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Relative facial action unit detection

Mahmoud Khademi, Louis-Philippe Morency
2014 IEEE Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision  
Keywords-facial action coding system (FACS); relative facial action unit detection; temporal information; I.  ...  This paper presents a subject-independent facial action unit (AU) detection method by introducing the concept of relative AU detection, for scenarios where the neutral face is not provided.  ...  RELATIVE FACIAL ACTION UNIT DETECTION We define the relative facial AU detection problem as follows: given a frame from an input image sequence and a specific AU to estimated, our objective is to determine  ... 
doi:10.1109/wacv.2014.6835983 dblp:conf/wacv/KhademiM14 fatcat:fqnrrnc3cjdr3kbctjedv2gypm

Automatically Recognizing Facial Indicators of Frustration: A Learning-centric Analysis

Joseph F. Grafsgaard, Joseph B. Wiggins, Kristy Elizabeth Boyer, Eric N. Wiebe, James C. Lester
2013 2013 Humaine Association Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction  
tool that detects fine-grained facial movements.  ...  The results reveal three significant relationships between facial expression, frustration, and learning: 1) Action Unit 2 (outer brow raise) was negatively correlated with learning gain, 2) Action Unit  ...  The analyses of facial expression consider two features for each facial action unit: average intensity (average magnitude of CERT output values that were above the detection threshold) and relative frequency  ... 
doi:10.1109/acii.2013.33 dblp:conf/acii/GrafsgaardWBWL13 fatcat:xk5ywob2hres5azr3ph26dgbmy

Facial Action Unit Detection with Multilayer Fused Multi-Task and Multi-Label Deep Learning Network

2019 KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems  
Facial action units (AUs) have recently drawn increased attention because they can be used to recognize facial expressions.  ...  The network can complete two tasks: AU detection and facial view detection. AU detection is a multi-label problem and facial view detection is a single-label problem.  ...  action unit detection and facial landmark detection simultaneously.  ... 
doi:10.3837/tiis.2019.11.015 fatcat:qrbozs5qhzhf3kxj3amtci6vfq

Automatic coding of facial expressions displayed during posed and genuine pain

Gwen C. Littlewort, Marian Stewart Bartlett, Kang Lee
2009 Image and Vision Computing  
In the first stage, a set of 20 detectors for facial actions from the Facial Action Coding System operated on the continuous video stream.  ...  Moreover, the most discriminative facial actions in the automated system were consistent with findings using human expert FACS codes.  ...  If the task were to simply detect the presence of a red-flag set of facial actions, then differentiating fake from real pain expressions would be relatively simple.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.imavis.2008.12.010 fatcat:wxyda6fbd5c4hb3oyf5e4u3jo4

Recognition of Facial Action Units with Action Unit Classifiers and an Association Network [chapter]

Junkai Chen, Zenghai Chen, Zheru Chi, Hong Fu
2015 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
At first, the histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) is extracted as features and after that, a Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) is trained for the preliminary detection of each individual facial action unit  ...  At last, FAUAN fuses the responses of all the facial action unit classifiers to determine a best set of facial action units.  ...  We can detect the facial action units in groups and then recognize the facial expressions from the facial action units.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-16631-5_49 fatcat:ohw4wgxvq5dahkjmhoo6l5exai

Affectiva-MIT Facial Expression Dataset (AM-FED): Naturalistic and Spontaneous Facial Expressions Collected "In-the-Wild"

Daniel McDuff, Rana el Kaliouby, Thibaud Senechal, May Amr, Jeffrey F. Cohn, Rosalind Picard
2013 2013 IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Workshops  
The dataset is comprehensively labeled for the following: 1) frame-by-frame labels for the presence of 10 symmetrical FACS action units, 4 asymmetric (unilateral) FACS action units, 2 head movements, smile  ...  for the stimuli videos and 4) baseline performance of detection algorithms on this dataset.  ...  action units AU12 and AU14.  ... 
doi:10.1109/cvprw.2013.130 dblp:conf/cvpr/McDuffKSACP13 fatcat:5k7lgwnwdrbgfic6qjp6pkswle

Expression Empowered ResiDen Network for Facial Action Unit Detection [article]

Shreyank Jyoti, Abhinav Dhall
2018 arXiv   pre-print
The paper explores the topic of Facial Action Unit (FAU) detection in the wild.  ...  (2) how useful is the information from a network trained for categorical Facial Expression Recognition (FER) for the task of FAU detection?  ...  This paper aims to improve the facial action unit detection by drawing a relative bridge between expressions and the action units.  ... 
arXiv:1806.04957v1 fatcat:3tyceesmcbbwbi3mt5souufzxe

Page 453 of Behavior Research Methods Vol. 17, Issue 4 [page]

1985 Behavior Research Methods  
Although facial displacement changed with smiling, the ability of this method to detect and discriminate different facial actions and the method’s correspondence with categorical units is unknown.  ...  SCALAR MEASUREMENT Scalar units are the next step beyond categorization in the quantification of facial actions.  ... 

Automatic action unit detection in infants using convolutional neural network

Zakia Hammal, Wen-Sheng Chu, Jeffrey F. Cohn, Carrie Heike, Matthew L. Speltz
2017 2017 Seventh International Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction (ACII)  
Action unit detection in infants relative to adults presents unique challenges. Jaw contour is less distinct, facial texture is reduced, and rapid and unusual facial movements are common.  ...  To detect facial action units in spontaneous behavior of infants, we propose a multi-label Convolutional Neural Network (CNN).  ...  Individually or in combination, action units (AUs) can describe all facial expressions.  ... 
doi:10.1109/acii.2017.8273603 pmid:29862131 pmcid:PMC5976252 dblp:conf/acii/HammalCCHS17 fatcat:jieklfi365dd7dqpflufibw7ba

Viewpoint Robustness of Automated Facial Action Unit Detection Systems

Shushi Namba, Wataru Sato, Sakiko Yoshikawa
2021 Applied Sciences  
Automatic facial action detection is important, but no previous studies have evaluated pre-trained models on the accuracy of facial action detection as the angle of the face changes from frontal to profile  ...  Prediction accuracy and robustness to angle changes varied with the target facial components and action detection system.  ...  The most common index of facial movement is the action unit (AU), which is derived from the Facial Action Coding System (FACS) [8] .  ... 
doi:10.3390/app112311171 fatcat:gomvq6huhzch7ckwbjyf5au224

Facial Emotion Recognition Through Detection of Facial Action Units and Their Intensity

Rohan Appasaheb Borgalli, Sunil Surve
2022 Scientific Visualization  
Among state-of-the-art methods for FER systems, detection of facial action units (AUs) showed good results.  ...  We modified them slightly by changing a few final fully connected layers to detect facial action unit intensity.  ...  For our application of Facial Action unit detection, we modified its architecture slightly by changing a few final fully connected layers to get good results of detecting 17 Facial Action Units {1, 2,  ... 
doi:10.26583/sv.14.1.06 fatcat:qttguvfh65htnkj7cuwb4cpei4

Automated Facial Action Coding System for dynamic analysis of facial expressions in neuropsychiatric disorders

Jihun Hamm, Christian G. Kohler, Ruben C. Gur, Ragini Verma
2011 Journal of Neuroscience Methods  
These profiles are quantified to compute frequencies of single and combined Action Units (AUs) in videos, which can facilitate statistical study of large populations in disorders affecting facial expression  ...  Ekman and Friesen's Facial Action Coding System (FACS) encodes movements of individual facial muscles from distinct momentary changes in facial appearance.  ...  In Section 3.2 (Action Unit Detection), we explain how we train Action Unit classifiers and validate them.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.jneumeth.2011.06.023 pmid:21741407 pmcid:PMC3402717 fatcat:fdsyzkthorgkbcpgpvtdffgwxq

Expressing fear enhances sensory acquisition

Joshua M Susskind, Daniel H Lee, Andrée Cusi, Roman Feiman, Wojtek Grabski, Adam K Anderson
2008 Nature Neuroscience  
As emotions are thought of as adaptive action  ...  It has been proposed that facial expression production originates in sensory regulation. Here we demonstrate that facial expressions of fear are configured to enhance sensory acquisition.  ...  (a,b) Mean air-flow velocity (in standardized units) for fear and disgust expressions relative to neutral during inhalation over time (2.2-s inhalation; a) and mean volume relative to abdominal-thoracic  ... 
doi:10.1038/nn.2138 pmid:18552843 fatcat:yerfgz7jejhfrggwxqaod3uyjy

Insights on Spontaneous Facial Expressions from Automatic Expression Measurement [chapter]

Marian Bartlett, Gwen Littlewort, Esra Vural, Jake Whitehill, Tingfan Wu, Kang Lee, Javier Movellan
2010 Dynamic Faces  
If the task were to simply detect the presence of a red--flag set of facial actions, then differentiating fake from real pain expressions would be relatively simple.  ...  In this chapter we apply a computer vision system trained to automatically detect facial Action Units to data mine facial behavior and to extract facial signals associated with states including: (1) real  ... 
doi:10.7551/mitpress/9780262014533.003.0015 fatcat:rv3jd54ukzgflagtesepziasb4

How much training data for facial action unit detection?

Jeffrey M. Girard, Jeffrey F. Cohn, Laszlo A. Jeni, Simon Lucey, Fernando De la Torre
2015 2015 11th IEEE International Conference and Workshops on Automatic Face and Gesture Recognition (FG)  
By systematically varying the number of subjects and the number of frames per subject, we explored the influence of training set size on appearance and shape-based approaches to facial action unit (AU)  ...  detection.  ...  This may be due to the relative insensitivity of shape-based features to the facial changes engendered by certain action units.  ... 
doi:10.1109/fg.2015.7163106 pmid:27275131 pmcid:PMC4893200 dblp:conf/fgr/GirardCJLT15 fatcat:3vsz7a4tajhnbjkhkvenha5g3e
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