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Quantum bit commitment from a physical assumption [chapter]

Louis Salvail
1998 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
In this paper we show that under the assumption that the sender is not able to perform generalized measurements involving more than n qubits coherently (n-coherent measurements) then quantum bit commitment  ...  Mayers and independently Lo and Chau have shown that unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment is impossible.  ...  In this paper we consider a physical limitation upon which the security of quantum bit commitment, and QOT [35] , can be based.  ... 
doi:10.1007/bfb0055740 fatcat:f3rjtlqelvho3emzgof4mgzuy4

Impossibility of unconditionally secure commitment of a certified classical bit

Adrian Kent
2000 Physical Review A. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics  
In a secure bit commitment protocol involving only classical physics, A commits either a 0 or a 1 to B.  ...  We introduce here a quantum cryptographic primitive, bit commitment with a certificate of classicality (BCCC), which differs from standard bit commitment in that it guarantees that the committed state  ...  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I thank the Royal Society for financial support and the Oxford Centre for Quantum Computation for much appreciated hospitality.  ... 
doi:10.1103/physreva.61.042301 fatcat:2hplr4oigff3dghw4wyrkly5xe

Coin Tossing is Strictly Weaker than Bit Commitment

Adrian Kent
1999 Physical Review Letters  
That is, no secure classical or quantum bit commitment protocol can be built from a finite number of invocations of a secure coin tossing black box together with finitely many additional information exchanges  ...  Finally we show that, under standard cryptographic assumptions, coin tossing is strictly weaker than bit commitment.  ...  Under standard non-relativistic cryptographic assumptions, unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment is impossible.  ... 
doi:10.1103/physrevlett.83.5382 fatcat:uzpdv5tvgjdutpubok46fe5xk4

Summoning, No-Signaling and Relativistic Bit Commitments [article]

Adrian Kent (Centre for Quantum Information and Foundations, DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics)
2018 arXiv   pre-print
Bit commitment protocols and other cryptographic protocols based on the no-summoning theorem can thus be proven secure against some classes of post-quantum but non-signalling adversaries.  ...  Summoning is a task between two parties, Alice and Bob, with distributed networks of agents in space-time. Bob gives Alice a random quantum state, known to him but not her, at some point.  ...  Acknowledgments This work was partially supported by UK Quantum Communications Hub grant no. EP/M013472/1 and by Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics.  ... 
arXiv:1804.05246v2 fatcat:pc2eqcp4bfcovaiegjtqfib7hq

Summoning, No-Signalling and Relativistic Bit Commitments

Adrian Kent
2019 Entropy  
Bit commitment protocols and other cryptographic protocols based on the no-summoning theorem can thus be proven secure against some classes of post-quantum but non-signalling adversaries.  ...  Summoning is a task between two parties, Alice and Bob, with distributed networks of agents in space-time. Bob gives Alice a random quantum state, known to him but not her, at some point.  ...  The bit commitment security thus also follows from either of these assumptions. Security Against Post-Quantum No-Superluminal-Signalling Adversaries?  ... 
doi:10.3390/e21050534 pmid:33267248 pmcid:PMC7515023 fatcat:v3i2to76jzfspigbu6lmosc62u

Simple proof of the impossibility of bit commitment in generalized probabilistic theories using cone programming

Jamie Sikora, John Selby
2018 Physical Review A  
Bit-commitment is a fundamental cryptographic task, in which Alice commits a bit to Bob such that she cannot later change the value of the bit, while, simultaneously, the bit is hidden from Bob.  ...  It is known that ideal bit-commitment is impossible within quantum theory.  ...  INTEGER-COMMITMENT Bit-commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in two-party cryptography.  ... 
doi:10.1103/physreva.97.042302 fatcat:5q7ajubyofecbnznoxetix2hgy

Unconditionally Secure Bit Commitment

Adrian Kent
1999 Physical Review Letters  
We describe a new classical bit commitment protocol based on cryptographic constraints imposed by special relativity. The protocol is unconditionally secure against classical or quantum attacks.  ...  It evades the no-go results of Mayers, Lo and Chau by requiring from Alice a sequence of communications, including a post-revelation verification, each of which is guaranteed to be independent of its predecessor  ...  Alice could also commit a random quantum bit -a state of the form a|0 + b|1rather than a fixed classical bit, and keep the committed quantum bit in superposition throughout, without detectably deviating  ... 
doi:10.1103/physrevlett.83.1447 fatcat:rmif6u2htfdbviqw4brv7xlvty

25 years of quantum cryptography

Gilles Brassard, Claude Crépeau
1996 ACM SIGACT News  
assumption to obtain a quantum bit commitment not relying on any long-term assumption.  ...  General Cryptographic Protocols From a theoretical point of view, Mayers' result has completely obliterated the possibility of a secure quantum bit commitment scheme with no further assumption.  ... 
doi:10.1145/235666.235669 fatcat:l75mj2oygjecdnpoo7463lp3xe

Page 4241 of Mathematical Reviews Vol. , Issue 2001F [page]

2001 Mathematical Reviews  
Kent’s paper considers the problem of bit commitment whose security rests solely on physical assumptions (called unconditionally secure bit commitment).  ...  One of the difficulties of this area of in- vestigation is that the description of bit commitment given above is deceptively simple: Mathematically defining “secure bit commit- ment” is far from trivial  ... 

Device-independent relativistic quantum bit commitment

Emily Adlam, Adrian Kent
2015 Physical Review A. Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics  
We compare a relativistic classical bit commitment scheme with similar features, and note some possible advantages of the quantum schemes.  ...  We examine the possibility of device-independent relativistic quantum bit commitment.  ...  Acknowledgments This work was partially supported by an FQXi mini-grant and by Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics.  ... 
doi:10.1103/physreva.92.022315 fatcat:mqult73w3fb77ooncp42sodqza

QBC3: An Unconditionally Secure Quantum Bit Commitment Protocol [article]

Horace P. Yuen
2007 arXiv   pre-print
This article describes a quantum bit commitment protocol, QBC3, based on entanglement destruction via forced measurements and proves its unconditional security.  ...  Introduction It is nearly universally accepted that unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment (QBC) is impossible.  ...  QBC, but in the foundation of quantum physics generally.  ... 
arXiv:quant-ph/0702074v4 fatcat:l3xwl4rkjzeullcjjznwipyl6q

No Superluminal Signaling Implies Unconditionally Secure Bit Commitment [article]

H. F. Chau, C.-H. Fred Fung, H.-K. Lo
2014 arXiv   pre-print
This completes the cycle of study of unconditionally secure bit commitment based on known physical laws.  ...  Bit commitment (BC) is an important cryptographic primitive for an agent to convince a mutually mistrustful party that she has already made a binding choice of 0 or 1 but only to reveal her choice at a  ...  This completes the cycle of study of unconditionally secure bit commitment based on known physical laws.  ... 
arXiv:1405.0198v2 fatcat:ew45mfdrofagxdhu5ou64m6u6m

Can Quantum Cryptography Imply Quantum Mechanics? [article]

John A. Smolin
2003 arXiv   pre-print
It has been suggested that the ability of quantum mechanics to allow secure distribution of secret key together with its inability to allow bit commitment or communicate superluminally might be sufficient  ...  I argue using a toy theory as a counterexample that this is not the case. I further discuss whether an additional axiom (key storage) brings back the quantum nature of the theory.  ...  This result is in direct contradiction to Clifton, Bub, and Halvorson's, whose result seems to depend on the additional assumption that a physical theory must be a C * algebra.  ... 
arXiv:quant-ph/0310067v1 fatcat:xkru2z5arjdyvi7aysi5rhpuje

Unconditionally secure bit commitment with flying qudits

Adrian Kent
2011 New Journal of Physics  
Here we report a new development in physics-based cryptography which gives a completely new way of implementing bit commitment that is perfectly secure.  ...  In the task cryptographers call bit commitment, one party encrypts a prediction in a way that cannot be decrypted until they supply a key, but has only one valid key.  ...  This work was partially supported by an FQXi mini-grant and by Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics.  ... 
doi:10.1088/1367-2630/13/11/113015 fatcat:folrbhfixzfm7inpaj6d6ztttu

The Physics of No-Bit-Commitment: Generalized Quantum Non-Locality Versus Oblivious Transfer

Anthony J. Short, Nicolas Gisin, Sandu Popescu
2006 Quantum Information Processing  
It is therefore impossible to implement an unconditionally secure bit-commitment scheme within quantum physics.  ...  A bit-commitment scheme allows one party (Alice) to commit to a decision in such a way as a second party (Bob) will believe her when she later reveals it, but cannot find out her decision until that point  ...  Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (IRC "Quantum Information Processing") and from the E.U. under European Commission project RESQ (contract IST-2001-37559).  ... 
doi:10.1007/s11128-006-0015-4 fatcat:32jd2rm56nhf7jaxpbeau4ntvm
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