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Inferences about predictable events

Gail McKoon, Roger Ratcliff
1986 Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition  
The conditions under which readers appear to infer such predictable outcomes were examined with three different retrieval paradigms: immediate recognition test, cued recall, and priming in word recognition  ...  Results suggest that readers encode these inferences into memory only minimally, but that they can make use of a cue word that represents the inference (e.g., dead) both at the time of an immediate test  ...  For example, probably the most well-documented inferences that readers make are inferences involving the repetition of an argument across different propositions.  ... 
doi:10.1037/0278-7393.12.1.82 fatcat:wfwihgxqnvfv5ep37sl6cl2cay

Inferences about predictable events

Gail McKoon, Roger Ratcliff
1986 Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition  
The conditions under which readers appear to infer such predictable outcomes were examined with three different retrieval paradigms: immediate recognition test, cued recall, and priming in word recognition  ...  Results suggest that readers encode these inferences into memory only minimally, but that they can make use of a cue word that represents the inference (e.g., dead) both at the time of an immediate test  ...  For example, probably the most well-documented inferences that readers make are inferences involving the repetition of an argument across different propositions.  ... 
doi:10.1037//0278-7393.12.1.82 pmid:2949049 fatcat:lrgqvglyivaynbjce4ubggff5q

Relevance feedback and inference networks

David Haines, W. Bruce Croft
1993 Proceedings of the 16th annual international ACM SIGIR conference on Research and development in information retrieval - SIGIR '93  
Relevance feedback, which modi es queries using judgements of the relevance of a few, highly-ranked documents, has historically been an important method for increasing the performance of information retrieval  ...  In this paper, we extend the inference network model introduced by Turtle and Croft to include relevance feedback techniques.  ...  Figure 1 : 1 A generic inference network query. Figure 2 : 2 An inference network for the query (and (and information retrieval) (not les)). and 56.9.  ... 
doi:10.1145/160688.160689 dblp:conf/sigir/HainesC93 fatcat:nf2yyyzcengk7j4vrequg37dui

Nearest Neighbor Zero-Shot Inference [article]

Weijia Shi, Julian Michael, Suchin Gururangan, Luke Zettlemoyer
2022 arXiv   pre-print
Overall, we show that augmenting a language model with retrieval can bring significant gains for zero-shot inference, with the possibility that larger retrieval models may yield even greater benefits.  ...  We introduce kNN-Prompt, a simple and effective technique to use k-nearest neighbor (kNN) retrieval augmentation (Khandelwal et al., 2021) for zero-shot inference with language models (LMs).  ...  We study the k-nearest neighbors language model (Khandelwal et al., 2020, kNN-LM) , which interpolates a neural LM's output distribution with a nearest-neighbor distribution constructed by retrieving  ... 
arXiv:2205.13792v1 fatcat:xbl3bvmmtzdbhop3svkjlon22i

Building an Experimental German User Interface Terminology Linked to SNOMED CT

David Hashemian Nik, Zdenko Kasáč, Zsófia Goda, Anita Semlitsch, Stefan Schulz
2019 Studies in Health Technology and Informatics  
The purpose is to offer a high coverage of medical jargon in order to optimise semantic annotations of clinical documents by text mining systems.  ...  An analysis of the current quality of this resource by blinded human assessment terminology states equivalence regarding term understandability compared to a fully automated Web-based translator, which  ...  Its popular synonym "lung cancer", retrieves 120,682 documents from PubMed and is common in clinical documents and problem lists.  ... 
doi:10.3233/shti190202 pmid:31437904 fatcat:xvo2tn7mrjembgavn47hqna2pm

Inference during reading

Gail McKoon, Roger Ratcliff
1992 Psychological review  
Most current theories of text processing assume a constructionist view of inference processing. In this article, an alternative view is proposed, labeled the minimalist hypothesis.  ...  The minimalist hypothesis is shown to be supported by previous research and by the results of several new experiments.  ...  by retrieval operations.  ... 
doi:10.1037//0033-295x.99.3.440 fatcat:p24kzsqkxngvpd74wh77w2qbjy

Unsupervised named-entity extraction from the Web: An experimental study

Oren Etzioni, Michael Cafarella, Doug Downey, Ana-Maria Popescu, Tal Shaked, Stephen Soderland, Daniel S. Weld, Alexander Yates
2005 Artificial Intelligence  
., names of scientists or politicians) from the Web in an unsupervised, domain-independent, and scalable manner.  ...  The paper presents an overview of KNOWITALL's novel architecture and design principles, emphasizing its distinctive ability to extract information without any hand-labeled training examples.  ...  Acknowledgements This research was supported in part by NSF grants IIS-0312988 and IIS-0307906, DARPA contract NBCHD030010, ONR grants N00014-02-1-0324 and N00014-02-1-  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.artint.2005.03.001 fatcat:qmdekfdvjnf53lbpjmdno2k7uy

Inference during reading

Gail McKoon, Roger Ratcliff
1992 Psychological review  
Most current theories of text processing assume a constructionist view of inference processing. In this article, an alternative view is proposed, labeled the minimalist hypothesis.  ...  The minimalist hypothesis is shown to be supported by previous research and by the results of several new experiments.  ...  by retrieval operations.  ... 
doi:10.1037/0033-295x.99.3.440 pmid:1502273 fatcat:7olxlctalfakhcaweyvdiqld64

How Forgetting Aids Heuristic Inference [chapter]

Lael J. Schooler, Ralph Hertwig
2011 Heuristics  
To this end, the authors bring together 2 research programs that take an ecological approach to studying cognition.  ...  The authors elaborate on the notion of beneficial forgetting by proposing that loss of information aids inference heuristics that exploit mnemonic information.  ...  examining whether forgetting plausibly could have evolved to serve heuristic inference.  ... 
doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199744282.003.0004 fatcat:j6aiaql2mbghxljyalrrfxr7zq

Strong inference in functional neuroimaging

Greig de Zubicaray
2011 Australian journal of psychology  
Hs are then refutable by a finding of activity differentiated spatially and chronometrically by experimental condition.  ...  As posed, the question reflects an adherence to a popular scientific method known as 'strong inference'.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author thanks Mike Page, Rik Henson, and an anonymous reviewer for their helpful comments on an earlier draft of this article. This work was supported by the  ... 
doi:10.1111/j.1742-9536.2011.00047.x fatcat:f2n5bt6owvf3nkx6uf2lizrukm

How forgetting aids heuristic inference

Lael J. Schooler, Ralph Hertwig
2005 Psychological review  
To this end, the authors bring together 2 research programs that take an ecological approach to studying cognition.  ...  The authors elaborate on the notion of beneficial forgetting by proposing that loss of information aids inference heuristics that exploit mnemonic information.  ...  examining whether forgetting plausibly could have evolved to serve heuristic inference.  ... 
doi:10.1037/0033-295x.112.3.610 pmid:16060753 fatcat:l3wcuqfkh5awhazmda33wecq5i

How Smart Forgetting Helps Heuristic Inference [chapter]

Lael J. Schooler, Ralph Hertwig, Stefan M. Herzog
2012 Ecological RationalityIntelligence in the World  
examining whether forgetting plausibly could have evolved to serve heuristic inference.  ...  This function is studied by exposing people to an item and then (p.147) testing performance at various lags, known as retention intervals.  ...  Access brought to you by: Max-Planck Society  ... 
doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195315448.003.0039 fatcat:2gl25esx35dq5nzcagtos6ywmu

Inferring user knowledge level from eye movement patterns

Michael J. Cole, Jacek Gwizdka, Chang Liu, Nicholas J. Belkin, Xiangmin Zhang
2013 Information Processing & Management  
In this paper we show that a user's level of domain knowledge can be inferred from their interactive search behaviors without considering the content of queries or documents.  ...  The results show correlations between the cognitive effort due to reading and an individual's level of domain knowledge.  ...  We also thank the anonymous HCIR 2011 workshop reviewers for comments on an early version as well as the anonymous reviewers of this paper for their useful suggestions.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.ipm.2012.08.004 fatcat:x56enktynzh4bfxgskr6fhemaq

The impact of disablers on predictive inference

Denise Dellarosa Cummins
2014 Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition  
People consider alternative causes when deciding whether a cause is responsible for an effect (diagnostic inference) but appear to neglect them when deciding whether an effect will occur (predictive inference  ...  In Experiment 2, a causal Bayes network overestimated predictive inference when it was queried in the standard way, but this overestimation diminished when predictive inference was queried using an alternative  ...  The legitimacy of this model is supported by studies of causal conditional reasoning.  ... 
doi:10.1037/xlm0000024 pmid:24911137 fatcat:7yg7jenn3jeejp2nju6b2hg3a4

Efficient Conformal Prediction via Cascaded Inference with Expanded Admission [article]

Adam Fisch, Tal Schuster, Tommi Jaakkola, Regina Barzilay
2021 arXiv   pre-print
Second, we amortize costs by conformalizing prediction cascades, in which we aggressively prune implausible labels early on by using progressively stronger classifiers -- again, while still providing valid  ...  We first expand the CP correctness criterion to allow for additional, inferred "admissible" answers, which can substantially reduce the size of the predicted set while still providing valid performance  ...  TS is supported in part by DSO grant DSOCL18002. This work is also supported in part by MLPDS and the DARPA AMD project.  ... 
arXiv:2007.03114v3 fatcat:cjftzcc5zvdztltj6skc7jhnkq
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