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Bovine mastitis is one of the most important diseases in the dairy industry and has detrimental impact on the economy and welfare of the animals. Further, treatment failure results in increased antibiotic use in the dairy industry, as some of these mastitis cases for unknown reasons are not resolved despite standard antibiotic treatment. Chronic biofilm infections are notoriously known to be difficult to eradicate with antibiotics and biofilm formation could be a possible explanation fordoi:10.3389/fvets.2021.656810 pmid:34026893 pmcid:PMC8138050 fatcat:3o6xcfne7jelpefam4htcklfe4
more »... s cases that are not resolved by standard treatment. This paper reviews the current literature on biofilm in bovine mastitis research to evaluate the status and methods used in the literature. Focus of the current research has been on isolates from milk samples and investigation of their biofilm forming properties in vitro. However, in vitro observations of biofilm formation are not easily comparable with the in vivo situation inside the udder. Only two papers investigate the location and distribution of bacterial biofilms inside udders of dairy cows with mastitis. Based on the current knowledge, the role of biofilm in bovine mastitis is still unclear and more in vivo investigations are needed to uncover the actual role of biofilm formation in the pathogenesis of bovine mastitis.
Lecture Notes in Computer Science
DynaLearn is an Interactive Learning Environment that facilitates a constructive approach to developing a conceptual understanding of how systems work. The software can be put in different interactive modes facilitating alternative learning experiences, and as such provides a toolkit for educational research.doi:10.1007/978-3-642-13437-1_42 fatcat:kzmbbhdrnvbwzmsdna4bxjgmaa
The AI Magazine
René Bühling is a Ph.D. student at the University of Augs-burg (UAU), Germany, within the Human-Centered Multimedia group, addressing entertainment computing, focusing on working on virtual characters, ...doi:10.1609/aimag.v34i4.2489 fatcat:wvv5nl65grf6vfvw4l5cs2knvm
doi:10.3238/arztebl.2017.0179 pmid:28382903 pmcid:PMC5387849 fatcat:u6l4u2vf5ra2rnwk5ofeszlgyy
Lecture Notes in Computer Science
A model-based determination of the average supra-threshold ("distortion") component of hearing impairment which limits the benefit of hearing aid amplification. Published speech recognition thresholds (SRTs) were predicted with the framework for auditory discrimination experiments (FADE), which simulates recognition processes, the speech intelligibility index (SII), which exploits frequency-dependent signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), and a modified SII with a hearing-loss-dependent band importancedoi:10.6084/m9.figshare.14770026.v2 fatcat:obuyrvho5jchhjvodwif2kqln4
more »... unction (PAV). Their attenuation-component-based prediction errors were interpreted as estimates of the distortion component. Unaided SRTs of 315 hearing-impaired ears measured with the German matrix sentence test in stationary noise. Overall, the models showed root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) of 7 dB, but for steeply sloping hearing loss FADE and PAV were more accurate (RMSE = 9 dB) than the SII (RMSE = 23 dB). Prediction errors of FADE and PAV increased linearly with the average hearing loss. The consideration of the distortion component estimate significantly improved the accuracy of FADE's and PAV's predictions. The supra-threshold distortion component—estimated by prediction errors of FADE and PAV—seems to increase with the average hearing loss. Accounting for a distortion component improves the model predictions and implies a need for effective compensation strategies for supra-threshold processing deficits with increasing audibility loss.
We present an Augmented Reality (AR) system where we immerse the user's whole body in the virtual scene using a motion capturing (MoCap) suit. The goal is to allow for seamless interaction with the virtual content within the AR environment. We describe an evaluation study of a prototype application featuring an interactive scenario with a virtual agent. The scenario contains two conditions: in one, the agent has access to the full tracking data of the MoCap suit and therefore is aware of thedoi:10.1109/ismar.2013.6671830 dblp:conf/ismar/DamianBKBOA13 fatcat:a3fkxn3eejb3dbdufcu6j6hkmq
more »... ct actions of the user, while in the second condition, the agent does not get this information. We then report and discuss the differences we were able to detect regarding the users' perception of the interaction with the agent and give future research directions.
The research data repository of the Environmental Data Initiative (EDI) is building on over 30 years of data curation research and experience in the National Science Foundation-funded US Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network. It provides mature functionalities, well established workflows, and now publishes all 'long-tail' environmental data. High quality scientific metadata are enforced through automatic checks against community developed rules and the Ecological Metadata Language (EML)doi:10.3897/biss.4.59082 fatcat:leawkgqdtndhrfkvok5kfgblwm
more »... tandard. Although the EDI repository is far along in making its data findable, accessible, interoperable, and reusable (FAIR), representatives from EDI and the LTER are developing best practices for the edge cases in environmental data publishing. One of these is the vast amount of imagery taken in the context of ecological research, ranging from wildlife camera traps to plankton imaging systems to aerial photography. Many images are used in biodiversity research for community analyses (e.g., individual counts, species cover, biovolume, productivity), while others are taken to study animal behavior and landscape-level change. Some examples from the LTER Network include: using photos of a heron colony to measure provisioning rates for chicks (Clarkson and Erwin 2018) or identifying changes in plant cover and functional type through time (Peters et al. 2020). Multi-spectral images are employed to identify prairie species. Underwater photo quads are used to monitor changes in benthic biodiversity (Edmunds 2015). Sosik et al. (2020) used a continuous Imaging FlowCytobot to identify and measure phyto- and microzooplankton. Cameras at McMurdo Dry Valleys assess snow and ice cover on Antarctic lakes allowing estimation of primary production (Myers 2019). It has been standard practice to publish numerical data extracted from images in EDI; however, the supporting imagery generally has not been made publicly available. Our goal in developing best practices for documenting and archiving these images is for them to be discovered and re-used. Our examples demonstrate several issues. The research questions, and hence, the image subjects are variable. Images frequently come in logical sets of time series. The size of such sets can be large and only some images may be contributed to a dedicated specialized repository. Finally, these images are taken in a larger monitoring context where many other environmental data are collected at the same time and location. Currently, a typical approach to publishing image data in EDI are packages containing compressed (ZIP or tar) files with the images, a directory manifest with additional image-specific metadata, and a package-level EML metadata file. Images in the compressed archive may be organized within directories with filenames corresponding to treatments, locations, time periods, individuals, or other grouping attributes. Additionally, the directory manifest table has columns for each attribute. Package-level metadata include standard coverage elements (e.g., date, time, location) and sampling methods. This approach of archiving logical 'sets' of images reduces the effort of providing metadata for each image when most information would be repeated, but at the expense of not making every image individually searchable. The latter may be overcome if the provided manifest contains standard metadata that would allow searching and automatic integration with other images.
This work is dedicated in memory of Dr Nigel Botting, who died after a short battle with cancer in June 2011 aged 48. He is sadly missed by friends, colleagues and students in St Andrews. Persistent and stable radicals of the heavier main-group elements are currently attracting considerable attention as functional molecular materials in which the unpaired electron associated with the radical species acts as a charge carrier and/or magnetic coupler, forming non-metallic ferromagnets anddoi:10.1002/cphc.201300678 pmid:23943606 fatcat:fprzymllvjgtfn63fkwwfwbeou
more »... lly conductive main-group compounds.     Overcoming factors which affect radical stability of heavy main group elements is therefore a synthetic challenge, whilst the value of these species for use as modern materials stems from the ability to understand and thus tune their magnetic and electronic properties.    The possibility that an E•••E' intramolecular interaction could serve to stabilise chalcogen radical cations and dications was first reported by Musker and Asmus following studies of 1,5-dithiocane 1 (Scheme 1) and related cyclic and acyclic sulfur compounds. [5, 6] A short time later, Furukawa and coworkers isolated the structure of 1 2+ , which was the first example of a cyclic dithiocane dication.  Subsequently they proposed the existence of the Te analogue of 1 2+ based in particular on Te NMR.  Glass et al. subsequently proposed that the effects reported by Musker and Asmus may be enhanced in a geometrically constrained derivative of 1,5-dithiocane, naphtho[1,8-b,c]-1,5-dithiocin 2 (Scheme 1), in which the geometry and rigidity of the naphthalene ring created a greater overlap of the sulfur p type lone pair orbitals, thus increasing the lone-pair lone-pair interaction.  Oxidation of naphtho[1,8-b,c]-1,5-dithiocin 2 was subsequently achieved using D2SO4 as an oxidant, with the stereochemistry of the naphthalene based 1,2-dication 2 2+ proposed via 1 H and 13 C NMR spectroscopy.  In a further development, Furukawa et al. reported a similar oxidation of the non-cyclic bis-tellurium derivative 3, with a dramatic downfield shift observed in the 125 Te NMR spectrum (δ = 964 ppm 3 2+ (D2SO4), cf. δ = 617 ppm 3 (CDCl3)) indicative of a dicationic structure (3 2+ , Scheme 1).  Nonetheless these dication species remain elusive and difficult to isolate with only five known examples having been isolated and crystallographically characterised.  Scheme 1. Peri-substituted chalcogen systems are prime candidates for stabilizing radicals and 1,2-dications. Nonbonded intramolecular interactions, long known to exist between large heteroatoms in peri-substituted species, have been studied in naphthalenes and related acenaphthenes incorporating elements of Groups 15-17.            In a systematic study of corresponding Nap[EPh][E'Ph] and Acenap[EPh][E' Ph] compounds (Nap = naphthalene-1,8-diyl; Acenap = acenaphthene-5,6-diyl; E/E' = S, Se, Te), we found that under the appropriate geometric conditions, repulsion occurring between the heavier chalcogen congeners is counterbalanced by the formation of quasi-linear CPh-E···E' threebody fragments, adding an attractive component to the periinteraction in the form of a three-centre, four electron type bond. [14, 18, 22] We speculated that the unique geometry of these peri-substituted systems could provide the stability required for preparing chalcogen radicals and 1,2-dications similar to dications 2 2+ and 3 2+ ,  via successive one-electron oxidations of the parent compounds. In the present paper we describe the electrochemically informed synthesis of tellurium dication A3 2+ (Scheme 2) from the reaction of 5,6bis(phenyltelluro)acenaphthene A3 (Scheme 1) with one-electron oxidants silver(I) tetrafluoroborate (AgBF4) and silver(I) trifluoromethanesulfonate (AgOTf). Under the same experimental conditions, analogous compounds A1 and A2, bearing the lighter Group 16 congeners (S, Se), favour coordination over oxidation when treated with AgBF4, affording two isomorphous three-dimensional (3D) silver(I) supramolecular coordination networks (A1-Ag, A2-Ag, (Scheme 2). Scheme 2. Products from the reaction of Acenap[EPh]2 compounds A1-A3 with Ag(I) Salts. Cyclic voltammograms (CVs) were obtained for A1-A3 at GC and Pt electrodes ( Figure 1, Table 1 ). In CVs of all three compounds, three oxidation but no reduction processes are evident up to the solvent/electrolyte limits (−2.4 V; > +1.8 V). The CV of A1, displays a moderately large return wave for the first oxidation process at Em1 = 0.62 V which does not increase with increasing scan rate whilst the second oxidation process with Ep a2 = 1.12 V is irreversible (IRR) at scan rates below 10 V s −1 . At the latter or higher rates, only a minor return wave appears. In contrast, the first oxidation process for compound A2 with Em1 = 0.48 V has a large return wave over all scan rates, whilst the second at Em2 = 0.76 V has a moderate return wave [a]
The digestion procedure applied by previous workers (Buhl et al., 2007; Hippler et al., 2009) , led to artefacts during measurements and residues in the columns used in the present study. ...doi:10.1111/sed.12107 fatcat:jjlmulyck5hgzifaauu7p3gare
Aberrant glomerular filtration of urokinase-type plasminogen activator in nephrotic syndrome leads to amiloride-sensitive plasminogen activation in urine. Am J Physioldoi:10.1152/ajprenal.00138.2015 pmid:25972510 fatcat:6nuakyb7e5ghplrdcbaits55uy
The insect central complex and vertebrate basal ganglia are forebrain centres involved in selection and maintenance of behavioural actions. However, little is known about the formation of the underlying circuits, or how they integrate sensory information for motor actions. Here, we show that paired embryonic neuroblasts generate central complex ring neurons that mediate sensory-motor transformation and action selection in Drosophila. Lineage analysis resolves four ring neuron subtypes, R1-R4,doi:10.1101/100420 fatcat:3sfvnwiykzb4ppcsitxxyvim4m
more »... at form GABAergic inhibition circuitry among inhibitory sister cells. Genetic manipulations, together with functional imaging, demonstrate subtype-specific R neurons mediate the selection and maintenance of behavioural activity. A computational model substantiates genetic and behavioural observations suggesting that R neuron circuitry functions as salience detector using competitive inhibition to amplify, maintain or switch between activity states. The resultant gating mechanism translates facilitation, inhibition and disinhibition of behavioural activity as R neuron functions into selection of motor actions and their organisation into action sequences.
The present study tested the hypotheses that nephrotic syndrome (NS) leads to renal K+ loss due to augmented ENaC activity followed by down-regulation of renal K+- secretory pathways by suppressed aldosterone. The hypotheses were addressed by determining K+-balance and kidney abundance of K+- and Na+ transporter proteins in puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN)-induced rat nephrosis. Effect of amiloride and angiotensin II-AT1 and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists were tested.doi:10.1152/ajprenal.00179.2019 pmid:31566427 fatcat:fcv22kysxrcdrkvzaqlu7kdbjm
more »... dependent MR activation was tested by suppression of endogenous glucocorticoid with dexamethasone. Urine and plasma samples were obtained from pediatric NS-patients in acute and remission-phase. PAN-nephrotic rats had ENaC dependent Na+ retention; displayed lower renal K+-excretion but elevated intestinal K+ secretion that resulted in less cumulated K+ in NS. Aldosterone was suppressed at day 8. The NS-associated changes in intestinal, but not renal, K+ handling responded to suppression of corticosterone, while ATI and MR blockers and amiloride had no effect on urine K+ excretion during NS. In PAN-nephrosis, kidney protein abundances of ROMK and γENaC were unchanged while NCC was suppressed and Na+-K+-ATPase increased. Acute pediatric NS patients displayed suppressed urine Na+/K+ ratio compared to remission and elevated plasma K+ concentration, while fractional K+ excretion did not differ. Acute NS is associated with less cumulated K+ in a rat model while acute NS-patients have elevated p-potassium and normal renal fractional K+ excretion. In NS rats, K+ balance is not coupled to ENaC activity but results from opposite changes in renal and fecal K+ excretion with contribution from corticosteroid-MR driven colonic secretion.
Both Eurotransplant (ET) and the US use the lung allocation score (LAS) to allocate donor lungs. In 2015, the US implemented a new algorithm for calculating the score while ET has fine-tuned the original model using business rules. A comparison of both models in a contemporary patient cohort was performed. The rank positions and the correlation between both scores were calculated for all patients on the active waiting list in ET. On February 6th 2017, 581 patients were actively listed on thedoi:10.1111/tri.13262 pmid:29665090 fatcat:3oea5yqstbglfp3ou5to3777my
more »... g transplant waiting list. The median LAS values were 32.56 and 32.70 in ET and the US, respectively. The overall correlation coefficient between both scores was 0.71. Forty-three per cent of the patients had a < 2 point change in their LAS. US LAS was more than two points lower for 41% and more than two points higher for 16% of the patients. Median ranks and the 90th percentiles for all diagnosis groups did not differ between both scores. Implementing the 2015 US LAS model would not significantly alter the current waiting list in ET.
The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is an impact of donation rates on the quality of lungs used for transplantation and whether donor lung quality affects post-transplant outcome in the current LAS era. All consecutive adult LTx performed in Eurotransplant (ET) between January 2012 and December 2016 were included (N=3053). Donors used for LTx in countries with high donation rate were younger (42% vs. 33% ≤ 45 years, p<0.0001), were less often smokers (35% vs. 46%, p<0.0001),doi:10.1111/tri.13582 pmid:31984577 fatcat:lo3srs2rofdkddxnm6fus5xjje
more »... ad more often clear chest X-rays (82% vs. 72%, p<0.0001), had better donor oxygenation ratio's (20% vs. 26% with PaO2 /FiO2 ≤ 300 mmHg, p<0.0001) and had better lung donor score values (LDS) (28% vs. 17% with LDS=6, p<0.0001) compared to donors used for LTx in countries with low donation rate. Survival rates for the groups LDS =6 and ≥7 at 5 years were 69.7% and 60.9% (p=0.007). Lung donor quality significantly impacts on long-term patient survival. Countries with a low donation rate are more oriented to using donor lungs with a lesser quality compared to countries with a high donation rate. Instead of further stretching donor eligibility criteria, the full potential of the donor pool should be realized.
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