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An Overview of Wearable Photoplethysmographic Sensors and Various Algorithms for Tracking of Heart Rates

Amarachukwu Ikechukwu Obi
2022 Engineering Proceedings  
algorithm, noise-robust heart-rate estimation algorithm, real-time QRS detection algorithm, and many other algorithms in this regard.  ...  However, it is difficult to reconstruct a clean signal and extract heart rate/beat from contaminated photoplethysmography (PPG) signals.  ...  The noise-robust heart-rate estimation algorithm has the best performance when the adaptive filter order is 21 (M = 21).  ... 
doi:10.3390/engproc2021010077 fatcat:iuqkkuszhbcpfgxvns54qrvpa4

Ambient Light Contribution as a Reference for Motion Artefacts Reduction in Photoplethysmography

Nicolas De Pinho Ferreira, Claudine Gehin, Bertrand Massot
2020 Proceedings of the 13th International Joint Conference on Biomedical Engineering Systems and Technologies  
Measuring the heart rate from a convenient location such as the wrist is commonly achieved using photoplethysmography. As a consequence, this method is widely used on commercial wearable devices.  ...  Unfortunately, it also highly suffers from motion artefacts superimposed into the cardiac frequency band which generally lead to incorrect heart rate estimation.  ...  Heart rate estimation is performed in time domain method by finding peaks on the SSA-denoised PPG signal.  ... 
doi:10.5220/0008878800230032 dblp:conf/biostec/FerreiraGM20 fatcat:ljjjupzmenfrdpedrx64r7amvm

Adaptive frequency tracking for robust heart rate estimation using wrist-type photoplethysmographic signals during physical exercise

Sibylle Fallet, Jean-Marc Vesin
2015 2015 Computing in Cardiology Conference (CinC)  
However, PPG waveforms are easily corrupted by motion artifacts, rendering HR estimation difficult. In this study, HR was estimated using wrist-type PPG signals.  ...  A normalized least-mean-squares (NLMS) algorithm was first used to attenuate motion artifacts and reconstruct multiple PPG waveforms from different combinations of corrupted PPG waveforms and accelerometer  ...  The purpose of this study was to develop a robust approach for HR estimation using wristtype PPG signals corrupted by strong MA.  ... 
doi:10.1109/cic.2015.7411063 dblp:conf/cinc/FalletV15 fatcat:lhy4fepwhrhf7n2sdv6qavt7vi

A Novel Adaptive Spectrum Noise Cancellation Approach for Enhancing Heartbeat Rate Monitoring in a Wearable Device

Dong Yang, Yongqiang Cheng, Jin Zhu, Dongfei Xue, Grant Abt, Hangyang Ye, Yonghong Peng
2018 IEEE Access  
This paper presents a novel approach, Adaptive Spectrum Noise Cancellation (ASNC), for motion artifacts removal in Photoplethysmography (PPG) signals measured by an optical biosensor to obtain clean PPG  ...  2.21) beats•min -1 and 8.38%, by adaptive noise cancellation algorithm is 1.70 (1.50) beats•min -1 and 2.02%.  ...  ADAPTIVE NOISE CANCELLATION ANC is a time domain approach to estimate clean signal distorted by additive noise or interference [29] .  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2018.2805223 fatcat:ekjzprvt7rft3jvy52oqhivusy

Removal of Motion Artifacts in Photoplethysmograph Sensors during Intensive Exercise for Accurate Heart Rate Calculation Based on Frequency Estimation and Notch Filtering

Min Wang, Zhe Li, Qirui Zhang, Guoxing Wang
2019 Sensors  
The proposed method applies a cascaded adaptive noise cancellation (ANC) based on the least mean squares (LMS)-Newton algorithm for preliminary motion artifacts reduction, and further adopts special heart  ...  In this study, a novel method that combines heart rate frequency (HRF) estimation and notch filtering is proposed.  ...  Heart Rate Frequency Tracking After the cascaded ANC stage, the de-noised PPG signal S PPG is used for a preliminary estimation of current HRF.  ... 
doi:10.3390/s19153312 pmid:31357674 pmcid:PMC6696451 fatcat:eelpos4yqza6fab4qgwtbn52sy

Adaptive Filtering by Non-Invasive Vital Signals Monitoring and Diseases Diagnosis [chapter]

Omar Abdallah, Armin Bolz
2011 Adaptive Filtering Applications  
References Abdallah, O.; Piera Tarazona, A., Martínez Roca, T., Boutahir, H., Abo Alam, K. & Bolz, A. (2006)  ...  In this adaptive filter a noise reference and a signal reference are used. We use the least mean square (LMS) method to extract the actual signal from the noisy one.  ...  The synthesized reference noise is adjusted by the adaptive algorithm to the real one contained in the measurement, and then subtracted from the detected noisy signal.  ... 
doi:10.5772/16838 fatcat:vu7y45z57bg2dckwimsgccbnya

Heart rate tracking in photoplethysmography signals affected by motion artifacts: a review

Shahid Ismail, Usman Akram, Imran Siddiqi
2021 EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing  
However, PPG-based heart rate tracking is a challenging problem due to motion artifacts (MAs) which are main contributors towards signal degradation as they mask the location of heart rate peak in the  ...  Hence, future systems will be composed of machine learning-based trackers fed with either empirically decomposed signal or from output of adaptive filter.  ...  Acknowledgements Aside from the authors, no one contributed to the manuscript.  ... 
doi:10.1186/s13634-020-00714-2 fatcat:xcrhntwkonfoho5ohamnhspnu4

TROIKA: A General Framework for Heart Rate Monitoring Using Wrist-Type Photoplethysmographic Signals During Intensive Physical Exercise

Zhilin Zhang, Zhouyue Pi, Benyuan Liu
2015 IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering  
Heart rate monitoring using wrist-type photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals during subjects' intensive exercise is a difficult problem, since the signals are contaminated by extremely strong motion artifacts  ...  This framework is of great values to wearable devices such as smart-watches which use PPG signals to monitor heart rate for fitness.  ...  These devices estimate HR in real time using photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals recorded from wearers' wrist. PPG signals [1] , [2] are optically obtained by pulse oximeters.  ... 
doi:10.1109/tbme.2014.2359372 pmid:25252274 fatcat:7pdmfpsurva7hcaetw4xj7ixmi

Robust PPG-based Ambulatory Heart Rate Tracking Algorithm

Nicholas Huang, Nandakumar Selvaraj
2020 2020 42nd Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine & Biology Society (EMBC)  
This study proposes a lightweight HR algorithm, TAPIR: a Time-domain based method involving Adaptive filtering, Peak detection, Interval tracking, and Refinement, using simultaneously acquired PPG and  ...  Recent advances in wearable devices with optical Photoplethysmography (PPG) and actigraphy have enabled inexpensive, accessible, and convenient Heart Rate (HR) monitoring.  ...  This filtered signal is an estimate of noise caused by motion and is removed from the PPG signal by subtraction.  ... 
doi:10.1109/embc44109.2020.9175346 pmid:33019324 fatcat:levcs5um7vg67p5b7gfidd2yaq

SVM-Based Spectral Analysis for Heart Rate from Multi-Channel WPPG Sensor Signals

Jiping Xiong, Lisang Cai, Fei Wang, Xiaowei He
2017 Sensors  
motion components, and robust heart rate estimation.  ...  Hence, it is challenging for us to accurately estimate heart rate from WPPG signals during intense physical activities.  ...  Although adaptive noise cancellation was already utilized by [27, 28] to remove motion artifacts, the reference motion artifact signals were extracted from the PPG signal itself.  ... 
doi:10.3390/s17030506 pmid:28273818 pmcid:PMC5375792 fatcat:s7y77nmsujhblcz5rhyzpkxqba

A Multi-Channel Opto-Electronic Sensor to Accurately Monitor Heart Rate against Motion Artefact during Exercise

Abdullah Alzahrani, Sijung Hu, Vicente Azorin-Peris, Laura Barrett, Dale Esliger, Matthew Hayes, Shafique Akbare, Jérôme Achart, Sylvain Kuoch
2015 Sensors  
on corrupted PPG signals using the reference signals from the 3MA, followed by an adaptive filter to facilitate the optimum adaptive motion artefact cancellation technique as seen in Figure 3 .  ...  To realize the adaptive noise cancellation, the OEPS system uses two inputs, e.g., the corrupted PPG signal as a primary input, and the combined motion signal of the accelerometer as a reference input.  ...  Author Contributions Abdullah Alzahrani designed experimental protocol and implemented the experiments, carried out the signal processing and wrote the paper.  ... 
doi:10.3390/s151025681 pmid:26473860 pmcid:PMC4634442 fatcat:drj4sv2krvevtg2s7zzv4i63vm

SoK: An Overview of PPG's Application in Authentication [article]

Lin Li, Chao Chen, Lei Pan, Jun Zhang, Yang Xiang
2022 arXiv   pre-print
Clinically, researchers commonly use PPG signals to obtain patients' blood oxygen saturation, heart rate, and other information to assist in diagnosing heart-related diseases.  ...  Since PPG signals are easy to obtain and contain a wealth of individual cardiac information, researchers have begun to explore its potential applications in information security.  ...  ., heartbeat rate, heart rate variability). There are four primary types of noises, including lowfrequency noise, high-frequency noise, cardiac arrhythmia noise, and low amplitude PPG signals [34] .  ... 
arXiv:2201.11291v1 fatcat:caogzvyehrctlndorgkg3dbs3a

Detection and Characterization of Physical Activity and Psychological Stress from Wristband Data

Mert Sevil, Mudassir Rashid, Mohammad Reza Askari, Zacharie Maloney, Iman Hajizadeh, Ali Cinar
2020 Signals  
equivalent of task (MET).The data filtering and adaptive noise cancellation techniques used to mitigate the effects of noise and artifacts on the classification results increased the detection and discrimination  ...  measurements (blood volume pulse, heart rate, skin temperature, galvanic skin response, and accelerometer) collected from a wristband.  ...  Therefore, additional steps were considered to filter out the artifacts from the signal. Adaptive noise cancellation (ANC) is a commonly used approach for PPG signal processing [50, 51] .  ... 
doi:10.3390/signals1020011 fatcat:qa3czlng3jcq5olatniwlptjva

SPARE: A Spectral Peak Recovery Algorithm for PPG Signals Pulsewave Reconstruction in Multimodal Wearable Devices

Giulio Masinelli, Fabio Dell'Agnola, Adriana Arza Valdés, David Atienza
2021 Sensors  
Even though it is commonly used for heart rate detection, it has been lately employed on multimodal health and wellness monitoring applications.  ...  signals affected by noise.  ...  Finally, several techniques [29, 30] aim to generate a reference signal from the corrupted PPG signal using empirical mode decomposition (EMD) or adaptive noise cancellation (ANC) [31] .  ... 
doi:10.3390/s21082725 pmid:33924351 fatcat:gbcvqndmcjgxbf7zg7onlzihiu

Deep PPG: Large-Scale Heart Rate Estimation with Convolutional Neural Networks

Attila Reiss, Ina Indlekofer, Philip Schmidt, Kristof Van Laerhoven
2019 Sensors  
Our end-to-end learning approach takes the time-frequency spectra of synchronised PPG- and accelerometer-signals as input, and provides the estimated heart rate as output.  ...  We address this fragmentation by contributing research into the robustness and generalisation capabilities of PPG-based heart rate estimation approaches.  ...  Acknowledgments: We would like to thank all the study participants for taking part in our data collection user study, thus enabling the creation of the dataset PPG-DaLiA.  ... 
doi:10.3390/s19143079 pmid:31336894 pmcid:PMC6679242 fatcat:7yxsn6hiznfrjpuzksh2y7iabm
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