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Über Pleiodaktylie Beim Pferde

Richard Reinhardt
1908 Anatomy and Embryology  
REINHARDT, Vierter Fall. Reehter Vorderfuss eines Fohlens, eingesandt vom Tierarzt N. in B.  ... 
doi:10.1007/bf02214279 fatcat:2bligvifwvepfpcbfm3xvqyu6q

Effect of dexamethasone prodrug on inflamed temporomandibular joints in juvenile rats

Mitchell Knudsen, Matthew Bury, Callie Holwegner, Adam L. Reinhardt, Fang Yuan, Yijia Zhang, Peter Giannini, David B. Marx, Dong Wang, Richard A. Reinhardt
2015 Arthritis Research & Therapy  
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) often causes inflammation of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and has been treated with both systemic and intra-articular steroids, with concerns about effects on growing bones. In this study, we evaluated the impact of a macromolecular prodrug of dexamethasone (P-DEX) with inflammation-targeting potential applied systemically or directly to the TMJ. Methods: Joint inflammation was initiated by injecting two doses of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) at
more » ... h intervals into the right TMJs of 24 growing Sprague-Dawley male rats (controls on left side). Four additional rats were not manipulated. With the second CFA injection, animals received (1) 5 mg of P-DEX intra-articularly (n = 9), (2) 15 mg of P-DEX into the tail vein (n = 7), or (3) nothing in addition to CFA (n = 8). The rats were killed 28 days later and measured by radiography for ramus height (condylar superior to gonion inferior [CsGoInf]), by micro-computed tomography for condylar width (CW) and bone volume/standardized condylar volume (BV/CV), and by histology for retrodiscal inflammatory cells. Inflammation targeting of systemic P-DEX was confirmed by IVIS infrared dye imaging. Inflammation and bone growth were compared between groups using analysis of variance and Pearson's correlations. Results: CFA caused a significant reduction in CsGoInf (p < 0.05), but neither route of P-DEX administration had an effect on CsGoInf or CW at CFA injection sites. BV/CV was significantly reduced in both inflamed and control condyles as a result of either steroid application (p < 0.05). The inflammatory infiltrate was overwhelmingly lymphocytic, comprising 16.4 ± 1.3 % of the field in CFA alone vs. <0.01 % lymphocytes in contralateral controls (p < 0.0001). Both P-DEX TMJ (10.1 ± 1.2 %) and systemic P-DEX (8.9 ± 1.7 %) reduced lymphocytes (p < 0.002). The total area of inflammatory infiltrate was significantly less in the systemic injection group than in the group that received CFA injections alone (2.6 ± 1.5 mm 2 vs. 8.0 ± 1.3 mm 2 ; p = 0.009), but not in the group that received intra-articular P-DEX (8.8 ± 1.2 mm 2 ). Conclusions: High-dose systemic administration of inflammation-targeting P-DEX is more effective than an intra-articular injection in reducing TMJ inflammation, but both routes may affect TMJ bone density.
doi:10.1186/s13075-015-0772-5 pmid:26400235 pmcid:PMC4581092 fatcat:zrvwv7r5cza4hmmhkvkf7xrtbu

MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS FACT BOOK. SECOND EDITION. 1995. By Richard. Lechtenberg Edited by Robert W. Reinhardt, Bernice M. Wissler and Glenn L. Fechner. Published by F.A. Davis Company. 235 pages. SC26.00

Lynn Flynn
1996 Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences  
Richard Lechtenberg, the author, has addressed Multiple Sclerosis and its effects in easily understood terms. Clearly defined illustrations support these facts.  ...  By Richard Lechtenberg. Edited by Robert W. Reinhardt, Bernice M. Wissler and Glenn L. Fechner. Published by F.A. Davis Company. 235 pages. SC26.00  ...  Levy, Richard H. Mattson and Brian S. Meldrum. Published by Raven Press. 1148 pages. $C233.00 Philip A. Teal Vancouver, British Columbia. .  ... 
doi:10.1017/s0317167100039032 fatcat:wi5pjzhggvczjgvasinfldwwra

German Human Methylome Project Started

Albert Jeltsch, Jörn Walter, Richard Reinhardt, Matthias Platzer
2006 Cancer Research  
Albert Jeltsch Richard ReinhardtMax Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics, Ihnestrasse, Berlin-Dahlem, Germany Matthias Platzer Leibniz Institute for Age Research-Fritz Lipmann Institute, Beutenbergstr  ... 
doi:10.1158/0008-5472.can-06-1071 pmid:16849590 fatcat:b7t6jold7fecdmfpw4fmivvwxu

FUCHS—towards full circular RNA characterization using RNAseq

Franziska Metge, Lisa F. Czaja-Hasse, Richard Reinhardt, Chistoph Dieterich
2017 PeerJ  
. • Lisa F Czaja-Hasse and Richard Reinhardt performed the experiments, contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools. • Chistoph Dieterich conceived and designed the experiments, performed the experiments  ... 
doi:10.7717/peerj.2934 pmid:28265491 pmcid:PMC5333540 fatcat:w4mjlgtstvdpvmhkr5tzpcozfe

Single-nucleotide polymorphisms: analysis by mass spectrometry

Sascha Sauer, Richard Reinhardt, Hans Lehrach, Ivo G Gut
2006 Nature Protocols  
Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry has evolved as a powerful method for analyzing nucleic acids. Here we provide protocols for genotyping single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by MALDI based on PCR and primer extension to generate allele-specific products. Furthermore, we present three different approaches for sample preparation of primer-extension products before MALDI analysis and discuss their potential areas of application. The first approach, the 'GOOD'
more » ... ssay, is a purificationfree procedure that uses DNA-modification chemistry, including alkylation of phosphorothioate linkages in the extension primers. The other two approaches use either solid-phase extraction or microarray purification for the purification of primer-extension products. Depending on the reaction steps of the various approaches, the protocols take about 6-8 hours. INTRODUCTION Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry has become an important, versatile tool in life science 1,2 ( Fig. 1) . Mass spectrometry detects the mass/charge ratio (m z -1 ) of analyte ions in positive-ion mode or in negative-ion mode and produces highly accurate data 1,3 . MALDI mass spectrometry is efficiently used for quality control of oligonucleotides and for the analysis of genetic markers such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) 4 . MALDI-based SNP-genotyping procedures can be easily extended to the detection of cytosine methylation in genomic DNA as well as to the analysis of allele-specific expression and detection of alternative splicing 3 . In genotyping, mass spectrometry offers a distinct advantage over fluorescence-based methods in that the unambiguous determination of marker alleles relies on the direct measurement of the molecular weight of allele-specific products. Before MALDI, the products of SNPs are generated by a molecular biology procedure consisting of PCR amplification of the SNP positions of interest, digestion of residual dNTPs by phosphatase treatment, and an allele-specific primer-extension reaction 5,6 . Because experimental molecular biology reactions are done in buffered solutions that contain large amounts of salts, it is necessary to include a step to eliminate those from the sample preparation. Phosphate residues of nucleic acids are a problem for MALDI detection because they provide a site of negative charge in solution. In particular, alkali metal ions such as sodium and potassium interfere with the ionization process, which weakens the analysis. Moreover, chemicals such as urea or guanidine-HCl and detergents perturb matrix crystallization and decrease signals in MALDI. Suitable preparation procedure steps must be taken before MALDI to circumvent those problems and to obtain high-quality mass spectra. Many procedures for the detection of SNPs have been developed. The mass spectrometry companies Sequenom and Bruker Daltonics offer products tailored to SNP 'typing' applications. More information about their respective protocols is available on the Sequenom and Bruker Daltonics websites. Here we focus on our own developments, which can be easily used and adopted with a high degree of independency and flexibility. We present protocols for the generation of products of the SNP rs607759 (dbSNP accession number;
doi:10.1038/nprot.2006.257 pmid:17487158 fatcat:rtkrwvhklneyzm77ml4nf2jbga

Corporate Social Responsibility Through an Economic Lens

Robert N. Stavins, Forest L. Reinhardt, Richard H. K. Vietor
2008 Social Science Research Network  
This definition has the merit of being consistent with some of the most useful prior perspectives (Graff Ziven and Small 2005; Portney 2005; Reinhardt 2005), while focusing the discussion on the most interesting  ...  relationship between socially responsible activities and profitability may be best characterized as some firms will generate long-term profits from some socially responsible activities some of the time (Reinhardt  ... 
doi:10.2139/ssrn.1123264 fatcat:xmlp24gvr5gyjd2vdb4lbzzbla

The transcriptional landscape of Chlamydia pneumoniae

Marco Albrecht, Cynthia M Sharma, Marcus T Dittrich, Tobias Müller, Richard Reinhardt, Jörg Vogel, Thomas Rudel
2011 Genome Biology  
Gene function analysis of the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia pneumoniae is hampered by the facts that this organism is inaccessible to genetic manipulations and not cultivable outside the host. The genomes of several strains have been sequenced; however, very little information is available on the gene structure and transcriptome of C. pneumoniae. Results: Using a differential RNA-sequencing approach with specific enrichment of primary transcripts, we defined the transcriptome of
more » ... ified elementary bodies and reticulate bodies of C. pneumoniae strain CWL-029; 565 transcriptional start sites of annotated genes and novel transcripts were mapped. Analysis of adjacent genes for cotranscription revealed 246 polycistronic transcripts. In total, a distinct transcription start site or an affiliation to an operon could be assigned to 862 out of 1,074 annotated protein coding genes. Semi-quantitative analysis of mapped cDNA reads revealed significant differences for 288 genes in the RNA levels of genes isolated from elementary bodies and reticulate bodies. We have identified and in part confirmed 75 novel putative non-coding RNAs. The detailed map of transcription start sites at single nucleotide resolution allowed for the first time a comprehensive and saturating analysis of promoter consensus sequences in Chlamydia. Conclusions: The precise transcriptional landscape as a complement to the genome sequence will provide new insights into the organization, control and function of genes. Novel non-coding RNAs and identified common promoter motifs will help to understand gene regulation of this important human pathogen.
doi:10.1186/gb-2011-12-10-r98 pmid:21989159 pmcid:PMC3333780 fatcat:jtxtjcliw5cbretjqm2vmjtiry

Cytokine-secreting follicular T cells shape the antibody repertoire

R Lee Reinhardt, Hong-Erh Liang, Richard M Locksley
2009 Nature Immunology  
R Lee Reinhardt, Hong-Erh Liang & Richard M Locksley High-affinity antibodies are critical for host protection and underlie successful vaccines.  ... 
doi:10.1038/ni.1715 pmid:19252490 pmcid:PMC2714053 fatcat:cszta4tglreubaxddrevfz6yry

MOESM1 of Application of recombinant TAF3 PHD domain instead of anti-H3K4me3 antibody

Goran Kungulovski, Rebekka Mauser, Richard Reinhardt, Albert Jeltsch
2016 Figshare  
Additional file 1. Supplementary figures and table.
doi:10.6084/m9.figshare.c.3622751_d1.v1 fatcat:pn4thg4vnre2rfbrf4teeyn5mi

Morphomechanical Innovation Drives Explosive Seed Dispersal

Hugo Hofhuis, Derek Moulton, Thomas Lessinnes, Anne-Lise Routier-Kierzkowska, Richard J. Bomphrey, Gabriella Mosca, Hagen Reinhardt, Penny Sarchet, Xiangchao Gan, Miltos Tsiantis, Yiannis Ventikos, Simon Walker (+3 others)
2016 Cell  
Graphical Abstract Highlights d Fruits explode while turgid, not dry, due to active contraction of epidermal cells d Asymmetric deposition of lignin in endocarp b cells drives explosive energy release d Endocarp b asymmetry is an evolutionary novelty underlying explosive dispersal d Explosive dispersal emerges from cell and tissue interactions in multi-scale model
doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.05.002 pmid:27264605 pmcid:PMC4930488 fatcat:zuw22uxz4ngprasv6jfk5uvd4a

Railway capacity and expansion analysis using time discretized paths

Line Blander Reinhardt, David Pisinger, Richard Lusby
2017 Flexible Services and Manufacturing Journal  
When making investments in railway infrastructure it is important to be able to identify the limits for freight transportation in order to not only use the infrastructure in the best possible way, but to also guide future capacity investments. This paper presents a model to assess the capacity of railway freight transportation on a long term strategic level. The model uses an hourly time discretization and analyzes the impact of railway network expansions based on future demand forecasts. It
more » ... vides an optimal macroscopic freight train schedule and can indicate the time and place of any congestion. In addition, two expansions of the primary model are developed. The first can be used to determine the minimal number of expansions needed to ensure all freight can be feasibly routed, while the second uses variable penalties to ensure additional freight trains are scheduled in such a way that they do not hinder planned passenger train movements. As part of a European Union (EU) project, all models are applied to a realistic case study that focuses on analyzing the capacity of railway network in Denmark and Southern Sweden using demand forecasts for 2030. Results suggest that informative solutions can be found quickly with the proposed approach. * The project was partly funded by the EU-project EWTC-II † email:,tel: +45 45253389
doi:10.1007/s10696-017-9292-8 fatcat:xprs7iaguzaavifwhnr5m3oeja

Non-imprinted allele-specific DNA methylation on human autosomes

Yingying Zhang, Christian Rohde, Richard Reinhardt, Claudia Voelcker-Rehage, Albert Jeltsch
2009 Genome Biology  
Differential DNA methylation between alleles is well established in imprinted genes and the X chromosomes in females but has rarely been reported at non-imprinted loci on autosomes. Results: We studied DNA methylation of cytosine-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) islands on chromosome 21 in leukocytes from several healthy individuals and observed novel cases of pronounced differential methylation of alleles. Allele-specific methylation affected complete CpG islands with methylation differences between
more » ... alleles of up to 85%. The methylation differences between alleles were strongly correlated with the genotypes, excluding a connection to imprinting. We show that allele-specific methylation can lead to allelic repression of the methylated gene copy. Based on our results, allele-specific methylation is likely to affect about 10% of all human genes and to contribute to allele-specific expression and monoallelic gene silencing. Therefore, allele-specific methylation represents an epigenetic pathway of how genetic polymorphisms may lead to phenotypic variability. In most cases, we observed that some, but not all, heterozygous individuals showed allele-specific methylation, suggesting that allele-specific methylation is the outcome of an epigenetic drift, the direction of which is determined by the genetic differences between the alleles. We could show that the tendency to acquire hypermethylation in one allele was inherited. Conclusions: We observed that larger differences in methylation levels between individuals were often coupled to allele-specific methylation and genetic polymorphisms, suggesting that the interindividual variability of DNA methylation is strongly influenced by genetic differences. Therefore, genetic differences must be taken into account in future comparative DNA methylation studies.
doi:10.1186/gb-2009-10-12-r138 pmid:19958531 pmcid:PMC2812945 fatcat:mke552acnreqrfpvg7vmp6ic5m

Post-polyploidisation morphotype diversification associates with gene copy number variation

Sarah Schiessl, Bruno Huettel, Diana Kuehn, Richard Reinhardt, Rod Snowdon
2017 Scientific Reports  
Genetic models for polyploid crop adaptation provide important information relevant for future breeding prospects. A well-suited model is Brassica napus, a recent allopolyploid closely related to Arabidopsis thaliana. Flowering time is a major adaptation trait determining life cycle synchronization with the environment. Here we unravel natural genetic variation in B. napus flowering time regulators and investigate associations with evolutionary diversification into different life cycle
more » ... es. Deep sequencing of 35 flowering regulators was performed in 280 diverse B. napus genotypes. High sequencing depth enabled high-quality calling of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), insertiondeletions (InDels) and copy number variants (CNVs). By combining these data with genotyping data from the Brassica 60 K Illumina ® Infinium SNP array, we performed a genome-wide marker distribution analysis across the 4 ecogeographical morphotypes. Twelve haplotypes, including Bna.FLC.A10, Bna. VIN3.A02 and the Bna.FT promoter on C02_random, were diagnostic for the diversification of winter and spring types. The subspecies split between oilseed/kale (B. napus ssp. napus) and swedes/rutabagas (B. napus ssp. napobrassica) was defined by 13 haplotypes, including genomic rearrangements encompassing copies of Bna.FLC, Bna.PHYA and Bna.GA3ox1. De novo variation in copies of important flowering-time genes in B. napus arose during allopolyploidisation, enabling sub-functionalisation that allowed different morphotypes to appropriately fine-tune their lifecycle. Polyploid crops like wheat, potato, oats and rapeseed have been enormously successful as field crops because of their huge adaptation potential. Indeed, the fact that all flowering plants derive from ancient or recent polyploidisation events 1,2 points to an enormous evolutionary advantage associated with polyploidy. On the other hand, most polyploid events do not lead to a successful establishment of a new species 3 . Understanding how polyploids achieve adaptive potential has important implication for breeding in the context of environmental change. On the other hand, the complexity of polyploid genomes has considerably restricted large-scale genetic studies of polyploid species 4-6 , so broad conclusions are often drawn based on diploid model plants like Arabidopsis thaliana. The polyploid crop most closely related to A. thaliana is rapeseed (Brassica napus), making it an excellent system to transfer information from the model to the crop. Despite its very recent origin and strong allopolyploidisation bottleneck 6 , rapeseed can be grown from boreal to subtropical and semi-arid areas, a result of strong differentiation into distinctly different morphotypes 7 . The morphotype with highest seed yields is the biannual winter oilseed type 8 . The prerequisites for this lifecycle are winter hardiness for winter survival, along with vernalisation requirement to avoid pre-winter flowering 7 . In subtropical areas, cultivation of semi-winter types that can be vernalised in warmer temperatures is possible 7 . Boreal or semi-arid regions have periods of low plant survival rates, either due to strong winter freezing or extreme heat stress. In these regions, annual spring types are prominent. These are neither winter-hardy nor vernalisation-dependent, and the short growing season strongly limits yield potential. B. napus can also be grown as beet-like forms, known as swedes or rutabagas, which form a different subspecies (ssp. napobrassica) 7 . Swedes are generally of winter type, however have limited winter-hardiness and require extended vernalisation to flower (Fig. 1) . No wild-types of B. napus are known, hence the species is assumed to have arisen in cultivation 7 , with at least one origin believed to be as recent as a few hundred years ago 9 . The different cultivated forms are bred in separate breeding pools, with introgression between morphotypes only in cases of extreme introgression benefit.
doi:10.1038/srep41845 pmid:28165502 pmcid:PMC5292959 fatcat:xl3agjvd4je37nzioqkzuvk544

Application of recombinant TAF3 PHD domain instead of anti-H3K4me3 antibody

Goran Kungulovski, Rebekka Mauser, Richard Reinhardt, Albert Jeltsch
2016 Epigenetics & Chromatin  
Histone posttranslational modifications (PTMs) represent a focal point of chromatin regulation. The genome-wide and locus-specific distribution and the presence of distinct histone PTMs is most commonly examined with the application of histone PTM-specific antibodies. In spite of their central role in chromatin research, polyclonal antibodies suffer from disadvantages like batch-to-batch variability and insufficient documentation of their quality and specificity. Results: To mitigate some of
more » ... pitfalls of using polyclonal antibodies against H3K4me3, we successfully validated the application of a recombinant TAF3 PHD domain as anti-H3K4me3 affinity reagent in peptide array, western blot and ChIP-like experiments coupled with qPCR and deep sequencing. Conclusions: The successful addition of the TAF3 PHD domain to the growing catalog of recombinant affinity reagents for histone PTMs could help to improve the reproducibility, interpretation and cross-laboratory validation of chromatin data.
doi:10.1186/s13072-016-0061-9 pmid:27006701 pmcid:PMC4802638 fatcat:d6dy7aw3wvcmfh3r2zzbbrke3y
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