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.; Perria, R.; Storchi. P. State of the art of monitoring technologies and data processing for precision viticulture. ...doi:10.3390/agriculture11030201 fatcat:lxts5h4fhjgdvh3lndgvwadzwy
Esca disease is an increasingly widespread grapevine syndrome that currently has no valid remedies; it causes countless symptoms and almost always leads to plant death. The aim of this work was to develop a method for the early diagnosis of the presence of the fungal complex responsible for esca disease on leaves, through the identification of fluorimetric parameters of Photosystem II (PSII) efficiency, which can signal not yet evident physiological dysfunctions.doi:10.1051/bioconf/20224403004 fatcat:i5cyim2bn5g4fgz6kj7kdr677u
As part of a decades-long project to safeguard the viticultural biodiversity in the wine-growing district of Pitigliano (Tuscany, Italy), the research activity carried out made it possible to rediscover two valuable autochthonous grapevine varieties, otherwise doomed to extinction: Nocchianello Bianco (whiteberried) and Nocchianello Nero (black-berried). Both the cultivars were thoroughly characterized at the genetic, phenological, and ampelographic levels, as well as the yield and grapedoi:10.1051/bioconf/20224404004 fatcat:taz756dxuvefrc7bdudxbmg3ha
more »... were evaluated. Thanks to the results obtained, Nocchianello Bianco and Nocchianello Nero were officially reintroduced in the local and regional winemaking scenario, following the registration in the Italian Catalogue of Grapevine Varieties and the addition to the list of grapevine varieties suitable for cultivation in Tuscany.
Crop protection strategies based on cupric products and mainly adopted in organic viticulture produce a consistent environmental impact due to the persistence of copper in soils and its negative effects on edaphic biodiversity. In this work, trials were carried out during the crop years 2018–2020 in a vineyard with an organic management by a low-copper strategy and in a conventional IPM management with an IPM strategy with reduced use of fungicides. Phytosanitary treatments have been strictlydoi:10.3390/agronomy12020392 fatcat:lbixdgtp7vfw7l56tvlwkfohcm
more »... anned according to forecasting models, and fungicides have been partially substituted with substances improving the resistance mechanisms of plants. Different strategies of green manure management, in order to improve the health of vines, were also adopted. Results suggest the efficacy of the "GreenGrapes" plant protection strategy in conditions of low downy mildew pressure. Furthermore, no declines in the production quality have been recorded; conversely, the synergic effect of the green manure and the tested biostimulant substances ("GreenGrapes" protocols) and the green manure management improved yield and grape quality, compared with conventional conduction (IPM and Organic) with a grass covering.
In precision viticulture, the intra-field spatial variability characterization is a crucial step to efficiently use natural resources by lowering the environmental impact. In recent years, technologies such as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), Mobile Laser Scanners (MLS), multispectral sensors, Mobile Apps (MA) and Structure from Motion (SfM) techniques enabled the possibility to characterize this variability with low efforts. The study aims to evaluate, compare and cross-validate thedoi:10.3390/rs14051145 fatcat:d6dww5z6ofak7a2ln22l3d5rfu
more »... y and the limits of several tools (UAV, MA, MLS) to assess the vine canopy size parameters (thickness, height, volume) by processing 3D point clouds. Three trials were carried out to test the different tools in a vineyard located in the Chianti Classico area (Tuscany, Italy). Each test was made of a UAV flight, an MLS scanning over the vineyard and a MA acquisition over 48 geo-referenced vines. The Leaf Area Index (LAI) were also assessed and taken as reference value. The results showed that the analyzed tools were able to correctly discriminate between zones with different canopy size characteristics. In particular, the R2 between the canopy volumes acquired with the different tools was higher than 0.7, being the highest value of R2 = 0.78 with a RMSE = 0.057 m3 for the UAV vs. MLS comparison. The highest correlations were found between the height data, being the highest value of R2 = 0.86 with a RMSE = 0.105 m for the MA vs. MLS comparison. For the thickness data, the correlations were weaker, being the lowest value of R2 = 0.48 with a RMSE = 0.052 m for the UAV vs. MLS comparison. The correlation between the LAI and the canopy volumes was moderately strong for all the tools with the highest value of R2 = 0.74 for the LAI vs. V_MLS data and the lowest value of R2 = 0.69 for the LAI vs. V_UAV data.
<p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Aim</strong>: To evaluate the relationship between carbon isotope ratio (δ<sup>13</sup>C) and wine grape viticultural and oenological performance in organic farming.</p><p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Methods and results</strong>: The study was carried out for four years in the Chianti Classico wine production district (Central Italy), on five non irrigated vineyards conducted in organic farming. The reference variety was Sangiovese. Eleven sitesdoi:10.20870/oeno-one.2013.47.4.1556 fatcat:jz6jjoihrfgmnc25xpknmfcfhq
more »... ere chosen for vine monitoring and grape sampling. The performance parameters were alcohol and must sugar content, sugar accumulation rate, mean berry weight, and extractable polyphenols. δ<sup>13</sup>C, stem water potential, and soil water availability were also monitored. Finally, soil nitrogen as well as yeast available nitrogen in the must were measured. δ<sup>13</sup>C was directly related to stem water potential and soil water deficit, and indicated a range of water stress conditions from none and moderate to strong. However, its relationship with viticultural and oenological results was contrary to expectation, that is, performance linearly increased along with soil moisture. On the other hand, the worst performance was obtained where both water and nitrogen were more limiting.</p><p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Conclusions</strong>: The unexpected relationship between δ<sup>13</sup>C and Sangiovese performance was caused by low nitrogen availability. The studied sites all had low-fertility soils with poor or very poor nitrogen content. Therefore, in the plots where soil humidity was relatively higher, nitrogen plant uptake was favoured, and Sangiovese performance improved. Macronutrient being the main limiting factor, the performance was not lower in the plots where soil water availability was relatively larger. Therefore, the best viticultural result was obtained with no water stress conditions, at low rather than at intermediate δ<sup>13</sup>C values.</p><p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Significance and impact of the study</strong>: Water nutrition is crucial for wine grape performance. δ<sup>13</sup>C is a method used to assess vine water status during the growing season and to estimate vine performance. A good performance is expected at moderate stress and intermediate δ<sup>13</sup>C values. A better knowledge of the interaction between water and nutrient scarcity is needed, as it can affect the use of δ<sup>13</sup>C to predict vine performance.</p>
Conservative technique of soil management plays an important role, compared to conventional tillage, in order to save soil fertility, to preserve biodiversity and to maintain vegetative-productive balance. However, alongside the many agronomic and environmental benefits, it is worth to consider that grass cover exerts water and nutritional competition, especially where irrigation is difficult to set up. This research is aimed to evaluate the effects, on vines physiology and quality of thedoi:10.1051/bioconf/20191304008 fatcat:3plg6grhbnemlf7y4tvynlbm6u
more »... , of three different soil management: temporary sward over all interrows (IT), green manure and tillage every other row (SL) and mulching with plant residues and tillage every other row (PL); measurements were carried out in 2016 and 2017 on a Cabernet Sauvignon vineyard, in Bolgheri (Tuscany). During the experiment, single leaf gas exchanges, stem water potential, productivity were measured, while quality parameters were analyzed. Significant differences in gas exchanges related to the different season and inter-row management were observed. Compared to SL and PL, the IT showed more negative values of water potential, due to the grass-vine competition, especially when water availability is greater. The competition, exerted by sward, at the beginning of the season 2017, lead to differences in fruit setting with impact on yield; therefrom, significant differences also in anthocyanic content.
Despite phenotypic plasticity that allows the adaptation to harsh environments, when vines experience severe abiotic stresses, they can suffer from metabolic damages affecting grape production and quality. Grafting is an affordable strategy to mitigate these negative consequences since the rootstock can increase the drought tolerance in the scion. This work explored the effects of pre-veraison water deficit on vines grafted on different rootstocks (Mgt 101-14 and 1103 Paulsen) to obtaindoi:10.3390/agronomy10050680 fatcat:bzvh4qwytbfvtihs2ne6kcsixy
more »... gical, biochemical, and molecular information about the influence on grape quality. Repeated measurements were carried out to assess vine physiology, production, technological maturity, and berry phenolic composition. qRT-PCRs were executed on berry skins at maturity to assess the expression levels of ten genes and five miRNAs involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway. Water stress caused significant alterations in grape technological maturity. The rootstock effect was not detected in primary metabolism while it was well defined in the accumulation of phenolic compounds in berries (such as anthocyanins). Finally, significant differences were identified in gene and miRNA expression between water-stressed and well-watered vines. In conclusion, the response to water stress can be modulated by rootstocks, which mainly act by regulating secondary metabolism, especially in grapes.
The present study, performed in one of the largest farm of "Chianti Classico" wine district (Tuscany, Italy), focused on the effect of terroir on the peculiarities of the wine at two different scale of zoning. At a broader scale, the experimental vineyards were selected on the basis of lithology, soil type, morphology and climate and these were called macro-terroir (MT). Each vineyard was subdivided into a couple of homogeneous zones (Unité Terroir de Base, UTB), differentiated on the basis ofdoi:10.1051/e3sconf/20185002012 fatcat:gzglk2hcv5aexgthlgo4wb3ltq
more »... oil proximal sensing, and then, high-detailed soil mapping. The study was conducted during three consecutive vintages (2012, '13 and '14), on four different vineyards MT, which are representative of the Chianti Classico wine district. Grape harvest, wine-making and six-month ageing were carried out separately for each UTB, using the same methodology. This study demonstrates that characteristics of geopedological landscapes can be used for a wine district zoning, while a more detailed soil mapping, leading to UTB identification, is needed to highlight some wine peculiarities.
The early defoliation of the fruiting area is a technique that offers considerable advantages both in relation to the quality of grapes and to pest control; on the other hand, when a very warm summer occurs, the risk of grape sunburn may increase. This paper reports the results of a pre-flowering defoliation trial carried out in the province of Arezzo (Italy) in 2017, an exceptionally hot and dry year. The results confirmed the validity of this technique in limiting yield while achieving adoi:10.1051/bioconf/20191304005 fatcat:rck22tp7eraklldyy6zg3w47uy
more »... rrent higher concentration of phenolic compounds without increasing the risk of burns and radiative damages of grapes.
The research work carried out aimed at verifying the efficacy of Trichoderma-based products on the fertility maintenance in vineyard soils, in case of replanting. The presence of a hypofertile horizon, in fact, can cause problems in the engrafting of rooted cuttings and a slowing down in their vegetative development. The trial was carried out at the experimental farm of CREA − Research Center for Viticulture and Enology of Arezzo, during the setting up of a new Sangiovese vineyard. Rooteddoi:10.1051/bioconf/20191304017 fatcat:lipbxjf45bfbnmc4ircem7uh4i
more »... treated with three different formulations containing some Trichoderma spp. strains were planted, considering an untreated negative control. In addition, treatments with the same formulations were repeated in the 2014-2016 three-year period, by spraying the soil, with an injector pole. Every year the shoot length and the pruning wood weight were evaluated, as well as the presence/absence of Trichoderma spp. on the root systems. Moreover, in 2016 the photosynthetic efficiency of the vines was verified. The presence of Trichoderma spp. within the rhizosphere of the vines treated was stable over time; the differences found between treated and untreated thesis were considerable, while only minor differences emerged among the plants subjected to the three different treatments. According to the results obtained, the application of Trichoderma-based products can be considered a valid practice to be used during vineyard implantation in case of difficult edaphic conditions.
Plant protection strategies in organic viticulture are based on the application of copper products, which is well known to generate a consistent environmental impact due to the accumulation of copper in soils and its negative effects on edaphic biodiversity. Life Green Grapes is a demonstrative project aiming to improve the sustainability of viticulture throughout the supply chain: from vine nursery to the table. In this paper, we report the main results obtained over three growing seasonsdoi:10.1051/bioconf/20224403002 fatcat:w56xep6sxbdt5dbe3xlgaopiuq
more »... -2020) in response to the adoption of a strategy based on a reduced use of copper products in an organic vineyard. Plant protection treatments have been strictly planned according to forecasting models for disease development and fungicides have been partially substituted with products improving plant resistance. Green manure, known for contributing to the health of the vineyard, was also adopted. Results suggest the effectiveness of the "Green Grapes" strategy under low downy mildew pressure. Furthermore, no declines in grape quality have been observed; on the contrary, the synergic effect of green manure and substances beneficial to plants improved yield. An overall positive influence on the edaphic biodiversity was also observed.
Kabuki syndrome (KS) is a multiple congenital anomalies syndrome characterized by characteristic facial features and varying degrees of mental retardation, caused by mutations in KMT2D/MLL2 and KDM6A/UTX genes. In this study, we performed a mutational screening on 303 Kabuki patients by direct sequencing, MLPA, and quantitative PCR identifying 133 KMT2D, 62 never described before, and four KDM6A mutations, three of them are novel. We found that a num-Additional Supporting Information may bedoi:10.1002/humu.22547 pmid:24633898 pmcid:PMC4234006 fatcat:b5f47iu7nnbshhx4fn5gkshizi
more »... d in the online version of this article. Contract grant sponsors: Italian Ministry of Health (Ricerca Corrente 2012-13); Telethon Foundation (project no. GGP13231); Jerome Lejeune Foundation and ASM (Associazione Italiana per lo Studio delle Malformazioni) Foundation; Telethon Italy (project no. GTB12001). ber of KMT2D truncating mutations result in mRNA degradation through the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, contributing to protein haploinsufficiency. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the reduction of KMT2D protein level in patients' lymphoblastoid and skin fibroblast cell lines carrying KMT2D-truncating mutations affects the expression levels of known KMT2D target genes. Finally, we hypothesized that the KS patients may benefit from a readthrough therapy to restore physiological levels of KMT2D and KDM6A proteins. To assess this, we performed a proof-of-principle study on 14 KMT2D and two KDM6A nonsense mutations using specific compounds that mediate translational readthrough and thereby stimulate the re-expression of full-length functional proteins. Our experimental data showed that both KMT2D and KDM6A nonsense mutations displayed high levels of readthrough in response to gentamicin treatment, paving the way to further studies aimed at eventually treating some Kabuki patients with readthrough inducers.
, Rita Corti, Fabio Prasadh, Somasundaram Da̧browska-Galas, Magdalena Quadri, Marika ... Pao-Nan Pant, Bishweshwar Chukhrova, Nataliya Park, Hanbai Colombo-Mendoza, Luis Omar Perria ...doi:10.3390/j5010007 fatcat:sidoulk6m5cpfinx73up3ro3ii
Data in Brief
Perria (CREA) for the collaboration in sap sampling. ... allowed access to the vineyards, Maurizio Ulivi (UniFi) for the technical support with mass spectrometry, Sergio Pellegrini and Giuseppe Valboa (CREA) for the soil laboratory analisis and Paolo Storchi and Rita ...doi:10.1016/j.dib.2018.03.078 pmid:29900228 pmcid:PMC5996348 fatcat:w3vr5com5neqppg7e3kamggkoi
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