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Retreat bounded picture languages

Changwook Kim
1994 Theoretical Computer Science  
A set of such words forms a k-retreat-bounded language. A k-retreat-bounded picture language is a set of pictures described by a k-retreat-bounded language.  ...  There is a l-retreat-bounded regular picture language (l-retreat-bounded vertical-stripe linear picture language) for which the membership problem is NP-complete.  ...  A rc-language L is a k-retreat-bounded language if each word in L is k-retreat-bounded.  ... 
doi:10.1016/0304-3975(94)90228-3 fatcat:5vvnbpc6lfgjtoad7macbvbdsa

Two undecidability results for chain code picture languages

Changwook Kim
2002 Theoretical Computer Science  
It is undecidable whether or not two 1-retreat-bounded regular languages describe exactly the same set of pictures or they describe a picture in common.  ...  It is a trivial matter to check that the proofs given in this section work equally well for basic 1-retreat-bounded regular picture languages.  ...  It is undecidable whether or not pic(L 1 ) ∩ pic(L 2 ) = ∅ for 1-retreatbounded regular languages L 1 and L 2 .  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0304-3975(01)00195-5 fatcat:lvbwy5glojfuzgzsjlekzkrlui

Leftmove-bounded picture languages

Changwook Kim, Ivan Hal Sudborough
2000 Theoretical Computer Science  
Imposing both retreat and reversal bounds on languages over results in the leftmove-bounded languages whose words describe pictures by making no more than a bounded number of left moves.  ...  The picture membership problem can be solved in polynomial time for each leftmove-bounded context-free language over and is NP-complete for a leftmoveunbounded (but retreat-bounded) linear language over  ...  For each k¿0, a k-leftmove-bounded picture language is a k-retreat-bounded and simultaneously 2k-reversal-bounded picture language.  ... 
doi:10.1016/s0304-3975(98)00164-9 fatcat:m7d4pltor5helj6ftnvqjcsqma

Decision problems and regular chain code picture languages

Jürgen Dassow, Friedhelm Hinz
1993 Discrete Applied Mathematics  
The set of pictures associated with the words in a regular (context-free) string language is called a regular (context-free) picture language or chain code picture language.  ...  Does the language contain a picture with a given property? ~-Have all pictures of the language a given property?  ...  picture language.  ... 
doi:10.1016/0166-218x(93)90138-e fatcat:optjecww4jhwnjxhfyajls3yne

Page 6952 of Mathematical Reviews Vol. , Issue 95k [page]

1995 Mathematical Reviews  
The author introduces k-retreat bounded picture languages and investigates their properties, including a number of decidability results.  ...  A recognition algorithm for context-free languages operating in time n’ is described.” 95k:68103 68Q45 68T10 Kim, Changwook (1-OK-C; Norman, OK) Retreat bounded picture languages.  ... 

Author index volume 132 (1994)

1994 Theoretical Computer Science  
., On language equations with invertible operations Kim, C., Retreat bounded picture languages Koiran, P., M. Cosnard and M.  ...  ., On a conjecture about slender context-free languages (Note) Juedes, D.W., J.I. Lathrop and J.  ... 
doi:10.1016/0304-3975(94)90240-2 fatcat:nl7cda6rv5aujncx7kxgty377u

Page 5019 of Mathematical Reviews Vol. , Issue 2001G [page]

2001 Mathematical Reviews  
which make no more than a bounded number of left moves) and is NP- complete for a leftmove-unbounded (but retreat-bounded) linear language over {u, d,/r} for which the picture membership problem is NP-complete  ...  It is shown that the picture membership problem can be solved in 2001g:68057 polynomial time for each leftmove-bounded context-free language over 2 = {u,d,r,1} (i.e., those pictures described by words  ... 

Adding symbolic information to picture models: definitions and properties

Gennaro Costagliola, Filomena Ferrucci, Carmine Gravino
2005 Theoretical Computer Science  
In the paper we propose extensions of some picture models, such as colored, drawn and pixel pictures.  ...  Such extensions are conceived by observing that a picture may embed more information than the shape, such as colors, labels, etc., which can be represented by a symbol from an alphabet and can be associated  ...  pictures and the languages of k-retreat-bounded symbolic pixel pictures.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.tcs.2005.03.028 fatcat:gs6ebpblnfce3clyya5peeducq

On reversal-bounded picture languages

Changwook Kim, Ivan Hal Sudborough
1992 Theoretical Computer Science  
Other basic properties of reversal-bounded picture languages are also presented.  ...  Sudborough, On reversal-bounded picture languages, Theoretical Computer Science 104 (1992) 185-206.  ...  retreat-free, where a retreat is a word in {ud, du, lr, rl} [9] ).  ... 
doi:10.1016/0304-3975(92)90122-v fatcat:5clyuomw4bgzpfmpblfi3dt5di

Page 427 of Kansas Medicine Vol. 14, Issue 11 [page]

1914 Kansas Medicine  
KANSAS MEDICAL SOCIETY. 427 filter down through a faint haze at just the right slant to most enhance the beauties of the picture and to invest it with a mystic glamor to the sensitized imagination.  ...  And a retreat like this, if for only a day, is medicine for many of the irritating ills that beset our lives. R A LETTER FROM JUDGE RUPPENTHAL. Gove City, Kansas, October 23, 1914.  ... 

Page 430 of The Westminster Review Vol. 119, Issue 236 [page]

1883 The Westminster Review  
The old man had to all appearance a very violent tongue, and frequently upbraided the poet in coarse language, some specimens of which Poushkin gives in his letters.  ...  How Russian. nobles at that time lived, or a little earlier, we can easily picture to ourselves from the travels of Clarke. Everything was display and Asiatic luxury.  ... 

Page 741 of New Outlook Vol. 96, Issue 13 [page]

1910 New Outlook  
A painter who ridicules virtue by means of his brush influences far more people than an author whose medium is printed language, because the most indo- lent and illiterate can read the artist’s language  ...  In another a philosopher who has un- wittingly seated himself near a hornets’ nest which the kite breaks open in passing is rudely driven from his peaceful retreat FOR CHILDREN  ... 

Page 539 of Atheneum; Or, Spirit of the English Magazine Vol. 1, Issue 8 [page]

1817 Atheneum; Or, Spirit of the English Magazine  
541] Petrarch’s Retreat at Vaucluse. the same trick as before.  ...  The Vailey and Fountain of Vau- cluse are situated in that range of moun- tains which bound the fertile plain of the Comtat, and are about the distance of 16 English miles from Avignon.  ... 

Page 146 of Book News Monthly Vol. 13, Issue 148 [page]

1894 Book News Monthly  
Baker does not tell us of the wonderful resurrection of the Bohemian language and literature in the present century.  ...  [Number 148 us, borrowed from the French, causes some people to think, Unfortunately, owing to his ignorance of the national language, Mr.  ... 

Page 431 of Catholic School Journal Vol. 28, Issue 9 [page]

1929 Catholic School Journal  
Cloth bound caeeeiienpesemeunnsasionan Se PICTURE STUDIES—Book I, for grades 1-2-3-4 = $1.60 Contains $4 pictures in colors from our complete book.  ...  Roehm, Ph.D., Professor of the Teaching of Mod- ern Languages, George Peabody College for Teachers, and Paul T. Manchester, A.M., Assistant Profes- sor of Romance Languages, Vander- bilt University.  ... 
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