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Proving Properties of Incremental Merkle Trees [chapter]

Mizuhito Ogawa, Eiichi Horita, Satoshi Ono
2005 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
This paper proves two basic properties of the incremental construction of a Merkle tree: (1) correctness of completion and (2) correctness of an incremental sanity check.  ...  This model is based on an incremental construction of Merkle trees, and we show the correctness of (1) completion and (2) an incremental sanity check.  ...  Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, PRESTO by Japan Science and Technology Agency, and Kayamori Foundation of Informational Science Advancement.  ... 
doi:10.1007/11532231_31 fatcat:c4jl6hs3lnbwdixtls7bc4lhia

Verification of the Incremental Merkle Tree Algorithm with Dafny [article]

Franck Cassez
2021 arXiv   pre-print
We have developed the first machine-checkable version of the incremental Merkle tree algorithm used in the DSC.  ...  The main results are: 1) a new proof of total correctness; 2) a software artefact with the proof in the form of the complete Dafny code base and 3) new provably correct optimisations of the algorithm.  ...  I wish to thank Suhabe Bugrara, ConsenSys Mesh, for helpful discussions on the Deposit Smart Contract previous work and the anonymous reviewers of a preliminary version of this paper.  ... 
arXiv:2105.06009v3 fatcat:lfazd6vppjhw7ckhokiwwn5fr4

End-to-End Formal Verification of Ethereum 2.0 Deposit Smart Contract [chapter]

Daejun Park, Yi Zhang, Grigore Rosu
2020 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
The deposit contract implements an incremental Merkle tree algorithm whose correctness is highly nontrivial, and had not been proved before.  ...  We found several critical issues of the deposit contract during the verification process, some of which were due to subtle hidden bugs of the compiler.  ...  Merkle tree algorithm), and proved its correctness.  ... 
doi:10.1007/978-3-030-53288-8_8 fatcat:s6dwcf27qrf3pcsnwsuulmcywa

Merkle tree authentication of HTTP responses

Roberto J. Bayardo, Jeffrey Sorensen
2005 Special interest tracks and posters of the 14th international conference on World Wide Web - WWW '05  
Our proposal relies on Merkle trees to support 200 and 404 response authentication while requiring only a single cryptographic hash of trusted data per repository.  ...  We propose extensions to existing web protocols that allow proofs of authenticity of HTTP server responses, whether or not the HTTP server is under the control of the publisher.  ...  MERKLE TREES FOR WEB CONTENT Merkle hash trees [5] have been proposed as a model for authenticating query results from untrusted database servers using only a small amount of trusted information [3]  ... 
doi:10.1145/1062745.1062929 dblp:conf/www/BayardoS05 fatcat:pcuu6qihcfbyremzsa6nk5ibky

Minimal credential disclosure in trust negotiations

Federica Paci, David Bauer, Elisa Bertino, Douglas M. Blough, Anna Squicciarini
2008 Proceedings of the 4th ACM workshop on Digital identity management - DIM '08  
Trust negotiations support selective and incremental disclosure of identity attributes, while minimal credential disclosure guarantees that only the attributes necessary to complete the on line interactions  ...  The secure release of identity attributes is a key enabler for electronic business interactions.  ...  of the root node of a Merkle hash tree.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1456424.1456439 dblp:conf/dim/PaciBBBS08 fatcat:5qmvxaagyneo5huhskmorvwo3y

Minimal credential disclosure in trust negotiations

Federica Paci, David Bauer, Elisa Bertino, Douglas M. Blough, Anna Squicciarini, Aditi Gupta
2009 Identity in the Information Society  
Trust negotiations support selective and incremental disclosure of identity attributes, while minimal credential disclosure guarantees that only the attributes necessary to complete the on line interactions  ...  The secure release of identity attributes is a key enabler for electronic business interactions.  ...  of the root node of a Merkle hash tree.  ... 
doi:10.1007/s12394-009-0022-6 fatcat:6imc54lsivdfvhksueiuvhf7ga

An Anonymous On-Street Parking Authentication Scheme via Zero-Knowledge Set Membership Proof [article]

Jerry Chien Lin Ho, Chi-Yi Lin
2021 arXiv   pre-print
A commitment scheme and Merkle tree is combined in the setup to achieve zero-knowledge set membership proof.  ...  It is of utmost importance for us to consider the privacy data leakage and compromised identity from both outside adversaries and inside abuse of data access privilege.  ...  The authors of this paper would also like to thank Ting Yi Huang for her contribution to the drawing of charts in this paper.  ... 
arXiv:2108.03629v1 fatcat:2pkj3yjxkjbhtfvnitrgvsrgiu

Aquareum: A Centralized Ledger Enhanced with Blockchain and Trusted Computing [article]

Ivan Homoliak, Pawel Szalachowski
2020 arXiv   pre-print
., blockchains) have received a lot of attention recently.  ...  Unfortunately, centralized ledgers have also several drawbacks, like a lack of efficient verifiability or a higher risk of censorship and equivocation.  ...  History Tree A Merkle tree has been primarily used for proving membership.  ... 
arXiv:2005.13339v1 fatcat:hvklwhe5vbh4jkprk36mzaw3l4

Swift

Flutra Osmani, Victor Grishchenko, Raul Jimenez, Björn Knutsson
2012 Proceedings of the First Workshop on P2P and Dependability - P2P-Dep '12  
To address this concern, we focus on prospects of incremental adoption of this paradigm by introducing a peer-to-peer based transport protocol for content dissemination named Swift that exhibits properties  ...  ABSTRACT A common pitfall of many proposals on new informationcentric architectures for the Internet is the imbalance of upfront costs and immediate benefits.  ...  In Sec. 4.3, we extend our basic technique to the cases of live data streams and versioned data. 64-bit Merkle Trees We developed a variant of the Merkle hash tree scheme [21] to satisfy three key  ... 
doi:10.1145/2212346.2212350 fatcat:okvzalg7uba7rdx7dcq4cpm42y

Merkle-Damgård Construction Method and Alternatives: A Review

Harshvardhan Tiwari
2017 Journal of Information and Organizational Sciences  
Merkle-Damgård construction showed that the security of hash function depends on the security of the compression function.  ...  Design of most widely used hash functions such as MD5 and SHA-1 is based on the iterations of compression function by Merkle-Damgård construction method with constant initialization vector.  ...  Merkle-Damgård construction proves that the security of hash function relies on the security of the compression function.  ... 
doaj:d297099bed4449efaf9859d6b8ef172d fatcat:uwue3iswfvhcjbrgk4w6rj3y7i

Merkle-Damgård Construction Method and Alternatives

Harshvardhan Tiwari
2017 Journal of Information and Organizational Sciences  
Merkle-Damgård construction showed that the security of hash function depends on the security of the compression function.  ...  Design of most widely used hash functions such as MD5 and SHA-1 is based on the iterations of compression function by Merkle-Damgård construction method with constant initialization vector.  ...  Merkle-Damgård construction proves that the security of hash function relies on the security of the compression function.  ... 
doi:10.31341/jios.41.2.9 fatcat:cfps47y2pfbmncprc7ejtevule

Tunnelling Trust into the Blockchain: a Merkle Based Proof System for Structured Documents

Francesco Bruschi, Vincenzo Rana, Alessio Pagani, Donatella Sciuto.
2020 IEEE Access  
The first three proofs are also properties of the basic Merkle trees, while the parental proof is an additional property of the proposed XML-Merkle tree. 1) Audit Proofs Audit proofs are used to verify  ...  The inputs required are: 1) the computed Merkle root of the sub-tree -we are proving this element is in the tree; 2) the Merkle root of the other sub-trees; 3a) either node AT hash; 3b) or other child  ... 
doi:10.1109/access.2020.3028498 fatcat:hlaivcmr3nd2hmozbm5fise7be

Safety and consistency in policy-based authorization systems

Adam J. Lee, Marianne Winslett
2006 Proceedings of the 13th ACM conference on Computer and communications security - CCS '06  
In trust negotiation and other distributed proving systems, networked entities cooperate to form proofs that are justified by collections of certified attributes.  ...  In this paper, we argue that unlike the notions of consistency studied in other areas of distributed computing, the level of consistency required during policy evaluation is predicated solely upon the  ...  The authors wish to thank an anonymous reviewer who suggested the Merkle commitment scheme explored in Section 5.3.  ... 
doi:10.1145/1180405.1180422 dblp:conf/ccs/LeeW06 fatcat:6gdqojgfyvfi3arngj6nl4hgte

Verifying Search Results Over Web Collections [article]

Michael T. Goodrich, Duy Nguyen, Olga Ohrimenko, Charalampos Papamanthou, Roberto Tamassia, Nikos Triandopoulos, Cristina Videira Lopes
2012 arXiv   pre-print
Our authentication protocols are based on standard Merkle trees and the more involved bilinear-map accumulators.  ...  An important property of our solution is that the proof size and the verification time both depend solely on the sizes of the query description and the query result, but not on the number or sizes of the  ...  Merkle hash trees.  ... 
arXiv:1204.5446v2 fatcat:5osligxudfagxlsnst6uze64iu

EverCrypt: A Fast, Verified, Cross-Platform Cryptographic Provider

Jonathan Protzenko, Bryan Parno, Aymeric Fromherz, Chris Hawblitzel, Marina Polubelova, Karthikeyan Bhargavan, Benjamin Beurdouche, Joonwon Choi, Antoine Delignat-Lavaud, Cedric Fournet, Natalia Kulatova, Tahina Ramananandro (+4 others)
2020 2020 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP)  
We validate the API design with two high-performance verified case studies built atop EverCrypt, resulting in line-rate performance for a secure network protocol and a Merkle-tree library, used in a production  ...  Altogether, EverCrypt consists of over 124K verified lines of specs, code, and proofs, and it produces over 29K lines of C and 14K lines of assembly code.  ...  Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of these sponsors.  ... 
doi:10.1109/sp40000.2020.00114 dblp:conf/sp/ProtzenkoPFHPBB20 fatcat:zbxp4jsbrrdfldn3kiqpceimhu
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