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Running over rough terrain reveals limb control for intrinsic stability

M. A. Daley, A. A. Biewener
2006 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America  
Legged animals routinely negotiate rough, unpredictable terrain with agility and stability that outmatches any human-built machine. Yet, we know surprisingly little about how animals accomplish this.  ...  We measured limb mechanics of helmeted guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) running over an unexpected drop in terrain, comparing their response to predictions of the mass-spring running model.  ...  We thank Pedro Ramirez for animal care and Polly McGuigan, Craig McGowan, Gladys Felix, Jim Usherwood, and Chris Wagner for critical discussion and assistance in data collection.  ... 
doi:10.1073/pnas.0601473103 pmid:17032779 pmcid:PMC1622881 fatcat:qyjp52oqnjdhpaayx2mbyrfhrq

Nonlinear model predictive control for rough-terrain robot hopping

Martin Rutschmann, Brian Satzinger, Marten Byl, Katie Byl
2012 2012 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems  
for practical footstep planning in realistically noisy rough terrain running conditions.  ...  This paper examines and quantifies the theoretical efficacy of a limited look-ahead strategy for hopping robots on rough terrain.  ...  on rough terrain, we tested the performance of the algorithm on uneven ground.  ... 
doi:10.1109/iros.2012.6385865 dblp:conf/iros/RutschmannSBB12 fatcat:6weq2ce3dng33em5ho6ohik4uq

Robust spring mass model running for a physical bipedal robot

William C. Martin, Albert Wu, Hartmut Geyer
2015 2015 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA)  
The analysis of the conceptual spring mass model for running reveals swing-leg placement policies that generate very robust locomotion in unobserved terrain with large changes in ground height.  ...  However, while this theoretical result suggests a potential for large improvements on the robustness of running machines, it has so far not been demonstrated on a physical robot.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENT We thank Jessy Grizzle and his group at the University of Michigan for helpful conversations on the optimal torque distribution of the four-bar motors.  ... 
doi:10.1109/icra.2015.7140085 dblp:conf/icra/MartinWG15 fatcat:rstbb2bpxvbntmqvgfhq5l3hsa

Global behavior via cooperative local control

Cynthia L. Ferrell
1995 Autonomous Robots  
Traversing rough terrain is a good task to test the viability of this approach because it requires a considerable amount of leg coordination.  ...  We illustrate and examine the e ectiveness of this approach via rough terrain locomotion using an autonomous hexapod robot.  ...  Pearson also found that animals do not adopt a rigid gait when walking on rough terrain. In fact, he observed a wide range of stepping patterns in which the gait pauses and shifts frequently.  ... 
doi:10.1007/bf00735430 fatcat:fqvyo5fj7jbpxoothlpipdpp2m

Two-element control for the active SLIP model

Giulia Piovan, Katie Byl
2013 2013 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation  
Biological data suggest that legs regulate energy production and removal via muscle activation, and therefore the conservative SLIP model cannot fully explain the robustness of many legged animals during  ...  running and hopping gaits.  ...  In particular, we test recovery for perturbations on the terrain height, and we show an example of running on rough terrain.  ... 
doi:10.1109/icra.2013.6631390 dblp:conf/icra/PiovanB13 fatcat:j5dqialkzrgv7lfl3eeyn6l7mi

Don't break a leg: running birds from quail to ostrich prioritise leg safety and economy on uneven terrain

A. V. Birn-Jeffery, C. M. Hubicki, Y. Blum, D. Renjewski, J. W. Hurst, M. A. Daley
2014 Journal of Experimental Biology  
Peak leg forces remained remarkably consistent across obstacle terrain, within 0.35 body weights of level running for obstacle heights from 0.1 to 0.5 times leg length.  ...  We present a simple stance leg model that explains key features of avian bipedal locomotion, and suggests economy as a key priority on both level and uneven terrain.  ...  Srinivasan for technical advice on trajectory optimisation. We also thank R. Fisher, S. Warner, J. Gordon and A. Channon for help with experiments.  ... 
doi:10.1242/jeb.102640 pmid:25355848 pmcid:PMC4213177 fatcat:yg54vahbhbci5nwt4w4ddb623q

The 3-D Spring–Mass Model Reveals a Time-Based Deadbeat Control for Highly Robust Running and Steering in Uncertain Environments

Albert Wu, Hartmut Geyer
2013 IEEE Transactions on robotics  
The control naturally extends the time-based control derived for the planar version of this model and allows it to navigate rough terrain, while stabilizing running and steering.  ...  Using this control strategy, we demonstrate in simulation that a human-like system running at 5 ms −1 tolerates frequent ground disturbances up to 30% of the leg length.  ...  (d) Corresponding rough-ground return maps. (e) Errors in deflection over rough terrain as a function of ground height or energy. TABLE I SENSITIVITY I OF TRACKING ON FLAT GROUND  ... 
doi:10.1109/tro.2013.2263718 fatcat:37svynprnfgujfjg4cnezfsybe

Reactive Planning and Control of Planar Spring–Mass Running on Rough Terrain

Ömür Arslan, U. Saranli
2012 IEEE Transactions on robotics  
An important motivation for work on legged robots has always been their potential for high-performance locomotion on rough terrain.  ...  We show in simulation that plans constructed for a simplified dynamic model can successfully control locomotion of a more complete model across rough terrain.  ...  Running Behaviors on Rough Terrain In this paper, we seek to construct a robust running controller for a planar, monopedal runner traversing rough terrain.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tro.2011.2178134 fatcat:bvpgyxbcq5awlfzigbjur3oaze

FootTile: a Rugged Foot Sensor for Force and Center of Pressure Sensing in Soft Terrain [article]

Felix Ruppert, Alexander Badri-Spröwitz
2020 arXiv   pre-print
We then go on to show the accurate sensing capabilities of the waterproof sensor in liquid mud, as a showcase for real world rough terrain use.  ...  In this paper we present FootTile, a foot sensor for reaction force and center of pressure sensing in challenging terrain.  ...  In the future, we plan to mount the small-sized FootTile sensor units on robotic feet as well as animal feet to investigate force and pressure distribution in rough terrain and granular media in the dynamic  ... 
arXiv:2005.09025v1 fatcat:n2iqudpmbvdutlo2yn3qo2h4ia

Design of a bipedal walking robot

Jerry Pratt, Ben Krupp, Grant R. Gerhart, Douglas W. Gage, Charles M. Shoemaker
2008 Unmanned Systems Technology X  
We believe that high fidelity force control is a critical requirement for graceful walking over rough terrain and robustness to disturbances.  ...  M2V2 has 12 actuated degrees of freedom in the lower body: three at each hip, one at each knee, and two at each ankle.  ...  These algorithms have resulted in graceful, efficient walking that is robust to rough terrain and disturbances on planar bipeds and on simulations of a 3D biped.  ... 
doi:10.1117/12.777973 fatcat:npv4ernuhrbtriffhkwxmywfji

Design of a high-mobility multi-terrain robot based on eccentric paddle mechanism

Yi Sun, Yang Yang, Shugen Ma, Huayan Pu
2016 Robotics and Biomimetics  
Inspired by dextrous limb motion of animals, a novel form of locomotion has been established in our previous study, by proposing an eccentric paddle mechanism (ePaddle) for integrating paddling motion  ...  Several locomotion modes, including wheeled rolling, legged crawling, legged race-walking, rotational paddling, oscillating paddling, and paddle-aided rolling, are experimentally verified on testbeds with  ...  capability on rough terrains.  ... 
doi:10.1186/s40638-016-0041-3 pmid:27358763 pmcid:PMC4896969 fatcat:f765aymb3vdltl4zeb3u2y7ygm

Design of HyQ – a hydraulically and electrically actuated quadruped robot

C Semini, N G Tsagarakis, E Guglielmino, M Focchi, F Cannella, D G Caldwell
2011 Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part I, journal of systems and control engineering  
very rough terrain.  ...  capable of navigating over rough terrain and to perform highly dynamic tasks.  ...  Acknowledgements We would like to acknowledge the contributions of Jonas Buchli, Marco Frigerio, Thiago Boaventura, the team of our technicians and especially the CLMC lab of Stefan Schaal at the University  ... 
doi:10.1177/0959651811402275 fatcat:zoagpbl2xbbejphp4lwfhzad2u

Quadruped Animation [article]

Ljiljana Skrba, Lionel Reveret, Franck Hetroy, Marie-Paule Cani, Carol O'Sullivan
2008 Eurographics State of the Art Reports  
In this state of the art report, we present an overview of the common techniques used to date for realistic quadruped animation.  ...  embedding some a priori knowledge about the way that quadrupeds locomote and/or building on some example of real motion.  ...  The same technique is used for all the animals: a bipedal run is treated as a onelegged hop where the functions for a one-legged hop are applied to each leg in turn.  ... 
doi:10.2312/egst.20081042 fatcat:7k6yfsnkhjbcbi3sqqogv6msoq

Learning Legged Locomotion [chapter]

Fumiya Iida, Simon Bovet
2009 Artificial Life Models in Hardware  
In order to deal with such nonlinear control of body dynamics, this section explores a case study of a one-legged hopping robot that learns to generate a series of high-jumps to traverse a rough terrain  ...  In summary, this case study explored a learning architecture that exploits dynamics of a compliant leg for goal-directed locomotion in rough terrain.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-1-84882-530-7_2 fatcat:mbvlpn2xifck5oipckor7j6ee4

A three dimensional foot placement planner for locomotion in very rough terrains

Ye Zhao, Luis Sentis
2012 2012 12th IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots (Humanoids 2012)  
sagittal and lateral feet placements; (3) the introduction of multi-contact dynamics to smoothly transition between steps in the rough terrains.  ...  Maneuvering through 3D structures nimbly is pivotal to the advancement of legged locomotion.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to thank Mike Slovich and Kenan Isik from the HCRL at UT Austin for their help on the motion capture experiments and providing Figure's 1 drawing.  ... 
doi:10.1109/humanoids.2012.6651600 dblp:conf/humanoids/ZhaoS12 fatcat:64k43etxnbgzph7tdw6uhft6aq
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