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RC4-2S: RC4 Stream Cipher with Two State Tables [chapter]

Maytham M. Hammood, Kenji Yoshigoe, Ali M. Sagheer
2013 Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering  
The experimental results confirm that the output streams generated by the RC4-2S are more random than that generated by RC4 while requiring less time than RC4.  ...  One of the most important symmetric cryptographic algorithms is Rivest Cipher 4 (RC4) stream cipher which can be applied to many security applications in real time security.  ...  the array or state S, and i and j are index pointers.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-94-007-6996-0_2 fatcat:suh4eixqt5fqdoh3rbf6nd37z4

Impossible Fault Analysis of RC4 and Differential Fault Analysis of RC4 [chapter]

Eli Biham, Louis Granboulan, Phong Q. Nguyễn
2005 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
In this paper we introduce the notion of impossible fault analysis, and present an impossible fault analysis of RC4, whose complexity 2 21 is smaller than the previously best known attack of Hoch and Shamir  ...  (2 26 ), along with an even faster fault analysis of RC4, based on different ideas, with complexity smaller than 2 16 .  ...  Acknowledgments We would like to thank Adi Shamir, Jonathan Hoch, and Itsik Mantin for various valuable comments and discussions which improved the results of this paper.  ... 
doi:10.1007/11502760_24 fatcat:l6hexcmi2vgi5acapbb4vyosgy

Cache Timing Analysis of RC4 [chapter]

Thomas Chardin, Pierre-Alain Fouque, Delphine Leresteux
2011 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
In this paper we present an attack that recovers the whole internal state of RC4 using a cache timing attack model first introduced in the cache timing attack of Osvik, Shamir and Tromer against some highly  ...  The algorithm works well and its soundness is proved for known or unknown plaintext and only requires that the attacker queries the RC4 encryption process byte by byte for a practical attack.  ...  Our Results. RC4 is a good candidate to study cache timing analysis since it uses a rather large table and indexes of the lookups give information about the table.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-642-21554-4_7 fatcat:yz2irlihzvdgxedsm5fuwpasjy

Enhancing Security and Speed of RC4

Maytham M. Hammood et. al.
2015 International Journal of Computing and Network Technology  
Finally, we propose RC4 stream cipher with two state tables togenerate four keys (RC4-2S + ) in each cycle which further enhances randomness overRC4-2S and RRC4.  ...  In this paper, we propose RC4 stream cipher with a random initial state (RRC4) to solve the weak keys problem of the RC4 using a random initialization of internal state S.  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENT This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant CRI CNS-0855248, Grant EPS-0701890, Grant EPS-0918970, and Grant MRI CNS-0619069.  ... 
doi:10.12785/ijcnt/030201 fatcat:nxesce4z6vabrcx5kvxixohgna

(Not So) Random Shuffles of RC4 [chapter]

Ilya Mironov
2002 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
To this end we propose an idealized model of RC4 and analyze it applying the theory of random shuffles. Based on our analysis of the model we recommend dumping at least 512 bytes.  ...  Most guidelines for implementation of the RC4 stream cipher recommend discarding the first 256 bytes of its output.  ...  I am extremely grateful to Dan Boneh and Persi Diaconis for numerous valuable discussions and suggestions. It would like to thank Itsik Mantin for showing me [Man01] .  ... 
doi:10.1007/3-540-45708-9_20 fatcat:77hxtagebnhy5hqzf46jv7unp4

Towards a General RC4-Like Keystream Generator [chapter]

Guang Gong, Kishan Chand Gupta, Martin Hell, Yassir Nawaz
2005 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
It has a huge internal state and offers higher resistance to state recovery attacks than the original 8-bit RC4. Further, on a 32-bit processor the generator is 3.1 times faster than original RC4.  ...  We also show that it can resist attacks that are successful on the original RC4. The generator is suitable for high speed software encryption.  ...  Acknowledgements: We wish to thank Palash Sarkar who motivated the problem and Alfred Menezes who gave momentum to it.  ... 
doi:10.1007/11599548_14 fatcat:6siiumd6vbgsjfzls45ew6h7oi

Cryptanalysis of RC4(n, m) stream cipher

Mohammad Ali Orumiehchiha, Josef Pieprzyk, Elham Shakour, Ron Steinfeld
2013 Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Security of Information and Networks - SIN '13  
The first one is based on non-randomness of internal state and allows to distinguish it from a truly random cipher by an algorithm that has access to 2 4·n bits of the keystream.  ...  RC4(n, m) is a stream cipher based on RC4 and is designed by G. Gong et al.. It can be seen as a generalization of the famous RC4 stream cipher designed by Ron Rivest.  ...  The internal state size of RC4(n, m) is (2 n m) + 2n + m bit long, since it consists of an array of 2 n entries and each entry takes m bits , one m-bit variable k and two n-bit indexes i and j.  ... 
doi:10.1145/2523514.2523615 dblp:conf/sin/OrumiehchihaPSS13 fatcat:w55s7sb6rbfollhadmeda4ogte

Proving TLS-attack related open biases of RC4

Santanu Sarkar, Sourav Sen Gupta, Goutam Paul, Subhamoy Maitra
2014 Designs, Codes and Cryptography  
Our new proofs and observations in this paper, along with the connection to the older results, provide a comprehensive view on the state-of-the-art literature in RC4 cryptanalysis.  ...  After a series of works on RC4 cryptanalysis in last few years (published in flagship cryptology conferences and journals), the most significant (and also very recent) attack on the cipher has been the  ...  In this paper, we concentrate on the short-term traits of non-random behavior in the initial keystream bytes of RC4, especially in the first N output bytes.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s10623-014-0003-0 fatcat:sv3jgxgk5raaza2ls23damykgu

Accelerating More Secure RC4 : Implementation of Seven FPGA Designs in Stages upto 8 byte per clock [article]

Rourab Paul, Hemanta Dey, Amlan Chakrabarti, Ranjan Ghosh
2016 arXiv   pre-print
The hardware designs are appropriately upgraded to accelerate RC4 further by processing 2 onsecutive RC4 bytes together and it has been possible to achieve a maximum throughput of 8-bytes per clock in  ...  RC4 can be made more secured if an additional RC4-like Post-KSA Random Shuffing (PKRS) process is introduced between KSA and PRGA.  ...  During 1st clock the architecture computes sequential index i and the random index j, during 2nd clock it retrieves S[i] and S[j] from RAM, adds them and stores them in register t and during the 3rd clock  ... 
arXiv:1609.01389v2 fatcat:ukelfmwmqbg4fngyvto6752oau

Predicting and Distinguishing Attacks on RC4 Keystream Generator [chapter]

Itsik Mantin
2005 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Our second result is the discovery of a family of patterns in RC4 keystreams whose probabilities in RC4 keystreams are several times their probabilities in random streams.  ...  In this paper we analyze the statistical distribution of the keystream generator used by the stream ciphers RC4 and RC4A.  ...  The queue has N ordered elements (permutation elements) and when one reaches its turn, it is used to update the index j through the function jj + S[i].  ... 
doi:10.1007/11426639_29 fatcat:gbuf2sqrx5gqxpkgxbskkskxru

Statistical Analysis of the Alleged RC4 Keystream Generator [chapter]

Scott R. Fluhrer, David A. McGrew
2001 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
The alleged RC4 keystream generator is examined, and a method of explicitly computing digraph probabilities is given.  ...  In addition, we observe that an attacker can, on occasion, determine portions of the internal state with nontrivial probability.  ...  For example, the assumption that S and j are uniformly random is false, and it is especially wrong immediately after key setup. In particular, j is initially set to zero during the key setup.  ... 
doi:10.1007/3-540-44706-7_2 fatcat:6lzaw3fsmbfpfkud6ntwb22su4

Analysis of RC4 and Proposal of Additional Layers for Better Security Margin [chapter]

Subhamoy Maitra, Goutam Paul
2008 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Based on our analysis and the results available in literature regarding the existing weaknesses of RC4, few additional layers over the RC4 KSA and RC4 Pseudo-Random Generation Algorithm (PRGA) are proposed  ...  In this paper, the RC4 Key Scheduling Algorithm (KSA) is theoretically studied to reveal non-uniformity in the expected number of times each value of the permutation is touched by the indices i, j.  ...  Snehasis Mukherjee, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata for his support in the preparation of the graphs.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-89754-5_3 fatcat:6qzzycz66zhajdib3ffzxdxj4a

(Non-)Random Sequences from (Non-)Random Permutations—Analysis of RC4 Stream Cipher

Sourav Sen Gupta, Subhamoy Maitra, Goutam Paul, Santanu Sarkar
2012 Journal of Cryptology  
Over the last twenty years, numerous cryptanalytic results on RC4 stream cipher have been published, many of which are based on non-random (biased) events involving the secret key, the state variables,  ...  We also investigate for long-term non-randomness in the keystream, and prove a new long-term bias of RC4.  ...  These reports helped in substantially improving the technical quality as well as the editorial aspects of our paper.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s00145-012-9138-1 fatcat:jc6baa44djbi7ojqsmtxpypr3q

A Practical Attack on the Fixed RC4 in the WEP Mode [chapter]

Itsik Mantin
2005 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
A third result is an attack on RC4 that is applicable when the attacker can inject faults to the execution of RC4.  ...  As opposed to the WEP attack from [FMS01] the new attack is applicable even in the case where the first 256 bytes of the keystream are thrown and its complexity grows only linearly with the length of the  ...  The cycles structure of RC4 state progression was also analyzed in [MT98] and [Fin94] , where the last describes short cycles that are unreachable by RC4.  ... 
doi:10.1007/11593447_21 fatcat:ucpnyr5oxfdipcdjjzfijuleji

Analysis of Non-fortuitous Predictive States of the RC4 Keystream Generator [chapter]

Souradyuti Paul, Bart Preneel
2003 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
The RC4 stream cipher is the most widely used software based stream cipher. It is based on a secret internal state of N = 256 bytes and two pointers.  ...  The problem of designing a practical algorithm to compute them has been open since it was posed by Mantin and Shamir in 2001.  ...  We are thankful to Christophe De Cannière for kindly going through different technical details of the paper and making valuable comments.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-540-24582-7_4 fatcat:hv5wesatfzb6ddoa3frlidmtye
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