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Challenges in Program Comprehension

Rebecca Tiarks, Tobias Röhm
2012 Softwaretechnik-Trends  
Program comprehension as a subtask of software maintenance and evolution consumes about half of the time spent by the developers who have to explore a systems' source code to find and understand the subset of the code which is relevant to their current task. The problems encountered during the comprehension process influence the time spent on program comprehension to a great extent. Although many empirical studies have been conducted in the field of program comprehension, only little is known
more » ... out the challenges developers face when trying to understand a software system. This paper reports on an observational study of 28 professional developers, investigating their behaviour with respect to the occurring problems.
doi:10.1007/bf03323460 fatcat:mezlj2o5kjh2hgzfans4thag2a

What Programmers Really Do - An Observational Study

Rebecca Tiarks
2011 Softwaretechnik-Trends  
Although the field of program comprehension as a research discipline has evolved considerably over the past years, only little is known about how software engineers perform their work. In this paper, we report on an observational study that we have carried out to investigate how software developers understand code when they approach a given maintenance task. We particularly focused on the developers' activities, tools, information needs and their practices. In the study, we observed seven
more » ... sional programmers at a large supplier in the automotive domain while performing a real maintenance task within their normal workflow. Afterwards we conducted a semi-structured interview to get a deeper insight into the process of program understanding. The focus of our analysis has been on what kind of activities a programmer performs and how those activities depend on each other. We categorize different kinds of activities based on this analysis, highlight challenges faced by the programmers, and discuss the implications of our results on the maintenance process.
dblp:journals/stt/Tiarks11 fatcat:46zf25awjjcltou7enu5qo5h6u

Wie kommen Entwickler mit Klonen zurecht

Jan Harder, Saman Bazrafshan, Rebecca Tiarks
2013 Softwaretechnik-Trends  
Zusammenfassung Software-Klonen wird nachgesagt, dass sie die Wartung von Software-Systemen erschweren. Wir haben erstmals in einem kontrollierten Experiment untersucht wie sich die Gegenwart von Klonen auf die Leistung von Programmierern und die Korrektheit ihrer Anderungen auswirkt.Überraschend viele Teilnehmer habenÄnderungen an Klonen dabei nur unvollständig durchgeführt. Daher sollten Entwicklern bei Ihrer Arbeit Informationenüber Klone bereitgestellt werden. In unserer zukünftigen
more » ... g wollen wir daher empirisch untersuchen wie diese Informationen effektiv in den Entwicklungsprozess eingebunden werden können.
doi:10.1007/s40568-013-0032-2 fatcat:bki3u7nqsjab5kjs5h33g76xzq

On the Comprehension of Program Comprehension

Walid Maalej, Rebecca Tiarks, Tobias Roehm, Rainer Koschke
2014 ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology  
Dieser Vortrag stellt unser TOSEM Papier [MTRK14] vor und präsentiert eine Umfrage unter 1.477 Softwarentwicklern zum Thema Wissensaustausch. Die Umfrage untersucht den Wissensbedarf von Entwicklern, Kanäle für das Teilen von und den Zugriff auf Wissen sowie Probleme und Herausforderungen beim Wissensaustausch. Die Umfrage ergänzt Resultate einer Beobachtungsstudie [RTKM12] zum Programmverstehen von Entwicklern. Entwickler haben aufgrund von fehlendem Wissen häufig Probleme, wenn sie Fehler
more » ... ben (Reproduktion von Fehlern, Identifikation der Fehlerursache, Identifikation einer Fehlerbehebung), Softwarekomponenten wiederverwenden (Verständnis der Komponentenfunktionalität, Nutzung einer API, Konfiguration einer Komponente) oder den Quelltext anderer analysieren (Identifikation der Intention des Implementierers sowie der beabsichtigten Nutzung). Unsere Ergebnisse bestätigen die Wichtigkeit von persönlicher Kommunikation zum Wissensaustausch, Web Ressourcen für den Wissenszugriff sowie informeller Artefakte für das Teilen von Wissen. Die Teamgröße, seine Verteilung sowie Erfahrung mit Open-Source-Software beeinflussen das Entwicklerverhalten beim Wissensaustausch. Spezielle Werkzeuge zur Erfassung von Wissen werden selten genutzt. Stattdessen bevorzugen Entwickler pragmatische, integrierte Ansätze wie Kommentare in Fehlerberichten, Quelltext-Kommentare, Commit-Nachrichten oder E-Mails. Beim Wissensaustausch unter Entwicklern treten folgende Probleme auf: Streuung von Wissen, Wissen ohne Kontextinformationen, Zeitknappheit sowie die Identifikation von geeigneten Kontaktpersonen. Weiterhin haben wir folgende fünf Herausforderungen des Wissensaustausches identifiziert: (1) Persönliche Kommunikation ist effektiv, aber nicht immer effizient, (2) Erfahrung ist sehr wichtig, aber meist implizit, (3) die Auswahl eines Ansatzes zum Wissensaustausch passend zur aktuellen Situation, (4) ein Konflikt zwischen Dokumentationsqualität und -effektivität sowie (5) Unterschiede zwischen dem Teilen von und dem Zugriff auf Wissen.
doi:10.1145/2622669 fatcat:cyuetctdfzhcba7mbtqrjyn6ua

How does a typical tutorial for mobile development look like?

Rebecca Tiarks, Walid Maalej
2014 Proceedings of the 11th Working Conference on Mining Software Repositories - MSR 2014  
We report on an exploratory study, which aims at understanding how development tutorials are structured, what types of tutorials exist, and how official tutorials differ from tutorials written by development communities. We analyzed over 1.200 tutorials for mobile application development provided by six different sources for the three major platforms: Android, Apple iOS, and Windows Phone. We found that a typical tutorial contains around 2700 words distributed over 4 pages and including a list
more » ... f instructions with 18 items. Overall, 70% of the tutorials contain source code examples and a similar fraction contain images. On average, one tutorial has 6 images. When analyzing the images, we found that the studied iOS community posted the largest number of images, 14 images per tutorial, on average, from which 74% are plain images, i.e., mainly screenshots without stencils, diagrams, or highlights. In contrast, 36% of the images included in the official tutorials by Apple were diagrams or images with stencils. Community sites seem to follow a similar structure to the official sites but include items and images which are rather underrepresented in the official tutorials. From the analysis of the tutorials content by means of natural language processing combined with manual content analysis, we derived four categories for mobile development tutorials: infrastructure and design, application and services, distribution and maintenance, and development platform. Our categorization can help tutorial writers to better organize and evaluate the content of their tutorials and identify missing tutorials.
doi:10.1145/2597073.2597106 dblp:conf/msr/TiarksM14 fatcat:mmb75tyza5eixjadxqi56qhgni

Guest editor's introduction to the special section on source code analysis and manipulation

Sibylle Schupp, Andrew Walenstein
2011 Software quality journal  
The paper by Rebecca Tiarks, Rainer Koschke, and Raimar Falke, ''An Extended Assessment of Type-3 Clones as Detected by State-of-the-Art Tools'' tackles several problems relating to code clones, specifically  ...  The paper by Tiarks et al. considers the problem comprehensively.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11219-011-9134-y fatcat:u7c5nhfxd5fyngkftzshca3guu

Ein Framework für Integration, Build und Deployment bei Maintenance- und Reengineering-Prozessen

Werner Teppe
2011 Softwaretechnik-Trends  
Tiarks (Universität Bremen): kation in eine moderne Java Applikation What Programmers Really Do: An Observational Study Static and Dynamic Analysis Towards Tools Mikhail Prokharau, Daniel Gerlach, Steffen  ...  die model-to-model Transforma- Fruth (Universität Magdeburg): tion On the Role of Program Comprehension in Em- Harry Sneed (SORING Kft): bedded Systems Migration einer veralteten Power-Builder Appli- Rebecca  ... 
dblp:journals/stt/Teppe11 fatcat:rcols4ckt5dwxjih4mgt434btm

Page 100 of None Vol. 18, Issue 447 [page]

1859 None  
Seventh Edition. 12mo. cloth, 38. 6d TIARKS’ GERMAN - EXERCISES. Tenth Edition. 12mo. cloth, 3s. TIARKS’ KEY TO DITTO. 12mo. cloth, 2s. 6d. TIARKS’ INTRODUCTORY GERMAN GRAM- MAR.  ...  By the same Author. 12mo. cloth, 2s. 6d, TIARKS’ PRACTICAL GERMAN GRAMMAR. i'welfth Edition, 12mo. cloth, 6s. TIARKS’ PROGRESSIVE GERMAN READER.  ... 

Page 186 of None Vol. 77, Issue 1999 [page]

1894 None  
TIARKs, Beg. may A ae leburs', Kent or to jy ty Polace, “LESLIE. & Co., 2 Lime Street Square, l-ondon, E Fe simulta For fu lH system Great 19 Ku On at from s MON WED TUE!  ...  Then there is a Jew of Rhodes, who is a Greek also, and has a dark and comely daughter; while the heroine, though no Jewess, but of patrician English family, has all the qualities of Rebecca, and undergoes  ... 

Page 484 of None Vol. 56, Issue 1459 [page]

1883 None  
Wilmot Holland, Esq Henry Frederic Tiarks, Esq. Egerton Hubbard, Es. Montagu C. Wilkinson, Esq.  ...  —See THE BUILDER; Timber Houses at Hildesheim ; House at Stoke: View of the Hall n Leys School ; and Rebecca, a Statue—Babylonian Architeeture— Successful Mediocrity— ry ilthy Hong Kong —Sanitation at  ... 

Page 1 of Christian Intelligencer Vol. 12, Issue 12 [page]

1832 Christian Intelligencer  
Rebecca McDaniel, if she did not receive of Mr. Dan- iel Kendrick, a Bible and ‘Testament. stated that she did. ‘This 1] know to be in- correct.  ...  she tum | @ aati : - im AINE E Aso ) stehed fo the «doetrine ic - ro og stunthy receiving mn =“ account of his righteousness, an appeal to this fact article, (as you say so grossly tinged with tiark “as  ... 

Page 5115 of Bibliography of Agriculture. Annual Cumulative Indexes Vol. 56, Issue CUMULATIVE INDEX [page]

Bibliography of Agriculture. Annual Cumulative Indexes  
Thompson, PJ. 903495 Thom , R. 885123, 910738, 911286, 916640, 923470, 954967, 954968, 960353, 970214, 994630 Thompson, R.D. 915254 Thompson, R.A. 952504 Thom ,R.CA. 889973, 915886, 945360, 995620 Thompson, Rebecca  ...  Tian, B. 984849 Tian, G.L. 901836, 901837 Tian, J. 894766 Tian, L. 957947 Tian, LJ. 996199 Tian, M. 974124 Tian, P.Z. 941034 Tian, SJ. 977286 Tian, W. 905220 Tian, Y. 952855 Tiangeo, V.M. 926514, £57070 Tiarks  ... 

Page 4313 of Bibliography of Agriculture. Annual Cumulative Indexes Vol. 59, Issue Cumulative Index [page]

Bibliography of Agriculture. Annual Cumulative Indexes  
A. 1209667 Thompson, R.D. 1194094, 1206610, 1206958, 1241175 Thompson, R.L. 1221917 Thompson, Rebecca. 1185884 Thompson, A.  ...  \u Louisiana State Univer- sity, Baton Rouge, LA. 1198356 Tian, S.S. 1243753 Tian, T. 1224897 Tian, X. 1201540 Tian, Y. 1197129 Tiangco, V. 1185289 Tiarks, A.E. 1242252 Tibayrenc, M. 1238438 Tibbeu, M.  ... 

Chemistry and decomposition of litter from Populus tremuloides Michaux grown at elevated atmospheric CO2 and varying N availability

John S. King, Kurt S. Pregitzer, Donald R. Zak, Mark E. Kubiske, Jennifer A. Ashby, William E. Holmes
2001 Global Change Biology  
Jamie Johnson, Angela Bartnik, Evan Kane, Mike Duscheine and Rebecca Parker provided much needed help with the harvests of the microlysimeter units. This research was funded by the U.S.  ...  Similar patterns of loss have been observed in decomposing pine litter (Tiarks et al. 1992) .  ... 
doi:10.1046/j.1365-2486.2001.00388.x fatcat:ma3z7mxidnbitcgkahd6ruxdi4

Monitoring user interactions for supporting failure reproduction

Tobias Roehm, Nigar Gurbanova, Bernd Bruegge, Christophe Joubert, Walid Maalej
2013 2013 21st International Conference on Program Comprehension (ICPC)  
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We thank Dennis Pagano, Rebecca Tiarks, and anonymous ICPC reviewers for feedback, Marc Gil, Miguel Llácer, and Javier Cano for their support to collect data, and all participants of our  ... 
doi:10.1109/icpc.2013.6613835 dblp:conf/iwpc/RoehmGBJM13 fatcat:ezbufcopx5b6rmlphdyzmf7due
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