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Recognition of On-line Handwritten Mathematical Expressions Using a Minimum Spanning Tree Construction and Symbol Dominance [chapter]

Ernesto Tapia, Raúl Rojas
2004 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
We present a structural analysis method for the recognition of on-line handwritten mathematical expressions based on a minimum spanning tree construction and symbol dominance.  ...  The method handles some layout irregularities frequently found in on-line handwritten formula recognition systems, like symbol overlapping and association of arguments of sum-like operators.  ...  Acknowledgments The authors like to thank the anonymous reviewers for a variety of suggestions that helped to improve this paper.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-25977-0_30 fatcat:j3onzhvdbndxpfevtynoevwkvm

Using fuzzy logic to analyze superscript and subscript relations in handwritten mathematical expressions

Ling Zhang, D. Blostein, R. Zanibbi
2005 Eighth International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition (ICDAR'05)  
Handwritten mathematical notation contains ambiguities of various kinds.  ...  We extend an existing system for recognizing handwritten mathematical notation, adding the capability of producing a ranked list of interpretations rather than a single top-choice interpretation.  ...  Tapia and Rojas use support vector machines and baseline structure analysis to recognize on-line handwritten mathematical expressions [15] .  ... 
doi:10.1109/icdar.2005.250 dblp:conf/icdar/ZhangBZ05 fatcat:g5wk4d6wo5hsrcl7mq4segtzoq

Progressive structural analysis for dynamic recognition of on-line handwritten mathematical expressions

Ba-Quy Vuong, Siu-Cheung Hui, Yulan He
2008 Pattern Recognition Letters  
Structural analysis in handwritten mathematical expressions focuses on interpret- ing the recognized symbols using geometrical information such as relative sizes and positions of the symbols.  ...  To tackle these problems, we propose a Progressive Structural Analysis (PSA) approach for dynamic recognition of handwritten mathematical expressions.  ...  Tapia and Rojas Rojas, 2003, 2005) proposed a method for structural analysis based on a minimum spanning tree construction and symbol dominance.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.patrec.2007.11.017 fatcat:5hxer5m4evhynm5mm4673kldii

Recognition and retrieval of mathematical expressions

Richard Zanibbi, Dorothea Blostein
2011 International Journal on Document Analysis and Recognition  
relevance feedback), and four key problems in math recognition (detecting expressions, detecting and classifying symbols, analyzing symbol layout, and constructing a representation of meaning).  ...  This paper surveys the state of the art in recognition and retrieval of mathematical expressions, organized around four key problems in math retrieval (query construction, normalization, indexing, and  ...  This work was also supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) and the Xerox Foundation.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10032-011-0174-4 fatcat:pufig4ovmjav3pspbigj5ezcee

The study of mathematical expression recognition and the embedded system design

Xiangwei Qi, Yusup Abaydulla
2010 Journal of Software  
mathematical expressions using a minimum spanning tree construction and symbol dominance.In Proceedings of the Fifth IAPR International Workshop on Graphics Recognition(GREC),Barcelona,Spain  ...  Tapia[5] improved this method by using minimum Closed brackets right-up relation spanning tree and regional  ... 
doi:10.4304/jsw.5.1.44-53 fatcat:s72fuw4fs5f5tiei2csk4cnrzi

Online Handwritten Mathematical Expression Recognition and Applications: A Survey

Dmytro Zhelezniakov, Viktor Zaytsev, Olga Radyvonenko
2021 IEEE Access  
adoption of online recognition of handwritten mathematical expressions.  ...  The use of handwritten math recognition is illustrated by examples of applications for various fields and platforms.  ...  Tapia and Rojas [69] were the first to propose the method for structure analysis of ME using Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) and symbol dominance.  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2021.3063413 fatcat:jnzaqwgg5bbabfmx6qfhhzj6ru

ICDAR 2013 CROHME: Third International Competition on Recognition of Online Handwritten Mathematical Expressions

Harold Mouchere, Christian Viard-Gaudin, Richard Zanibbi, Utpal Garain, Dae Hwan Kim, Jin Hyung Kim
2013 2013 12th International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition  
We report on the third international Competition on Handwritten Mathematical Expression Recognition (CROHME), in which eight teams from academia and industry took part.  ...  For the third CROHME, the training dataset was expanded to over 8000 expressions, and new tools were developed for evaluating performance at the level of strokes as well as expressions and symbols.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors thank the creators of the MathBrush, MfrDB and ExpressionMatch corpora for sharing their data with us.  ... 
doi:10.1109/icdar.2013.288 dblp:conf/icdar/MouchereVZGK13 fatcat:a7xowdirifcdjndtn3iipsudwe

The Problem of Handwritten Mathematical Expression Recognition Evaluation

Ahmad-Montaser Awal, Harold Mouchere, Christian Viard-Gaudin
2010 2010 12th International Conference on Frontiers in Handwriting Recognition  
We report on the third international Competition on Handwritten Mathematical Expression Recognition (CROHME), in which eight teams from academia and industry took part.  ...  For the third CROHME, the training dataset was expanded to over 8000 expressions, and new tools were developed for evaluating performance at the level of strokes as well as expressions and symbols.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The authors thank the creators of the MathBrush, MfrDB and ExpressionMatch corpora for sharing their data with us.  ... 
doi:10.1109/icfhr.2010.106 dblp:conf/icfhr/AwalMV10a fatcat:dyargrh64nfbxa53w5ofyd6l6e

WEB BASED LECTURES PRODUCED BY AI SUPPORTED CLASSROOM TEACHING

GERALD FRIEDLAND, LARS KNIPPING, ERNESTO TAPIA
2004 International journal on artificial intelligence tools  
One of these modules is described here: A computer algebra system that evaluates mathematical expressions or plots functions is placed at the lecturers disposal by a handwriting recognition.  ...  The remote viewer can follow the progress of the lecture: Audio, the creation of the board content, and an optional video image of the instructor is transmitted.  ...  Acknowledgments Ernesto Tapia thanks the Mexican National Council for Science and Technology (CONACyT) for its financial support during his Ph.D. studies via the creditscholarship number 154901.  ... 
doi:10.1142/s0218213004001582 fatcat:owsqszw4wfclbizysfwz235meu

An integrated grammar-based approach for mathematical expression recognition

Francisco Álvaro, Joan-Andreu Sánchez, José-Miguel Benedí
2016 Pattern Recognition  
On the one hand, the recognition of the symbols of the mathematical expression.  ...  Automatic recognition of mathematical expressions is a challenging pattern recognition problem since there are many ambiguities at different levels.  ...  Acknowledgments This work was partially supported by the Spanish MINECO under the STraDA research project (TIN2012-37475-C02-01) and the FPU grant (AP2009-4363).  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.patcog.2015.09.013 fatcat:oz3376a7djc4hoadph4bl4woaq

A Practical Approach for Writer-Dependent Symbol Recognition Using a Writer-Independent Symbol Recognizer

Joseph J. LaViola, Robert C. Zeleznik
2007 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence  
We present a practical technique for using a writer-independent recognition engine to improve the accuracy and speed while reducing the training requirements of a writer-dependent symbol recognizer.  ...  Our writer-dependent recognizer uses a set of binary classifiers based on the AdaBoost learning algorithm, one for each possible pairwise symbol comparison.  ...  This work is supported in part by a gift from Microsoft and grants from the US National Science Foundation and the Joint Advanced Distributed Co-Laboratory.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tpami.2007.1109 pmid:17848774 fatcat:lzjzff6yfbgnjmxup6lp7hbnsm

Online recognition of chinese characters: the state-of-the-art

Cheng-Lin Liu, S. Jaeger, M. Nakagawa
2004 IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence  
The recognition of Chinese characters is different from western handwriting recognition and poses a special challenge.  ...  To provide an overview of the technical status and inspire future research, this paper reviews the advances in online Chinese character recognition (OLCCR), with emphasis on the research works from the  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors are grateful to the anonymous reviewers for their invaluable comments and suggestions, which led to improvements to the presentation quality of this paper.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tpami.2004.1262182 pmid:15376895 fatcat:j75xqkn3kvdgxo6yyu526xhsvi

IDENTIFICATION OF SPATIAL RELATIONS IN MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSIONS

Sridevi Ravada, Sudheer Gopinathan, D. Lalitha Bhaskari
2021
In the present work these two stages are considered using the concepts of connected components and minimum spanning tree.  ...  The automatic recognition of mathematical expressions in digital content is a challenging task due to the complex spatial relationships between the symbols involved in the expression.  ...  The relationship tree based on the symbol dominance is then generated by constructing a minimum spanning tree that finds the different relationships among the components of the formulae. IV.  ... 
doi:10.24412/1932-2321-2021-465-346-353 fatcat:4sphjnvwfjeg3ivpurteyogzoq

Understanding Optical Music Recognition [article]

Jorge Calvo-Zaragoza, Jan Hajič Jr., Alexander Pacha
2019 arXiv   pre-print
Based on this work, the reader should be able to attain a basic understanding of OMR: its objectives, its inherent structure, its relationship to other fields, the state of the art, and the research opportunities  ...  musical notation and the musical semantics from documents, (3) proposing a taxonomy of OMR, with most notably a novel taxonomy of applications.  ...  This holistic paradigm, also referred to as end-to-end systems, has been dominating the current state of the art in other tasks such as text, speech, or mathematical formula recognition [88] , [84] ,  ... 
arXiv:1908.03608v2 fatcat:nfllp2eh2ffjrbxrcplbcqmhru

Understanding Mathematics: A System for the Recognition of On-Line Handwritten Mathematical Expressions [article]

Ernesto Tapia, Universitätsbibliothek Der FU Berlin, Universitätsbibliothek Der FU Berlin
2005
We propose a new structural analysis method for the recognition of on-line handwritten mathematical expressions based on a minimum spanning tree construction and symbol dominance.  ...  This work presents a system for the recognition of on-line handwritten mathematical formulas.  ...  Finally, my deepest gratitude to Anja for her company and support, in particular during the last months of the preparation of this manuscript. Acknowledgments  ... 
doi:10.17169/refubium-16590 fatcat:b4fevf76vndgti5v7hcukq4dpe
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