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Retention-Aware Placement in DRAM (RAPID): Software Methods for Quasi-Non-Volatile DRAM

R.K. Venkatesan, S. Herr, E. Rotenberg
The Twelfth International Symposium on High-Performance Computer Architecture, 2006.  
We propose Retention-Aware Placement in DRAM (RAPID), novel software approaches that can exploit offthe-shelf DRAMs to reduce refresh power to vanishingly small levels approaching non-volatile memory.  ...  RAPID with off-theshelf DRAM also approaches the energy levels of idealized techniques that require custom DRAM support.  ...  We proposed Retention-Aware Placement in DRAM (RAPID), novel software approaches that can exploit offthe-shelf DRAMs to reduce refresh power to vanishingly small levels approaching non-volatile memory.  ... 
doi:10.1109/hpca.2006.1598122 dblp:conf/hpca/VenkatesanHR06 fatcat:aexds5bvkvcxlk6h3jctodjufa

CAM-based retention-aware DRAM (CRA-DRAM) for refresh power reduction

Yong Ye, Yuan Du, Weiliang Jing, Xiaoyun Li, Zhitang Song, Bomy Chen
2017 IEICE Electronics Express  
In this paper, we proposed a CAM (content-addressable memory)-based Retention-Aware DRAM (CRA-DRAM) system, a hardware implementation that uses CAM and RAM to locate and replace the leaky cells at the  ...  As the main component for modern main memory system, DRAM stores data by capacitors, which must be refreshed periodically to keep the charges.  ...  .: "Retention-Aware Placement in DRAM (RAPID): Software Methods for Quasi-Non-Volatile DRAM," HPCA (2006) 155 (DOI: 10.1109/HPCA.2006.1598122). [4] J.  ... 
doi:10.1587/elex.14.20170053 fatcat:2v4pwkznrvglrlris5gjtqj6kq

Evaluating STT-RAM as an energy-efficient main memory alternative

Emre Kultursay, Mahmut Kandemir, Anand Sivasubramaniam, Onur Mutlu
2013 2013 IEEE International Symposium on Performance Analysis of Systems and Software (ISPASS)  
Retention-aware Placement in DRAM (RAPID): Software Methods for Quasi-non-volatile DRAM. In HPCA, 2006. [29] T.  ...  Non-Volatility B.  ... 
doi:10.1109/ispass.2013.6557176 dblp:conf/ispass/KultursayKSM13 fatcat:2xtwhg3cfvhppe5myoupvze6pa

Trends on the application of emerging nonvolatile memory to processors and programmable devices

Lionel Torres, Raphael Martins Brum, Luis Vitorio Cargnini, Gilles Sassatelli
2013 2013 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS2013)  
M.; Guillemenet, Y.; Sassatelli, G., "Embedded MRAM for high-speed computing," VLSI and System-on-Chip (VLSI-SoC), 2011 IEEE/I-  ...  ., "Evaluation of hybrid MRAM/CMOS cells for reconfigurable computing," New Circuits and Systems Zhao, W.S.; Zhang, Y.; Lakys, Y.; Klein, J-O; Etiemble, D.; Revelosona, D.; Chappert, C.; Torres, L.; Cargnini  ...  Also, they propose process variation aware non-uniform CACHE access (PVA-NUCA) technique for large STT-MRAM CACHE design.  ... 
doi:10.1109/iscas.2013.6571792 dblp:conf/iscas/TorresBCS13 fatcat:aommoaizybhufp76nxuappbxby

Vol. 2, No. 4, October 2009. All in one file

Cindy Xu
2009 International Business Research  
It shows that Malaysian companies are aware of the sanctions for non-disclosure, whereby failure to disclose the matters set out in para 4.1 (the Code) in their annual reports, may result in companies  ...  The multiple linear regression method is very simple to apply by using available statistical computer software.  ...  Thus, a key way to test for non-stationarity is to test for the existence of unit root. The present study employs the Augmented Dickey -Fuller (ADF) Test for unit roots.  ... 
doi:10.5539/ibr.v2n4p0 fatcat:gknfjddr4jhazfj7qzkv3wcpv4

Does visual communication get through to its audiences

Tore Kristensen, Gorm Gabrielsen
2013 2013 IEEE Tsinghua International Design Management Symposium  
Acknowledgements: The authors appreciate the financial help provided via Acknowledgements: The authors thank Sebastian Kunert for his support in collecting the data for this study.  ...  Acknowledgements: The authors wish to thank participants in the 12th International Colloquium on Nonprofit, Arts, Heritage, and Social Marketing, Edinburgh (UK), and the Vth Workshop on Cultural Economics  ...  The rapid growth of services has arguably changed the conditions of business in terms of customer attraction and retention.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tidms.2013.6981257 fatcat:gvtlla3dbvdj3oargnpi7x2d6e