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Lattice-based Cryptography for IoT in A Quantum World: Are We Ready?

Ayesha Khalid, Sarah McCarthy, Maire O'Neill, Weiqiang Liu
2019 2019 IEEE 8th International Workshop on Advances in Sensors and Interfaces (IWASI)  
These public-key schemes are used in today's security infrastructure to provide public-key encryption and (authenticated) key exchange.  ...  They easily become the best fit in terms of key sizes compactness and simplicity of implementation, when compared against other quantum-safe alternative schemes.  ...  Lattice-based PQC KEMs Saber [16] Key  ... 
doi:10.1109/iwasi.2019.8791343 dblp:conf/iwasi/KhalidMOL19 fatcat:7evkdnumwjaqbc23e6pz3uz4sa

BAT: Small and Fast KEM over NTRU Lattices

Pierre-Alain Fouque, Paul Kirchner, Thomas Pornin, Yang Yu
2022 Transactions on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems  
Meanwhile, the encryption and decryption are still simple and fast in spite of the complicated key generation.  ...  Moreover, due to the similar key pair structure, BAT can be of special interest in some applications using Falcon signature that is also the most compact signature in the round 3 of the NIST post-quantum  ...  Encoding and storage We defined compact encoding formats for public keys, private keys, and ciphertexts.  ... 
doi:10.46586/tches.v2022.i2.240-265 fatcat:pswp6sxt6fasxlgmsigpzi6rx4

Lattice-based Key Sharing Schemes - A Survey [article]

Prasanna Ravi, James Howe, Anupam Chattopadhyay, Shivam Bhasin
2020 IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive  
as public key encryption, digital signatures and key encapsulation mechanisms.  ...  In this paper, we survey the evolution of lattice-based key sharing schemes (public key encryption and key encapsulation schemes) and cover various aspects ranging from theoretical security guarantees,  ...  As a first significant step towards adopting post-quantum cryptography, NIST called for proposals for standardization of post-quantum cryptographic schemes and in particular public-key encryption (PKE)  ... 
dblp:journals/iacr/RaviHCB20 fatcat:gwfp7xfzbbgxnldzbngfc4ru7q

Fast and Power-Analysis Resistant Ring Lizard Crypto-processor based on the Sparse Ternary Property

Piljoo Choi, Ji-Hoon Kim, Dong Kyue Kim
2019 IEEE Access  
Ring Lizard (RLizard) is a quantum-resistant public-key cryptosystem based on the ideal lattice. RLizard uses a sparse ternary polynomial, which facilitates implementation with lower complexity.  ...  The Lizard scheme's proposal for the National Institute of Standards and Technology's post-quantum cryptography standardization included its reference hardware design using the sparse ternary property;  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors would like to thank Jae Hong Seo at Hanyang University and Mun-Kyu Lee at Inha University, who gave us comments and reviewed this manuscript.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2019.2929299 fatcat:fv37mmw6pzfv7lqxd6jfs43hru

Optimized Schoolbook Polynomial Multiplication for Compact Lattice-Based Cryptography on FPGA

Weiqiang Liu, Sailong Fan, Ayesha Khalid, Ciara Rafferty, Maire O'Neill
2019 IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (vlsi) Systems  
This simplification also leads to smart packing of data and the full utilisation of the DSP block to gain a 2× speedup.  ...  We exploit the noise distribution symmetry to reduce the dynamic range and reduced bit-width of the discrete Gaussian data samples.  ...  INTRODUCTION T RADITIONAL public key cryptography algorithms including RSA and elliptic-curve cryptography (ECC) will no longer be secure in the near future, due to advancements in quantum computing.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tvlsi.2019.2922999 fatcat:m7hlmiripbcadaov2gyeid3iaa

Improving the Performance of RLizard on Memory-Constraint IoT Devices with 8-Bit ATmega MCU

Jin-Kwan Jeon, In-Won Hwang, Hyun-Jun Lee, Younho Lee
2020 Electronics  
controller unit (MCU) and 8–16 KB of SRAM.  ...  We propose an improved RLizard implementation method that enables the RLizard key encapsulation mechanism (KEM) to run in a resource-constrained Internet of Things (IoT) environment with an 8-bit micro  ...  In addition, the storage space required to use the public and secret keys required for the encryption and decryption processes is very compact to a few KBs.  ... 
doi:10.3390/electronics9091549 doaj:d509b897c48b437d98f8449fb394dfbf fatcat:xrgbwkmdlrg2fd4orlw67hr4by

SNEIK on Microcontrollers: AVR, ARMv7-M, and RISC-V with Custom Instructions [article]

Markku-Juhani O. Saarinen
2019 IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive  
The SNEIGEN "entropy distribution function" was designed to speed up certain functions in post-quantum and lattice-based public key algorithms.  ...  reach 12.4 cycles/byte SNEIKEN-128 authenticated encryption performance on PQShield's "Crimson Puppy" RV32I-based SoC.  ...  The "R5Sneik" variant of the Round5 post-quantum public key encryption algorithm [BBF + 19, GMZB + 19] uses both SNEIKHA and SNEIGEN as its internal building blocks, resulting in significantly increased  ... 
dblp:journals/iacr/Saarinen19b fatcat:mfhjqvxvx5bwlf2dy4pmzhyedy

Scabbard: a suite of efficient learning with rounding key-encapsulation mechanisms

Jose Maria Bermudo Mera, Angshuman Karmakar, Suparna Kundu, Ingrid Verbauwhede
2021 Transactions on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems  
In this paper, we introduce Scabbard, a suite of post-quantum keyencapsulation mechanisms.  ...  In this work, we first show how the latest advancements on lattice-based cryptographycan be utilized to create new better schemes and even improve the state-of-the-art on post-quantum cryptography.  ...  The LWR based KEX is a noisy Diffie-Hellman key-exchange [DH76] and can be transformed to an indistinguishable against chosen plaintext attack (IND-CPA) secure public-key encryption (PKE), analogous to  ... 
doi:10.46586/tches.v2021.i4.474-509 fatcat:7j2l5aewnjcobit2m3mwxm7tsy

Time-memory trade-off in Toom-Cook multiplication: an application to module-lattice based cryptography

Jose Maria Bermudo Mera, Angshuman Karmakar, Ingrid Verbauwhede
2020 Transactions on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems  
As a practical application, we applied our algorithms to the Saber post-quantum key-encapsulation mechanism.  ...  Compared to NTT, Toom-Cook or Karatsuba based polynomial multiplication algorithms, though being known for a long time, still have a fledgling presence in the context of post-quantum cryptography.  ...  Sujoy Sinha Roy for proofreading and discussions during this work.  ... 
doi:10.13154/tches.v2020.i2.222-244 dblp:journals/tches/MeraKV20 fatcat:tfeboe7d35acdoy3fp7oqovgrq

SPQCop: Side-channel protected Post-Quantum Cryptoprocessor [article]

Arpan Jati, Naina Gupta, Anupam Chattopadhyay, Somitra Kumar Sanadhya
2019 IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive  
In this work, we design a side channel resistant post-quantum cryptoprocessor which supports NewHope-NIST, NewHope-USENIX and HILA5 key-exchange schemes.  ...  It is well known since the work of Peter Shor that large scale quantum computers will threaten the security of most of the currently used public key cryptographic algorithms.  ...  The purpose of the proposal was to standardize some quantum-safe key-exchange, publickey encryption and signature schemes.  ... 
dblp:journals/iacr/JatiGCS19 fatcat:wlqgjtk2evcrbjrbl3mnrzcfra

RISQ-V: Tightly Coupled RISC-V Accelerators for Post-Quantum Cryptography

Tim Fritzmann, Georg Sigl, Johanna Sepúlveda
2020 Transactions on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems  
Empowering electronic devices to support Post-Quantum Cryptography (PQC) is a challenging task.  ...  Third, we implemented our RISQ-V in ASIC technology and on FPGA. We evaluated the performance of NewHope, Kyber, and Saber on RISQ-V.  ...  This work was partly funded by the German Ministry of Education, Research and Technology in the context of the project Aquorypt (grant number 16KIS1017K).  ... 
doi:10.13154/tches.v2020.i4.239-280 dblp:journals/tches/FritzmannSS20 fatcat:de76xdq25va2jabvfispmi53si

On the Transition to Post-Quantum Cryptography in the Industrial Internet of Things

Sebastian Paul
Large-scale quantum computers will be able to efficiently solve the mathematical problems of currently deployed public-key cryptography, rendering RSA and elliptic-curve cryptosystems insecure in the near  ...  In this thesis, we identify, study, and investigate open challenges in order to integrate post-quantum cryptography into IIoT devices, protocols, and applications.  ...  The post-quantum signature is appended to the message buffer (not encrypted), and the additional post-quantum public key and ciphertext of the respective KEM and MAC-value are added to the security header  ... 
doi:10.26083/tuprints-00021368 fatcat:sh7lyimvzbdpzfbvw5crl6567i

Improved Robustness and Versatility of Lattice-Based Cryptography [article]

Huijing Gong
Current public key cryptosystems that are based on the hardness of integer factorization and discrete logarithm are insecure in the presence of large-scale quantum computers.  ...  Group key exchange protocols allow a set of N parties to agree on a shared, secret key by communicating over a public network.  ...  Much effort has been made to replace standardized public key cryptosystems, which are quantum-insecure, with newly developed post-quantum cryptosystems, conjectured to be secure against quantum attack.  ... 
doi:10.13016/1xgm-dmdb fatcat:xijkgajynvddhesd2oll462gse

Fast constant-time gcd computation and modular inversion

Daniel J. Bernstein, Bo-Yin Yang
2019 Transactions on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems  
As concrete applications, this paper saves time in (1) modular inversion for Curve25519, which was previously believed to be handled much more efficiently by Fermat's method, and (2) key generation for  ...  the ntruhrss701 and sntrup4591761 lattice-based cryptosystems.  ...  In Theorem F.21, S is finite, and |P | 2 ≤ α w for each (w, P ) ∈ S. Proof. This is a computer proof. We run the Sage script in Figure F . 23 .  ... 
doi:10.13154/tches.v2019.i3.340-398 dblp:journals/tches/BernsteinY19 fatcat:wqxesmme5jgflffs3wrhttlwoy

Coding techniques in lattice-based cryptography

Jiabo Wang, Cong Ling, China Scholarship Council
Cryptographic constructions based on hard lattice problems have emerged as a front runner for the standardization of post quantum public key cryptography.  ...  focus on Gaussian sampling over the integers and ring-LWE-based public key encryption.  ...  encapsulation mechanism NTRUEncrypt A Public Key Cryptosystem NTT Number Theoretic Transform PKE Public-Key Encryption PQC Post-Quantum CryptographyRLWE Ring Learning With ErrorsRound5 A lattice-based  ... 
doi:10.25560/88513 fatcat:opbx72ijp5g6nlitg37attsvnu
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