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Modelling of the Radiant Heat Flux and Rate of Spread of Wildfire within the Urban Environment

Greg Penney, Steven Richardson
2019 Fire  
As a result, radiant heat flux may be significantly overestimated for small vegetation fires in road reserves, urban parklands, and similar scenarios.  ...  This paper proposes two new models to address this issue, and utilises two case studies for comparison against existing approaches.  ...  G.P. was responsible for the wildfire technical aspects and the vegetation availability factor, whilst Steven Richardson (S.R.) was responsible for the alternate view factor methodologies.  ... 
doi:10.3390/fire2010004 fatcat:t3xebfdsovby3nicsr4temu6my

A Predictive Model of Leaf Flammability Using Leaf Traits and Radiant Heat Flux for Plants of Fire-Prone Dry Sclerophyll Forest

Daniel W. Krix, Brad R. Murray
2022 Forests  
Here, we present a highly accurate predictive model of the likelihood of plant leaves entering flaming combustion as a function of leaf mass per area (LMA), leaf area (LA) and radiant heat flux using species  ...  Given the global wealth of species' data for LMA and LA, in stark contrast to leaf flammability data, our model has the potential to improve understanding of forest flammability in the absence of leaf  ...  Acknowledgments: We thank Adeline Krix and Danny Velinski for helpful discussions on technical aspects of this study.  ... 
doi:10.3390/f13020152 fatcat:d3wpan6h2bg4jnlxpeus6n6wsa

Impact of Wildfires on LPG Tanks

F. Heymes, L. Aprin, P.A. Ayral, P. Slangen, G. Dusserre
2013 Chemical Engineering Transactions  
During wildland fires, wildland-urban interfaces may cause significant problems for emergency managers throughout the world.  ...  A finite elements modelling was developed to calculate safety distance preventing from BLEVE. The safety distances required by law in several countries (50 m; 30 m; 25 m) are checked.  ...  heat flux 3D sketch of impacting radiant heat flux  ... 
doi:10.3303/cet1331107 doaj:7a62d07e3b844e379bdaa13590bc400f fatcat:glnjefy7wnctfi4sgxoe7ixk6m

Firefighter Safety Zones: A Theoretical Model Based on Radiative Heating

BW Butler, JD Cohen
1998 International journal of wildland fire  
Model predictions compare favorably with qualitative data from entrapments on four wildfires and two previously published models.  ...  We present a 3surface theoretical model that describes the net radiant energy transfer to a firefighter standing a specified distance from a fire of specified height.  ...  Forest Service's Missoula Technology and Development Center in Missoula, Montana provided valuable information and advice on the effects of heat on human.  ... 
doi:10.1071/wf9980073 fatcat:uknztv6zxnfw3psx2lhpuaz6c4

Ignition and flame-growth modelling on realistic building and landscape objects in changing environments

Mark A. Dietenberger
2010 International journal of wildland fire  
for changing environments imposed on a parcel lot consisting of structures and ornamental plants.  ...  Using bench-scale and mid-scale fire tests to obtain flammability properties of common building constructions and landscaping plants, a model is being developed to use fast predictive methods suitable  ...  Imposed heat fluxes modelled for temperature predictions at the 50-mm location. Fig. 7 . 7 Imposed heat fluxes modelled for temperature predictions at the 400-mm location.  ... 
doi:10.1071/wf07133 fatcat:nl7q5hagfbcubpvapowqnj6dq4

Coupled atmosphere–wildland fire modelling

Jean Baptiste Filippi, Frédéric Bosseur, Céline Mari, Christine Lac, Patrick Le Moigne, Bénédicte Cuenot, Denis Veynante, Daniel Cariolle, Jacques-Henri Balbi
2009 Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems  
In this study, we use for the first time the Méso-NH meso-scale numerical model coupled to the point functional ForeFire simplified physical front-tracking wildfire model to investigate the differences  ...  Both numerical models have been developed as research tools for operational models and are currently used to forecast localized extreme events.  ...  heat fluxes in Wm 22 , flux of water vapour in kg m 22 and radiant temperature in K.  ... 
doi:10.3894/james.2009.1.11 fatcat:aja26juwcveetfwfobrnwuclly

The Cooney Ridge Fire Experiment: An Early Operation to Relate Pre-, Active, and Post-Fire Field and Remotely Sensed Measurements

Andrew Hudak, Patrick Freeborn, Sarah Lewis, Sharon Hood, Helen Smith, Colin Hardy, Robert Kremens, Bret Butler, Casey Teske, Robert Tissell, Lloyd Queen, Bryce Nordgren (+7 others)
2018 Fire  
Heat flux measurements collected at multiple scales with multiple ground and remote sensors illustrate the spatial and temporal complexity of the fire progression in relation to fuels and fire effects.  ...  A map of cumulative heat release complements estimates of ground cover constituents derived from post-fire hyperspectral imagery for mapping immediate post-fire ground cover measures of litter and mineral  ...  We thank the Cooney Ridge incident firefighters who assisted on the burnout, and Maritza Hathaway for formatting this paper.  ... 
doi:10.3390/fire1010010 fatcat:4ein3gfw6nbwlniu45chaanymi

Physics-Based Simulation of Heat Load on Structures for Improving Construction Standards for Bushfire Prone Areas

Nazmul Khan, Duncan Sutherland, Rahul Wadhwani, Khalid Moinuddin
2019 Frontiers in Mechanical Engineering  
BAL is based on empirical models which account for radiation heat load on structure.  ...  Further simulations were conducted where wind velocity, fuel load, and relative humidity are varied independently and the simulated radiant heat flux upon the structure was found to be significantly greater  ...  AS 3959 (table 3.1) classifies the bushfire attack level (BAL) into six categories based on the radiant heat flux q r,effective at the structure • BAL-LOW: considered safe situation for heat flux less  ... 
doi:10.3389/fmech.2019.00035 fatcat:ba74gw7nv5a67flp74zr7itfl4

REMOTE MEASUREMENT OF ENERGY AND CARBON FLUX FROM WILDFIRES IN BRAZIL

Philip J. Riggan, Robert G. Tissell, Robert N. Lockwood, James A. Brass, João Antônio Raposo Pereira, Heloisa S. Miranda, Antônio C. Miranda, Teresa Campos, Robert Higgins
2004 Ecological Applications  
One-half of the radiant flux density from a measured savanna fire was associated with values of a combined emissivity-fractional-area parameter Ͻ0.091 m 2 /m 2 ; for a slash fire this fraction was associated  ...  Furthermore, the first in situ airborne measurements of sensible heat and carbon fluxes in fire plumes were combined with remote measurements of flame properties to provide consistent remote-sensing-based  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Trade names, commercial products, and enterprises are mentioned solely for information. No endorsement by the U.S. Government is implied.  ... 
doi:10.1890/02-5162 fatcat:tqqixoa3ungvhle5shbsd6ixki

Descriptive Table of Contents

2003 International journal of wildland fire  
Wildfire risk seems to differ little between conditions that are sufficient for wildfires and those that are extreme.  ...  Such an interpretation has obvious implications for the issuance of fire danger and fire hazard warnings.  ...  Yool 85-100 A review of radiant heat flux models used in bushfire applications A. L. Sullivan, P. F. Ellis and I. K.  ... 
doi:10.1071/wfv12n1toc fatcat:44viezvnivadfgehk3tr72f7se

Fire effects on the physical environment in the WUI using FIRETEC [chapter]

F. Pimont, J-L. Dupuy, R. R. Linn
2014 Advances in forest fire research  
Peak radiant heat flux magnitudes decreased by about 80% when the target was at 50 m compared to a target at 10 m.  ...  This study shows a new type of application for physics-based models such as FIRETEC.  ...  Experimental data were taken from Cohen et al. (2004) a) Radiant heat flux at z=10 m b) Experimental isochrons for plot 9, taken in Taylor et al. (2004) Simulated peak radiant heat flux at a target at  ... 
doi:10.14195/978-989-26-0884-6_83 fatcat:ntb5ipvfgfgjjbpfbcqiwhjjka

Experimental investigation of the physical mechanisms governing the spread of wildfires

Frédéric Morandini, Xavier Silvani
2010 International journal of wildland fire  
The 25 longitudinal distributions of the radiant heat flux ahead of the fire front are also discussed. 26 The data showed that neither the convective Froude number nor the Nelson convection 27  ...  This study focused on 17 characterising heat transfer ahead of the flame front. The temperature and heat flux were 18 measured at the top of the vegetation as the fire spread.  ...  the heat flux measurements in a mixed 308 radiant-convective environment, especially those obtained from total heat flux gauges.  ... 
doi:10.1071/wf08113 fatcat:6ovlarp6afeftm6jvwcrnet4wm

LES Simulation of Wind-Driven Wildfire Interaction with Idealized Structures in the Wildland-Urban Interface

Mohsen Ghaderi, Maryam Ghodrat, Jason J. Sharples
2020 Atmosphere  
This paper presents a numerical investigation of the impact of a wind-driven surface fire, comparable to a large wildfire, on an obstacle located downstream of the fire source.  ...  model and implemented in the OpenFOAM platform (an open source CFD tool).  ...  The authors are particularly indebted to the NCI for the provision of technical support.  ... 
doi:10.3390/atmos12010021 fatcat:ymhq7cmmgnbnfa5hyrc7xg4ln4

Characterizing Wildland Firefighters' Thermal Environment During Live-Fire Suppression

Belén Carballo-Leyenda, José G. Villa, Jorge López-Satué, Jose A. Rodríguez-Marroyo
2019 Frontiers in Physiology  
Heat flux measurements were made using four thin-planar heat flux sensors. Two were affixed on the outer surface of the garment on the left chest and thigh.  ...  ., heat and fire exposure), which contribute to increasing the heat strain. Despite this there is a paucity of knowledge about the thermal environment in real wildfire suppression scenarios.  ...  Subsequent studies have focused on applying mathematical models to predict the heat flux and fire related injury for the establishment of safety zone sizes during wildfire suppression (Butler and Cohen  ... 
doi:10.3389/fphys.2019.00949 pmid:31427982 pmcid:PMC6688527 fatcat:gup6kqje25ccvf7hosd3cl3n6y

Consideration of an empirical model for wildland firefighter safety zones [chapter]

B. Butler
2014 Advances in forest fire research  
The proposed model is compared against past fire entrapments in North America.  ...  The comparison indicates that the empirical model does provide an extra margin of safety over most entrapments that are associated with injury or fatalities but it seems to underpredict the separation  ...  Wyomingensis) dominated ecosystems generated peak radiant energy fluxes of 132 kW m-2 with a mean value of 127 kW m-2 for flames less than 3 m tall, peak convective heating was 20 to 70% of the radiative  ... 
doi:10.14195/978-989-26-0884-6_147 fatcat:ohqsxxrn5bhnthctt4x6isjaii
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