sherwin Doroudi, Amy R. Ward, Adam Wierman
2016 Operations Research  
In a service system, the routing and staffing policies control such workload incentives; and so the rate servers work will be impacted by the system's routing and staffing policies.  ...  This allows us to (asymptotically) solve the problem of minimizing the total cost, when there are linear staffing costs and linear waiting costs.  ...  This work was supported by NSF grant #CCF-1101470, AFOSR grant #FA9550-12-1-0359, and ONR grant #N00014-09-1-0751.  ... 
doi:10.1287/opre.2016.1506 fatcat:vom3fydhkjdsnlm3vfljatgfvy

Effort Analysis Using Collective Stochastic Model [chapter]

Vugranam C. Sreedhar
2014 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
In this paper we consider the problem of work order (WO) arrivals and time spent on work orders in service delivery to derive the asymptotic behavior of a strategic outsourcing contract.  ...  We use the resulting model to derive the probability that a contract will exceed the allocated budget for resolving work orders, and also to calculate the staffing requirement for resolving work orders  ...  The area of optimal staffing with skill based routing is a mature area. Analytical methods are typically complex and do not capture full generality of real IT service delivery systems.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-662-45391-9_42 fatcat:z5ygtysf3vb6rfj4pczbfmeqn4

Infinite-server queueing models of demand in healthcare: A review of applications and ideas for further work

David Worthington, Martin Utley, Dan Suen
2019 Journal of the Operational Research Society  
We conclude by identifying potential further healthcare applications, their relationships to existing theory and methods, and the need for new theory and methods, including the use of infinite-server models  ...  Despite the apparently unrealistic assumption of infinite resources, infinite-server queueing models have played a central role in the development of queueing theory and its applications.  ...  ., when patients are diverted to other wards because their intended ward is full) and refused admissions (i.e., when admissions are refused because the hospital is full).  ... 
doi:10.1080/01605682.2019.1609878 fatcat:v6kqbxvgibcsdig3q55kxyqstu

Estimating flow times for containerized imports from Asia to the United States through the Western rail network

Robert C. Leachman, Payman Jula
2012 Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review  
Queuing models are introduced for estimating container dwell times at rail intermodal terminals and transit times through rail line-haul corridors.  ...  These models are statistically calibrated on industry data.  ...  Acknowledgements The authors are grateful to the BNSF and Union Pacific railroads for the provision of 2006 data sets concerning their intermodal terminals and line haul networks.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.tre.2011.07.002 fatcat:mjuk2akklrdq7d65lqpbx43xke

Capacity Sizing in Queueing Models with a Random Number of Servers

Rouba Ibrahim
2015 Social Science Research Network  
However, randomness in the number of servers often arises in practice, particularly when the servers themselves may be viewed as strategic decision makers, e.g., in virtual call centers or ride-sharing  ...  In this paper, we study the problem of staffing many-server queues with generally-distributed customer abandonment and a random number of servers.  ...  Recent exceptions are Gopalakrishnan et al. (2015) and Zhan and Ward (2015) who study, respectively, optimal routing and staffing decisions, and optimal compensation schemes in many-server queueing  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.2623502 fatcat:2cjkbycp45drvc5qgxvexgqbz4

Service Engineering of Call Centers: Research, Teaching, and Practice [chapter]

Sergey Zeltyn, Avishai Mandelbaum
2008 Service Science, Management and Engineering Education for the 21st Century  
Some unique aspects of the course are the incorporation of state-of-the-art research and real-world data in lectures, recitations and homework.  ...  Indeed, due to their practical importance and the diversity of their operational problems, call centers provide numerous challenges to Service Sciences, Engineering and Management.  ...  The building blocks are now fused into basic queueing models where customers are i.i.d. and servers are i.i.d.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-0-387-76578-5_47 fatcat:54p5dkqpvbgnjk3lcdffha5u2a

Congestion analysis of waterborne, containerized imports from Asia to the United States

Robert C. Leachman, Payman Jula
2011 Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review  
A queuing model is introduced for estimating container flow times through port terminals as a function of infrastructure, staffing, and import volume.  ...  Integrated with a supply-chain optimization model, the queuing formulas are used to predict import flows by port and landside channel in scenarios of total import growth, varying all-water rates, and a  ...  The authors are grateful to many port terminal operators, importers, intermodal marketing companies, third party logistics companies, steamship lines and railroads for providing data for our studies.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.tre.2011.05.010 fatcat:5mibq6pkojbb3frp3nakwq2lf4

Telephone Call Centers: Tutorial, Review, and Research Prospects

Noah Gans, Ger Koole, Avishai Mandelbaum
2003 Manufacturing & Service Operations Management  
Telephone call centers are an integral part of many businesses, and their economic role is significant and growing.  ...  They are also fascinating socio-technical systems in which the behavior of customers and employees is closely intertwined with physical performance measures.  ...  Thanks are also due to L. Brown, A. Sakov, H. Shen, S. Zeltyn and L. Zhao for their approval of importing pieces of [36, 112] .  ... 
doi:10.1287/msom.5.2.79.16071 fatcat:ggsjiwnoyndeba7m6m5bgaw6va

Creating operational shift schedules for third-level IT support: challenges, models and case study

Segev Wasserkrug, Shai Taub, Sergey Zeltyn, Dagan Gilat, Vladimir Lipets, Zohar Feldman, Avishai Mandelbaum
2008 International Journal of Services Operations and Informatics  
/server interaction.  ...  As a result, current best practices for scheduling such work are not based on demand, but rather on primitive rules of thumb.  ...  These analytical models are either M/M/N when customers do not abandon, or M/M/N+M (Mandelbaum and Zeltyn, 2007) when abandonment needs to be taken into account.  ... 
doi:10.1504/ijsoi.2008.021337 fatcat:zvz27itcfbb4ng3nci4bk2yxum

Management Procedures for Data Collected via Intelligent Transportation Systems

Qiang Hong, Richard Wallace, Eric Dennis, Brian Reed, William Tansil, Matt Smith
2015 Journal of Civil Engineering and Architecture  
The objective of this research is to evaluate and assess all important factors that will influence the collection, management and use of ITS data, and recommend strategies to develop integrated, dynamic  ...  Addressing transportation planning, operation and investment challenges requires increasingly sophisticated data and information management strategies.  ...  Acknowledgments This document is a product of the Center for Automotive Research under a state planning and research grant administered by the Michigan Department of Transportation.  ... 
doi:10.17265/1934-7359/2015.09.007 fatcat:mo64f6t67fedtamghb2elktjve

On Customer Contact Centers with a Call-Back Option: Customer Decisions, Routing Rules, and System Design

Mor Armony, Constantinos Maglaras
2004 Operations Research  
Customers are sensitive to both real-time and call-back delay and their behavior is captured through a probabilistic choice model.  ...  Based on this observation, we perform an asymptotic analysis in the many-server, heavy traffic regime to find an asymptotically optimal routing rule, characterize the unique equilibrium regime of the system  ...  Acknowledgments The authors thank two referees, Ward Whitt, the associate editor, as well as Marty Reiman, Bill Massey, Avi Mandelbaum, and Assaf Zeevi for many helpful comments on this work.  ... 
doi:10.1287/opre.1030.0088 fatcat:yrkoxoeuvzdmlh4atvaomgpcmq

Contact Centers with a Call-Back Option and Real-Time Delay Information

Mor Armony, Constantinos Maglaras
2004 Operations Research  
Customers are sensitive to both real-time and call-back delay and their behavior is captured through a probabilistic choice model.  ...  Based on this observation, we perform an asymptotic analysis in the many-server, heavy traffic regime to find an asymptotically optimal routing rule, characterize the unique equilibrium regime of the system  ...  Acknowledgments The authors thank two referees, Ward Whitt, the associate editor, as well as Marty Reiman, Bill Massey, Avi Mandelbaum, and Assaf Zeevi for many helpful comments on this work.  ... 
doi:10.1287/opre.1040.0123 fatcat:xgfch4vxoffg5hhbvzlqvr3wxi

A Staffing Algorithm for Call Centers with Skill-Based Routing

Rodney B. Wallace, Ward Whitt
2005 Manufacturing & Service Operations Management  
This paper addresses both these routing and staffing problems by exploiting limited cross-training.  ...  Subject classifications: Queues, applications: call centers with skill-based routing. Queues, algorithms: staffing and routing in call centers with skill-based routing.  ...  Within this framework, we will specify a routing policy. A routing policy specifies which agent should answer each call. We assume that calls are answered immediately when the assignment is made.  ... 
doi:10.1287/msom.1050.0086 fatcat:2mttyeteu5dcrnv3fhxozs3ukm

Value-Based Routing and Preference-Based Routing in Customer Contact Centers

Michael E. Sisselman, Ward Whitt
2009 Production and operations management  
Established agent-staffing and SBR algorithms ensure that agents have the required call-handling skills and that call routing is performed so that constraints are met for standard congestion measures,  ...  Since customer service representatives (agents) have different call-handling abilities and are typically cross-trained in multiple skills, contact centers exploit skill-based routing (SBR) to assign calls  ...  At this point we are concerned with routing for given staffing and given priority matrix P . The Routing Algorithm Given the priority matrix P , we can specify the routing algorithm.  ... 
doi:10.1111/j.1937-5956.2007.tb00259.x fatcat:a4ita37punawncydsalhg56o6m
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