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Quantitative steganalysis of digital images: estimating the secret message length

Jessica Fridrich, Miroslav Goljan, Dorin Hogea, David Soukal
2003 Multimedia Systems  
The objective of steganalysis is to detect messages hidden in cover objects, such as digital images.  ...  Using those principles, we show how to estimate the secret message length for the most common embedding archetypes, including the F5 and OutGuess algorithms for JPEG, EzStego algorithm with random straddling  ...  The views and conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies, either express or implied, of Air Force Research Laboratory  ... 
doi:10.1007/s00530-003-0100-9 fatcat:bkekebd5uvambmbwkhghhzuqpa

A Steganographic Method for Digital Images Robust to RS Steganalysis [chapter]

André R. S. Marçal, Patricia R. Pereira
2005 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
For example, RS steganalysis is very efficient in detecting the presence of a message in a digital image and to estimate its approximate size.  ...  The Least Significant Bit (LSB) encoding is one of the most widely used methods for embedding a message in a digital image.  ...  When the estimated message length by RS steganalysis is below 5% (the typical range of accuracy of the method), the steganalysis fails to detect the presence of the secret message.  ... 
doi:10.1007/11559573_144 fatcat:45rialsd35cjjbyjqdgawsw7i4

Steganalysis of Degraded Document Images

Ming Jiang, Edward Wong, Nasir Memon, Xiaolin Wu
2005 2005 IEEE 7th Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing  
In this paper, a steganalysis technique using compression bit rate as a distinguishing statistic is presented to detect secret messages embedded in document images that are degraded in quality by printing  ...  Experimental results showed that the proposed technique can detect stego images wtih reasonably good accuracy, given the inherent difficulty of the problem.  ...  Based on this approach, our goal is to identify a good distinguishing statistic of an image that predictably changes with the length of the embedded secret message, even in the presence of noise caused  ... 
doi:10.1109/mmsp.2005.248660 dblp:conf/mmsp/0006WMW05 fatcat:v6cnhydx3fcjxofzh5mzda2dey

Security Analysis on Spatial $\pm$1 Steganography for JPEG Decompressed Images

Weiqi Luo, Yuangen Wang, Jiwu Huang
2011 IEEE Signal Processing Letters  
Index Terms-JPEG images, LSB matching, LSB replacement, quantitative steganalysis.  ...  about JPEG compression error analysis [1], and then we present a quantitative method to reliably estimate the length of spatial modifications in those gray-scale JPEG stegos by using data fitting technology  ...  On the other side, steganalysis firstly tries to differentiate stego medias from covers, then further estimate the length of the secret message, and finally extract and decipher the secret message as the  ... 
doi:10.1109/lsp.2010.2091127 fatcat:mm45pr3enbfznht7meuccok6gi

Adaptive Matrix Pattern Steganography on RGB Images

Amirfarhad Nilizadeh, Shirin Nilizadeh, Wojciech Mazurczyk, Cliff Zou, Gary T. Leavens
2021 Journal of Cyber Security and Mobility  
The AMP method increases the security of the steganography scheme of largely hidden messages since it adaptively generates a unique codebook matrix pattern for each ASCII character in each image block.  ...  The resulting stego-images are robust against LSB blind attacks since the middle bits of green and blue channels generate matrix patterns and hiding secrets, respectively.  ...  Holub for answering our emails and sharing scripts to transfer the RAW RGB images of the BOSSBase dataset to 512 × 512 RGB images.  ... 
doi:10.13052/jcsm2245-1439.1111 fatcat:vn2cqdetmjfanbzvje6od7wzpy

A Survey on Image Steganography and Steganalysis

Bin Li, Junhui He, Jiwu Huang, Yun Qing Shi
2011 Journal of Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing  
This paper provides a survey on steganography and steganalysis for digital images, mainly covering the fundamental concepts, the progress of steganographic methods for images in spatial representation  ...  Steganography refers to the technology of hiding data into digital media without drawing any suspicion, while steganalysis is the art of detecting the presence of steganography.  ...  The authors also gratefully acknowledge the helpful comments and suggestions of the reviewers.  ... 
dblp:journals/jihmsp/0011HH011 fatcat:x4h7oi5hijf4tojs6sfvlfzd6a

Weighted Stego-Image Steganalysis of Messages Hidden into Each Bit Plane

C. Yang, F. Liu, S. Lian, X. Luo, D. Wang
2011 Computer journal  
For hiding messages into multiple least significant bit (MLSB) planes, a new weighted stego-image (WS) steganalysis method is proposed to estimate the ratio of messages hidden into each bit plane.  ...  Block diagram of the proposed WS steganalysis for ID-MLSB steganography (In practice, the cover image will be replaced by an estimated cover image.). Downloaded from FIGURE 4.  ...  Steganalysis that can estimate the length of the secret message or the modification ratio of the signal samples is called as quantitative steganalysis [5] .  ... 
doi:10.1093/comjnl/bxr112 fatcat:hurukf6vsnfudjueilf5jfciry

5-1 情報保護(Information Security)
5-1 Information Protection

Hideki NODA
2004 The Journal of the Institute of Image Electronics Engineers of Japan  
Provos: " Defending against statistical steganalysis" , 10th USENIX Security Symposium, (200 1 ). 7 ) J.Fridrich,M.Goljan,D.Hogea,and D.Soukal: " Quantitative steganalysis of digital images: estimating  ...  the secret message length" , ACM Multimedia Systems Journal,Vol.9, No.3, pp.28 8-30 2(2 003 ). 8 ) H.  ... 
doi:10.11371/iieej.33.931 fatcat:uzhoo7bncjhqrhd5sgjhsjjskm

A Robust Image Steganography Method Using Pmm In Bit Plane Domain

Souvik Bhattacharyya, Aparajita Khan, Indradip Banerjee, Gautam Sanyal
2015 Zenodo  
The complexity function next determines the complex noisy blocks of the chosen bit plane and finally pixel mapping method (PMM) has been used to embed secret bits into those regions of the bit plane.  ...  In this work the authors propose a new image based steganographic method for hiding information within the complex bit planes of the image.  ...  In quantitative steganalysis the detector outputs not only a binary decision regarding weather the tested object is a stego object or not but also returns an estimate of the lengths of the secret message  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.1337857 fatcat:xvqanc7wqrab7lcs3tijest4mu

Dwt Based Image Steganalysis

Indradip Banerjee, Souvik Bhattacharyya, Gautam Sanyal
2014 Zenodo  
The experiments are performed on a large set of pictures which are available freely in image database. The system also predicts the different message length definitions.  ...  'Steganalysis' is one of the challenging and attractive interests for the researchers with the development of information hiding techniques.  ...  Through this process an unknown image can be classified and predict the secret hidden message length.  ... 
doi:10.5281/zenodo.1096220 fatcat:e5vmwvkjazfsfb2k4f77uwkieq

Anti-forensic Approach to Remove StegoContent from Images and Videos

P. P. Amritha, M. Sethumadhavan, R. Krishnan, Saibal Kumar Pal
2019 Journal of Cyber Security and Mobility  
By applying universal steganalysis we found that all images which have been subjected to our procedure have become stego free.  ...  The application of generic image processing operations also causes degradation of cover image, which can also be restored using this anti forensic method.  ...  They estimated the percentage of stego removed using BER. The recovered message was less than half the length of the bits embedded. But denoising degraded the image quality.  ... 
doi:10.13052/jcsm2245-1439.831 fatcat:tjclcuazszcajj24kdxyblgabi

Digital image steganography: Survey and analysis of current methods

Abbas Cheddad, Joan Condell, Kevin Curran, Paul Mc Kevitt
2010 Signal Processing  
Steganography is the science that involves communicating secret data in an appropriate multimedia carrier, e.g., image, audio, and video files.  ...  Steganalysis, which is the science of attacking steganography, is not the focus of this survey but nonetheless will be briefly discussed.  ...  the image file, such as, the make and model of a camera, the time the picture was taken and digitized, the resolution of the image, exposure time, and the focal length.  ... 
doi:10.1016/j.sigpro.2009.08.010 fatcat:4kn2rpavfrdgrdgtfi7uv7f5ji

Prudently Secure Information Theoretic LSB Steganography for Digital Grayscale Images

Khan Farhan Rafat
2020 International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications  
a known-cover and known-message attack scenario.  ...  Also, the recent legislative protection agreed to law enforcement authorities in Australia to sneak into pre-shared cryptographic secret keys (PSKs) shall have a devastating impact on the privacy of the  ...  The author in [67] enhances the Weighted Stego-Image (WS) Steganalysis method evolved for LSB replacement payload size estimation in digital images.  ... 
doi:10.14569/ijacsa.2020.0110874 fatcat:36xmnfqzpjclrhi56xtwzi3ofa

A Survey on Deep Convolutional Neural Networks for Image Steganography and Steganalysis

2020 KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems  
The result of this study opens new approaches for upcoming research and may serve as source of hypothesis for further significant research on deep learning-based image steganography and steganalysis.  ...  Our objective is to provide for future researchers the work being done on deep learning-based image steganography & steganalysis and highlights the strengths and weakness of existing up-to-date techniques  ...  Spatial Steganalysis Methods In spatial domain steganography the secret message is hide inside the image by applying some manipulation over different pixel values of the cover image, which effect the statistical  ... 
doi:10.3837/tiis.2020.03.017 fatcat:7ci7bfbjsfd2nn5yagnv2h3ora

Statistical steganalyis of images using open source software

Bhargavi Kaipa, Stefan A. Robila
2010 2010 IEEE Long Island Systems, Applications and Technology Conference  
The main aim of our project was to design and implement a system able to classify the images into ones with no hidden message and steganographic images using classic pattern classification techniques such  ...  We have also developed an application using Weka Java library for loading the data of the Images and classify the images into normal images and steganographic images.  ...  With the wide availability of digital images, and the high degree of redundancy present in them despite compression, there has been an increased interest in using digital images as cover-objects for the  ... 
doi:10.1109/lisat.2010.5478333 fatcat:dmb3yrkrlfeqnnqizqe2xof64a
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