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Reflection ciphers

Christina Boura, Anne Canteaut, Lars R. Knudsen, Gregor Leander
2015 Designs, Codes and Cryptography  
This paper investigates ciphers where the set of encryption functions is identical to the set of decryption functions, which we call reflection ciphers.  ...  We then derive some criteria for constructing secure reflection ciphers and analyze the security properties of different families of coupling permutations.  ...  As previously explained, reflection ciphers obviously include all constructions with involutive round functions, like Feistel ciphers.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10623-015-0143-x fatcat:anvmhignkjcmrppn7s5exwcumu

Reflection Cryptanalysis of PRINCE-Like Ciphers

Hadi Soleimany, Céline Blondeau, Xiaoli Yu, Wenling Wu, Kaisa Nyberg, Huiling Zhang, Lei Zhang, Yanfeng Wang
2013 Journal of Cryptology  
Classes of α-reflection 5 Conclusions 7 / 23 Description of PRINCE-like Ciphers Distinguishers Key Recovery Various Classes of α-reflection Conclusions Previous Works: Reflection Attack  ...  Idea Take advantage of α-reflection property and the fact that always fixed points exist in midmost rounds of PRINCE-like ciphers.  ...  Question Would α with many non-zero nibbles guarantee security against reflection attacks? Truncated Attack Assume α is such that where * can be any arbitrary value.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s00145-013-9175-4 fatcat:goobfrlbnnbbdddi7e6jtp4fuq


M Vara Prasad
2016 International Journal of Pharmacy & Technology   unpublished
In this paper discover the idea of generating generalizedself-invertible reflection matrix key in Hill Cipher and Affine Hill Cipher.  ...  So, if the matrix is not invertible, the encrypted cipher text content cannot be decrypted.  ...  reflection matrix is K=I − .  ... 

New Observations on Piccolo Block Cipher [chapter]

Yanfeng Wang, Wenling Wu
2016 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
For a block cipher, the number of rounds that exhibits linear-reflection weak keys should be as small as possible.  ...  To reduce the cost in hardware, key schedules of lightweight block ciphers are usually simple and some even are direct linear transformations on master keys.  ...  We also designed an algorithm to search linear-reflection weak keys for Piccolo ciphers.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-319-29485-8_22 fatcat:oixljgfrgbbpzispsoxupxgmdi

A Single-Key Attack on the Full GOST Block Cipher [chapter]

Takanori Isobe
2011 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
To construct the attack, we develop a new attack framework called Reflection-Meet-inthe-Middle Attack. This approach combines techniques of the reflection attack and the meet-in-the-middle attack.  ...  The GOST block cipher is the Russian encryption standard published in 1989.  ...  In the reflection attack, some rounds satisfying certain conditions can be skipped from the whole cipher with the probability P ref . From now on, we call this skip a reflection skip.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-21702-9_17 fatcat:tmh2q2hyubddhfhzymkn7ub4oy

E-ART: A New Encryption Algorithm Based on the Reflection of Binary Search Tree

Bayan Alabdullah, Natalia Beloff, Martin White
2021 Cryptography  
To address these issues, this work proposes a novel algorithm that uses, on one hand, the reflection property of a balanced binary search tree data structure to minimize the overhead, and on the other  ...  Simple modern ciphers have led to a new form of cipher called a product cipher or round cipher [18] .  ...  ciphers).  ... 
doi:10.3390/cryptography5010004 fatcat:rkow6x3en5htdjam7cnsipglci

PRINCE – A Low-Latency Block Cipher for Pervasive Computing Applications [chapter]

Julia Borghoff, Anne Canteaut, Tim Güneysu, Elif Bilge Kavun, Miroslav Knezevic, Lars R. Knudsen, Gregor Leander, Ventzislav Nikov, Christof Paar, Christian Rechberger, Peter Rombouts, Søren S. Thomsen (+1 others)
2012 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
This property we refer to as α-reflection is of independent interest and we prove its soundness against generic attacks.  ...  Such ciphers are desirable for many future pervasive applications with real-time security needs.  ...  In the case of the α-reflection property, we like to model the core cipher F as an ideal cipher, that is as a set of random permutations, with the (only!)  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-34961-4_14 fatcat:djevjs46tbal5j72pctghpunka

A Single-Key Attack on the Full GOST Block Cipher

Takanori Isobe
2012 Journal of Cryptology  
Applied "R-MITM" to GOST block cipher As a result, succeeded in constructing first single key recovery attack. Future Works and Remarks Applied it to other block ciphers.  ...  MITM Stage Plain text Sub Func. 1 Cipher text A1, A0 (=K1) Sub Func. 2 A2, A0 (=K2) v u n Sony Corporation K1 K2 A0 A1 A2 MITM Stage Plain text Sub Func. 1 Cipher text  ... 
doi:10.1007/s00145-012-9118-5 fatcat:bgipiekbn5fsvhfw233oz5pjsu

Security Evaluation of GOST 28147-89 in View of International Standardisation

Nicolas T. Courtois
2012 Cryptologia  
Unhappily, it was recently discovered that GOST can be broken and is a deeply flawed cipher.  ...  In this short paper we describe another attack, to illustrate the fact that there are now attacks on GOST, which require much less memory, and don't even require the reflection property [29] to hold, without  ...  However the cipher still has a lot of self-similarity and this exact inversion of keys allows other attacks in which fixed points are combined with a so called "Reflection" property [27, 29] .  ... 
doi:10.1080/01611194.2011.632807 fatcat:cfzqczsla5fwvbinq4vowrip64

Page 282 of American Society of Civil Engineers. Collected Journals Vol. 116, Issue CP3 [page]

1990 American Society of Civil Engineers. Collected Journals  
CODE 128 LANGUAGE Se eee ~—a | A 10100011000 CIPHER A CHARACTER FIG. 1.  ...  The dark portions of the bar code absorb light, and light portions of the code reflect it.  ... 

The distinguishing attack on Speck, Simon, Simeck, HIGHT and LEA [article]

Boris Ryabko, Aleksandr Soskov
2018 IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive  
Modern lightweight block ciphers must be designed to be immune to such an attack.  ...  The purpose of the work is to estimate the resistance of lightweight block ciphers Speck, Simon, Simeck, HIGHT, LEA to a distinguishing attack.  ...  The binary-reflected Gray code list for n bits can be generated recursively from the list n − 1 bits by reflecting the list (i.e. listing the entries in reverse order), concatenating the original list  ... 
dblp:journals/iacr/RyabkoS18 fatcat:2ev4ofvd7ra23bipu6agkvv364

Contradiction Immunity and Guess-Then-Determine Attacks on Gost

Nicolas T. Courtois, Jerzy A. Gawinecki, Guangyan Song
2012 Tatra Mountains Mathematical Publications  
A high value will be mandatory for any block cipher to be secure.  ...  GOST is a well-known government standard cipher. Since 2011 several academic attacks on GOST have been found.  ...  We have reflection attacks [21] but also have new attacks with double triple and quadruple reflection [10] .  ... 
doi:10.2478/v10127-012-0039-3 fatcat:jgjtys6ujncq3fcv5jzsc3qk5q

Improved Related-key Attack against Recent Lightweight Block Cipher PRINCE
최신 경량 블록 암호 PRINCE에 대한 향상된 연관키 공격

Wangho Ju, Hyunjung An, Okyeon Yi, Ju-Sung Kang, Jongsung Kim
2014 Journal of the Korea Institute of Information Security and Cryptology  
This is due to the fact that this attack can be effectively applied to schemes like block-cipher based hash functions whose block-cipher keys can be controlled as their messages.  ...  The related-key attack is regarded as one of the important cryptanalytic tools for the security evaluation of block ciphers.  ...  이 특성을 -reflection이라고 부르고, 이 특성은 암-복호화 구현에 효과적이다. 하지만, -reflection 특성은 안 전성 관점에서는 효과적이지 못하다. 이는 PRINCE 내에 강력한 연관키를 존재케 하는 성질을 제공하기 때문이다.  ... 
doi:10.13089/jkiisc.2014.24.3.445 fatcat:xq5jy7lzijbv5ot4expmwmt7ou

Cryptanalysis of GOST2

Tomer Ashur, Achiya Bar-On, Orr Dunkelman
2017 IACR Transactions on Symmetric Cryptology  
More specifically, we present a fixed-point attack on the full cipher with time complexity of 2237 encryptions.  ...  GOST 28147 is a 256-bit key 64-bit block cipher developed by the USSR, later adopted by the Russian government as a national standard.  ...  The GOST and GOSTBlock Ciphers The GOST block cipher has a 64-bit Feistel structure using a 256-bit key.  ... 
doi:10.46586/tosc.v2017.i1.203-214 fatcat:t7wbpcxbsvdfvp6g5myjuq2scu

A Simple Image Encryption Based on Binary Image Affine Transformation and Zigzag Process

Adélaïde Nicole Kengnou Telem, Cyrille Feudjio, Balamurali Ramakrishnan, Hilaire Bertrand Fotsin, Karthikeyan Rajagopal, Padmapriya Praveenkumar
2022 Complexity  
Using an external key, every zigzag binary image is reflected or rotated and a new gray-scale image is reconstructed.  ...  reflection around midvertical axis of block (Rmv) (2) Orthogonal reflection around midhorizontal axis of block (Rmh) (3) Orthogonal reflection around the first diagonal of block (Rfdiag) (4) Orthogonal  ...  A reflection on the x-axis can be written in as w rx (x, y) � (x, −y), while a reflection on the y-axis is written as w ry (x, y) � (−x, y).  ... 
doi:10.1155/2022/3865820 fatcat:ttkv2jvqmfhndoherkxpqjkuoe
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